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When the male reproductive part accumulates fibrous scar tissue, it results in an erection that is curved and painful, which is known as Peyronie's Disease. While a man’s penis varies in size, a bend in erection doesn’t necessarily indicate any reason for worry. However, Peyronie's Disease causes an erection that is significantly bent and causes pain. This condition can hinder sex life as the erection does not last for an adequate amount of time. It can also result in distress and anxiety. For few percentages of men, the Peyronie's Disease can disappear without having to do anything, for others it requires medical assistance to get a permanent cure.
What are the symptoms of Peyronie's Disease?
The symptoms and signs of this disease can build up gradually or might suddenly appear in an individual. Some of the common symptoms are as follows:
- Scar tissue: As a result of the accumulation of the scar tissue, a lump or hard tissue can be felt under the skin
- Penis size: Penis can become shorter when a person is facing from this disease
- Erection problems: The erection might not last as long as it should
- Penis bent: The penis might bend significantly at an angle
- Pain: There could be a significant pain while erection. As days go by, the pain becomes worse.
Causes of Peyronie's disease?
While the exact cause of Peyronie's disease is not known, researchers indicate a variety of factors for this condition:
- A repeated penis injury from athletic activity, accident, trauma and damage resulting from sex
- If in the process of healing, the scar tissue forms a lump
- The improper functioning of corpus cavernosum
- In few cases, this disease can occur normally without the involvement of any accident or injury
What are the risk factors?
There could be various factors that put a person at risk of facing this disease:
- Heredity: If someone in the immediate family is facing this disease, it puts a person at increased risk of facing Peyronie's disease due to heredity.
- Age: With age, the risk potential of this disease increases since the tissue tends to become softer.
- Disorder of the connective tissue: People suffering from connective tissue disorder are at a higher risk of getting this disease. It is often observed that a person who has been diagnosed with Peyronie's Disease often suffers from a connective tissue disorder known as Dupuytren's contracture.
Diagnosis and treatment:
A physical exam gives a doctor possible indication about the disease. The patient may be asked to bring the photographs of the penis in erect condition to get an idea about the curvature degree and scar tissue location. He might also prescribe an ultrasonography. The medication depends on the stage of diagnosis. In the early stage, a doctor might recommend a wait and watch approach. He might also prescribe medication to minimize the pain and remove the scar tissue. If medication fails one might have to go undergo a surgery to get a permanent cure.
As complex as it may sound, Keratosis Pilaris is a harmless, non-contagious type of skin disorder, which primarily affects people with dry skin. This disease has the potential to convert a person’s once smooth skin into skin as rough as sandpaper.
A number of light-coloured small bumps start appearing on the skin and in most cases, they tend to appear on the upper arms, thighs and buttocks of the affected person. In certain cases, there may be some swelling or redness, which comes along with the bumps. The skin loses its original glow and colour.
As mentioned above, people with dry skin suffer from Keratosis Pilaris. Also anyone with extra sensitive skin who is prone to be allergic to various substances tend to fall prey to this disease. Often Keratosis Pilaris is inherited from other family members as well. Persons suffering from asthma and eczema have higher chances of getting affected by Keratosis Pilaris.
But what leads to such a condition? A protein in our body called ‘keratin’, which protects our skin from various infections, is the main cause behind Keratosis Pilaris. Although there is no particular reason for excess building up of keratin in our body, too much of it under the skin leads to blockages of hair follicles and growth of rashes.
For people who are scared of medical tests, it may be a relief to know that Keratosis Pilaris does not need any sort of testing. Treatment of Keratosis Pilaris is a time taking process and immediate results may not be seen after applying a particular lotion or cream. However, sometimes it gets cured on its own without any medication.
To start off, the amount of time which is spent in water should be limited. In addition to this, there are other steps which may be taken. For example, while taking a shower, hot water should be substituted by warm water. Also, it is vital to ensure that the skin is adequately moist. Two ways of going about doing this are using moisturizers and making use of a humidifier. Make sure you use mild soaps for regular hygiene and for your shower.
Who gets Keratosis Pilaris?
Anyone can get Keratosis Pilaris. It is estimated to affect between 50-80% of all adolescents and approximately 40% of adults. Females may be more frequently affected than males. Age of onset is often within the first 10 years of life and can particularly get worse during puberty. Keratosis Pilaris may however begin at any age. A large percentage of patients have other people in their family with the same condition. It has commonly been seen in twins. Keratosis Pilaris is also seen in atopic dermatitis patients and patients with very dry skin.
One big relief when it comes to having Keratosis Pilaris is the fact that there is little risk at all if a person has it as it is not threatening. That being said, the sooner it is under control, the better! If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a dermatologist and ask a free question.
Our heart is basically a muscle. So when this muscle weakens the heart is unable to do its function i.e., to pump blood throughout our body and keep us alive.
The heart muscle gets progressively weak due to a disease called cardiomyopathy.
There are different types of cardiomyopathy caused by different causes. Untreated cardiomyopathy can lead to heart failure or early death. Treatment can’t cure the condition but can give you extra healthy years of life and prevent serious complications.
Cardiomyopathy has 4 main types, they are:
Dilated Cardiomyopathy: This is the most common form and its principal cause is that your heart muscle becomes too weak to pump blood. The heart muscles stretch and become thinner in this case leading to the four chambers of the heart to expand causing a pathology called an enlarged heart.
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: This happens due to genetics. It occurs when the walls of your heart thicken and prevent the flow of blood through this natural pump.
Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia: This is a rare form of cardiomyopathy. It causes sudden deaths of athletes and is caused when fat and fibrous tissues replace muscle in the right ventricle of the heart.
Restrictive Cardiomyopathy: This is the least common form of the disease. The cause is the stiffening of the ventricles, the part of the blood which receives blood. When these stiffen, the heart doesn’t get enough blood to oxygenate. Scarring of the heart due to heart disease and a heart transplant operation can be a cause of this stiffening.
Ischemic Cardiomyopathy: Ischemic cardiomyopathy is caused due to coronary artery disease which causes blood vessels supplying blood to the heart to become narrow. The heart doesn’t get enough oxygen and a person can die due to a heart attack.
Other types of cardiomyopathy are grouped into this category and can include:
Left ventricular noncompaction happens when the left ventricle has trabeculations, projections of muscle inside the ventricle.
Peripartum cardiomyopathy, another form of the disease can occur during or after pregnancy. This is a form of dilated cardiomyopathy and can be fatal. There’s no documented cause.
Alcoholic cardiomyopathy is caused due to alcoholism causing an enlargement of the heart.
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, or broken heart syndrome, happens when extreme stress leads to heart muscle failure. Though rare, this condition is more common in post-menopausal women.
Doctors will decide the treatment after finding out the extent of damage due to cardiomyopathy.
Others whose life is affected due to symptoms are treated with lifestyle changes and medicines. The bad news is that cardiomyopathy can’t be cured but can only be managed and controlled by doing the following:
Exercise is also crucial to keep the heart healthy and maintain a healthy weight through regular bouts of low-intensity exercise.
Medications for high blood pressure will be prescribed to prevent water retention, keep the heart beating normally, prevent blood clots and reduce inflammation.
Pacemakers and defibrillators can be implanted.
Surgery like heart transplant can be done as a last resort.
The period around the age of 45 to 50 is very delicate for most women as many changes occur within the body. The changes occur due to menopause or a cessation of the menstrual cycle for a period of at least 12 months or so. Along with a host of physical changes, post-menopausal women tend to suffer from mental problems as well. Some of the factors could be physical changes such as a decline or stop in hormone productions while some of them are psychological effects as well. Some of the common mental problems faced by women are mentioned below:
Depression: This is by far the most common mental disorder and affects women while they are going through the process of menopause. After a few years, post-menopausal women tend to recover from this or the symptoms at least taper off. It is estimated that almost 20% of women undergoing menopause suffer from this problem, although the risk of depression is much higher if you have prior history of it.
Sleep Disorders: This can be described as not only a mental disorder that affects women but also a symptom of menopause. Sleep disorders can range anywhere between disturbed sleep, insomnia or sleep apnea (breathing difficulty while sleeping), especially in older women. Women undergoing menopause may suffer from this due to hormonal changes which result in hot flashes. These can wake you up in the middle of the night almost daily.
Schizophrenia: This is a serious mental disorder and is mostly noticed in women who have a prior history of the disorder. This condition is characterized by delusions and a detachment from reality which often pushes the person to act on their inappropriate imaginations. Schizophrenia usually manifests itself in young adulthood and peaks again at the age of around 45 to 50. If you had episodes of schizophrenia in your early adulthood, then it may resurface during menopause, although most women do see a subsiding of symptoms some time after menopause has occurred.
Panic Disorder: Women tend to experience this problem, during or even after menopause, as a new disorder that suddenly develops. This can be quite disruptive in your life. Also, if you have a history of this disorder, menopause may trigger it to show up again.
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: This disorder is another mental health issue that can cause you to be overly obsessive, more so among menopausal women. If you already have had OCD in the past, menopause can trigger a relapse or a bad episode.
Bipolar Disorder: In this case as well, menopausal women have a higher tendency for a relapse or the start of a bad episode if they already had even mild signs of it.
Muscular dystrophy (MD) is a group of muscular problems which leads to loss of muscle mass and therefore loss of muscle strength. This is a progressive condition and gradually worsens with time. in some cases, the patients may experience complete muscle breakdown, ultimately affecting patient mobility to a large extent. The condition is usually inherited and caused by genetic mutations. It can affect children and adults alike. There are different types of the condition but the most common ones are:
In addition to the patient, there is a lot of stress on the caregiver and so coping with MD is hard not just on the patient, but also on the caregivers. Listed below are some medical and nonmedical measures to deal with this condition.
- Medications: These could include corticosteroids which can delay the progression of MD. The doctor might also prescribe heart medications if the heart muscles are affected.
- Therapy: Physical and occupational therapy play a major role in the management of MD. Therapies could include a range of motion exercises to improve the flexibility of the particular joint and improve mobility. With time, some joints could become rigid and the range of movement may also become limited.
- Strength training: Another major problem with MD is the gradual loss of strength in the muscles. Training the muscles to retain and if possible improve strength is another objective of treatment. To this end, the doctor might prescribe exercises depending on overall health of the patient.
- Breathing aids: If the lungs are affected, then the person would need breathing aids to improve oxygen supply to the lungs and also other body parts. Sleep apnea is a common condition seen in people with MD, which makes breathing at night difficult.
- Braces: If the muscles are becoming rigid, then braces can be used to keep them in place. This helps in slowing the progression of muscle rigidity and also provides support for weakened muscles.
- Vaccination: Vaccination for pneumonia and flu should be up to date, as the chances of infection are higher
- Diet: Healthy diet is recommended, as eating too much junk and fried foods can lead to obesity, etc.
Especially if a child is affected, it is very important to not to keep them away from their regularly affects. Empathizing with them and working with them is very important. Encourage what they are able to do on their own, and gradually assist them to do more. Keep the school informed of issues so that they can provide necessary attention care and attention whenever required. For adults, being part of social forums and/or groups helps, as there would be others who are going through the same problem as you, so you can get tips and suggestions for coping.
Psychiatry is not just a form of medicine to identify and treat the psychiatric illness, but it also helps in improving attention, cognition, memory and concentration. Psychiatry has its role in different fields and working in the field of memory improvement is quite interesting. Memory is basically the process through which a person stores information for days, months and years.
Human brain is a dynamic entity and has wonderful capacity to store information and recall it as and when required. However, our memory is affected by a number of reasons, such as aging, accidents, negligence and certain diseases, which involves our brain and nervous system. Further, the memory of an event will improve, based on the frequency at which it has been recalled.
Apart from the frequency of recall, psychiatry can also help a person to improve the capacity of brain and sharpen their memory to store incidents or events for a prolonged period of time.
How psychologist can improve your memory:
- Improving your concentration while doing any work will naturally improve your memory. Doing things with concentration will help us in storing information for a longer period of time.
- Relieving your mind from stress or anxiety is also a great way to improve your memory as stress has the ability to hamper your memory.
- Eating a balanced and nutritious diet is essential for a better memory. For increasing the memory power, psychiatrists insist on a diet which is anti inflammatory, rich in protein and Omega-3 fatty acids.
- A simple 20 minute exercise routine will not just help you to stay fit physically, but mentally as well.
- It also important to sleep properly, as sleep helps your mind and body to prepare for the next day. It is also advised to have a short nap in the afternoon to improve your brain functioning during the day time.
- Smoking and frequent consumption of caffeine also hampers your memory, thus, it is advised that one should quit smoking and reduce the consumption of caffeine.
Fibre is crucial for proper digestion and 85 % immunity of the human body is due to digestion alone. Scientists have recently concluded after years of study that the human brain and gut are indeed connected. This leads us to the question whether we are looking after our guts to stay healthy and fit for years to come?
Consider this modern diets have left millions worldwide with deficiency of fibre. And, this is really alarming because high - fibre foods help to guard against cancer, heart disease, kidney stones, PMS, obesity and diabetes.
Fibre comes in two varieties- soluble and insoluble. Soluble fibre turns to gel in the stomach, slowing digestion, which helps lower cholesterol and blood sugar. Insoluble fibre remains untouched all the way to the large intestine aiding in proper evacuation of the GI tract. Since fibre is never absorbed into the body, you have to eat sufficient quantities of it every day. Experts suggest that you need 25-38 gm of fibre each day in your diet. But how do you get this amount?
Here is a list of 10 high- fibre foods for jacking-up fibre content
- Legumes like split peas or ‘dals’: Fibre content - 16.3 gm per cup. Eaten as a staple food in India, split peas are full of proteins and fibre. They can be had in soup, stew and dal form.
- Lentils like quinoa: Fibre content - 15.6 gm per cup. They are also good source of protein, iron, folate, manganese and phosphorous.
- Artichokes: Fibre - 10.3 gm per medium vegetable. Reservoir of vitamins A, C, E, B, K, potassium, calcium, magnesium and phosphorous, Artichokes are one of the top most high antioxidant food.
- Peas: Fibre - 8.8 gm per cup. They are also filled with protein, Omega-3s, vitamins and folates and contain insoluble fibres
- Broccoli: Fibre - 5.1 gm per cup. A power packed cruciferous vegetable, full of anti-oxidants.
- Brussels sprouts: Fibre - 4.1 gm per cup. Contains balance of soluble and insoluble fibre apart from nutrients like vitamins C, K, B1, B2, B6, folate and manganese.
- Oatmeal: Fibre 4 gm per cup. Great for breakfast with milk!
- Flax seeds: Fibre - 3 gm per tablespoon: Tonnes of nutrients are packed in the humble flax seeds. They contain protein, thiamine, manganese, phosphorus, magnesium, copper, Omega-3 fatty acids and fibre. They reduce cholesterol and help ease symptoms of menopause.
- Avocados: Fibre 6.7 gm per half fruit raw. Pack with the goodness of vitamin C, E, B6, folate, vitamin K and potassium. Contain healthy fats that help to lower cholesterol and reduce the risk of heart disease.
- Pears: Fibre - 5.5 gm per medium fruit. This fruit contains Omega-6 fatty acids which helps keep the cells in brain and nerves healthy.
Addiction can tear families apart, especially if it is someone whom you love with your whole heart. Further, the mere presence of alcohol addiction in a marriage can make things even worse. There are so many experiences that are a part of married life and spending your life besides an alcoholic can be traumatic.
However, all it needs is to be aware of coping mechanisms to deal with such a situation and helping your partner get rid of their addiction.
- Acknowledge the fact that alcoholism is a disease: You must understand that it becomes extremely difficult for a person to control his or her drinking habit after getting addicted to the same. It is basically like a person suffering from a disease that he/she doesn't even understand. Therefore, it is necessary for you to help him/her making a choice to recover from this disease and take a stand against alcoholism. And, to get over the situation, support from you is crucial.
- Maintain a sense of peace: It is not surprising that the drinking habit of your partner may upset you. Even then, it is imperative for you to be patient and handle the situation calmly. You can speak to someone close to you or consult a therapist regarding the situation, this can help you manage the frustration rather than venting it out on your partner.
- Treat yourself better: There is nothing that you can do to change the lifestyle of your spouse when it involves drinking. It is a kind of attitude that actually needs to come from within him or her. But, what you can actually do is at least take care of yourself, which will help you in the longer run. Build and develop relationships with other people in your family, friends and colleagues. Focus on the things that you enjoy doing such as play some sports, go out for a movie, have lunch with friends, or engage in a hobby.
- Opting for professional help: Rehabilitation is necessary when your spouse is addicted to alcohol for a long time. It is important that you discuss the same with your partner when they are sober. If it is difficult for you to have this discussion, you can ask for help from people that your partner may listen to. Taking counselling session with them can give them support and courage they need to get deal with this phase of their life.
Living with an alcoholic partner is a path filled with full of difficulties. However, adhering to the points mentioned above can help you deal with the situation in a positive manner. Remember, your spouse needs you from time to time, and supporting them can help you get a life that you signed up for.
Sight is one of our most important senses. To ensure that your vision is not compromised, regular eye examinations are essential. This is regardless of age and overall health because the only way to diagnose conditions in the eye in the early stages is with a comprehensive eye exam. By arresting them in the early stages, many eye disorders can be easily controlled and treated.
During a routine eye examination, the doctor will look into a number of aspects of your eye's health. An eye examination can also indicate serious health issues like diabetes, macular degeneration and glaucoma. Some of the conditions an eye doctor looks for during an eye exam are:
If you already have a prescription this will be checked. In other cases, the strength of the eye muscles is checked for near sightedness, far sightedness and astigmatism which can be corrected with lasik surgery, spectacles or lenses. The earlier a refractive error is corrected, the lower are its chances of increasing. When it comes to children, they often do not realize signs of vision deterioration and hence, an eye examination becomes essential.
This is a condition where one eye has a much higher refractive error than the other or where the eyes are misaligned. If this is not treated in time, amblyopia can stunt vision in the affected eye and result in blindness.
Crossed or turned eyes are termed as cases of strabismus. This is caused by the misalignment of the eyes and can cause problems with depth perception. This can lead to amblyopia and eventual blindness if not treated in time.
Focusing and communicative problems between the eyes
An eye examination can also determine problems with focusing on objects. With children this can be a sign of underdeveloped focusing skills while in adults it can be a symptom of presbyopia or age related diminished focusing ability. Your doctor will also check how well your eyes work together. If they do not work in tandem, it can cause headaches, eye strains and problems with reading.
By looking at the blood vessels and retina of the eyes, doctors can detect signs of high blood pressure, cholesterol etc. Leaks in the blood vessels or bleeding in the eyes can also be a sign of diabetes or swelling of the macula.
Age related conditions
As with the rest of the body, the eye tissues and muscles also degenerate with time. Cataract is one of the most common age related issues that affect the eyes.
This is a condition which can be caused in the delicate folds of the skin over the eye called the eyelid. The eyelids usually protect us from extreme light, and the entrance of other debris as well as against injuries to the delicate interiors of the eyes. The eyelid may get irritated or experience varied sensations like prickling, burning or itching, with a dull ache or sharp pain due to many reasons. This discomfort and irritation is usually caused by inflammation. Let us learn more about this condition.
Eyelid Inflammation: Blepharitis or eye inflammation is a condition that causes eyelid irritation because of allergic reactions as well as infections, dandruff in the eyelashes and eyebrows, pollutants and varied other causes. Also, poor hygiene can lead to the growth of eyelash lice which can also enter the eyes and lead to inflammation and irritation of the eyelids. A malfunctioning oil gland can also cause this kind of problem along with side effects of certain kinds of medication.
Types of Inflammation: This condition can be of two types :- anterior and posterior. Anterior eye inflammation causes irritation in that part of the eyelids which are outside the eyes where the eyelashes are situated. Dandruff and allergic reactions can also cause this kind of irritation. Posterior eyelid inflammation is a condition that can be found in the inner rims and corners of the eyes where malfunctioning oil glands found in the follicles of the eyelashes can cause this problem leading to blurry or cloudy vision as well.
Symptoms: Apart from irritation and not being able to close the eyes properly, there are many other symptoms of this condition. These symptoms include sensitivity to glares of light, oily eyelids, burning and itching sensation, and a feeling that some particles have entered your eyes and formed a crust on your eyelashes.
Checking for an Infection: Many of these symptoms can point at the presence of an infection, especially when accompanied by fever and headaches. Yet, irritation can also just be a cause of simple inflammation or due to the entry of a foreign body into the eye. Still, it is always best to get the symptoms checked by an ophthalmologist who will conduct a detailed eye exam along with lab tests based on blood samples in order to ensure that there is no bacterium or virus infecting the body.
Treatment: Steroids and antibiotics will be used only when there is an infection. As a home remedy for this condition, you can apply a warm wash cloth and clean your eyes frequently.
Talk to your doctor about potential complications of this irritation like eyelash loss.