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noora hospital

General Physician Clinic

raj bagh srinagar
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noora hospital General Physician Clinic raj bagh srinagar
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We will always attempt to answer your questions thoroughly, so that you never have to worry needlessly, and we will explain complicated things clearly and simply....more
We will always attempt to answer your questions thoroughly, so that you never have to worry needlessly, and we will explain complicated things clearly and simply.
More about noora hospital
noora hospital is known for housing experienced General Physicians. Dr. Mujeeb Shoukat, a well-reputed General Physician, practices in srinagar. Visit this medical health centre for General Physicians recommended by 95 patients.

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raj bagh
Srinagar srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir - 190008
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Dr. Mujeeb Shoukat

MD
General Physician
11 Years experience
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How Can Exercise & Yoga Ensure A Healthy Heart?

MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
General Physician, Faridabad
How Can Exercise & Yoga Ensure A Healthy Heart?

Exercise is one of the best things one can do for themselves to stay fit and healthy. Regular exercise will always be a great idea for the normal functioning of the body. 

Exercises play a vital role in controlling or minimizing heart issues. They greatly help in maintaining good blood circulation. They are also helpful in maintaining blood pressure, cholesterol, weight, and increasing energy levels. 

Exercises do help to prevent heart disease, but it is important to do right exercises in right amount.

How Often and How Long Should One Exercise?

If the person is not active, 20 to 30 minutes of Aerobic session for at least four times a week is good enough. However, the more the person can do, the better the result will be. 

If a person is already physically active, more exercise time is recommended, to really tone the body.

The amount of exercise also depends upon stamina of the particular person.

What type of Exercise is Beneficial for Heart Disease?

For heart disease, one can always go for exercises that make fasten the heartbeat.

Exercises like Cardio, Weight Lifting and Aerobics are one of the best exercises for heart diseases. For those, who are looking for exercises for joint problems as well, swimming and walking are good options.

Some of the Best Exercises for Heart Diseases:

1. Cardio Exercises

The Cardio exercises fasten the heartbeat and also lower down the blood pressure level. Depending upon the prescription of the cardiologist, one can perform Cardio exercises like Walk, Jog, Jump rope, Bicycle, Skipping, Skate, Row, Dance, etc.

2. Aerobics

Aerobic exercise like biking, swimming, playing soccer and hiking uphill, can help in increasing heart rate, decreasing blood pressure and improving blood circulation. These may also be effective in lowering blood sugar.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, every adult should get at least two hours and 30 minutes of moderate-intensity Aerobic exercises per week.

3. Strength training

Resistance training or Strength training is another way to lower the risk of heart diseases. Performing strength training twice a week will help in decreasing the bad cholesterol and raising good cholesterol. 

Ideally, strength training is combined with Aerobics in sets with 8-12 repetitions. 

Some of the strength training exercises are lifting free weights, exercise with resistance bands, pushups, sit-ups, squats, lunges, crunches, etc. 

Why Yoga? A promising way to prevent Heart Disease

  • According to Cunningham, who has taught Yoga for 40 years, it can be used as a preventive measure for heart diseases. 
  • Yoga can help improve respiratory function, increase heart rate, boost circulation, lower blood pressure, increase lung capacity, and muscle tone.
  • Yoga can also be beneficial for those who have faced Heart attack or Cardiac arrest. Most patients go through depression after Bypass surgery; Yoga also helps to get rid of depression and anxiety. It also helps in reducing emotional stress. 
  • Some of the effective Yoga Postures are Boat Pose (Paripurna Navasana), Extended Triangle Pose (utthita trikona), Feathered Peacock Pose (pinca mayura), Handstand (adho mukha vrksasana), Hero Pose (veer-AHS-anna), Low Lunge, Supported Headstand (salamba alamba sirsa), and many more.
  • Yoga and other exercises help in maintaining a healthy lifestyle. However, one should always consult a trainer or doctor before doing these exercises. Also, these exercises should always be accompanied by a healthy diet, to really make these exercises effective. Eating a burger after a Yoga session is never going to be a good idea.
     

4 Ways To Improve Social Skills Of An ADHD-Affected Child!

MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
General Physician, Chennai
4 Ways To Improve Social Skills Of An ADHD-Affected Child!

Forging positive peer relationships is essential for all children. Sadly, children with ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) find making friends and being accepted by their peers difficult. The hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsiveness associated with the disorder can impede the child’s attempts of socializing with others in several ways.

Non-acceptance, isolation, loneliness- these are perhaps some of the most painful aspects of ADHD-related ailments. These experiences usually leave behind long-lasting effects on the minds of the child. The good news is, you can help your child develop social skills and competencies. Here are 4 ways you can do this-

  1. Make your child socially aware: Studies show that children with ADHD fail to monitor their own behavior. Often they are unable to have a clear awareness and understanding of social situations or the reactions they provoke in others. ADHD-related impairments can result in weaknesses of your child’s ability to read or assess a situation, self-monitor, self-evaluate, and adjust accordingly to the same.
  2. Role-play to teach your child: Children with ADHD have tough time learning from past experiences. They tend to react without thinking about the consequences. As parents, you must provide them frequent and immediate feedback on inappropriate behavior. One way you can do this is by adopting the ‘role-play’ method. Role-playing can help you teach your child how to practice social skills, and respond to challenging situations.
  3. Provide opportunities to forge friendships: Arrange for a specific ‘play time’ for the child. Provide opportunities for developing friendly bonds with peer groups. Children who are of school-going age should be encouraged more to interact with others. Setting a fixed time for playful activities can be helpful. You can have your child’s friends (one or two at a time) over to take part in some activity, and watch him socialize with them. As the child grows older, friendships and relationships often become complicated. Therefore, it is important that the parents be involved and continue to facilitate positive peer interaction.
  4. Improve your child’s peer status: Once the child is tagged by his/her peer group in a negative way for lacking social skills, it becomes hard to drop the tag. Having a negative reputation is in fact one of the greatest obstacles the child may have to overcome socially. Parents are advised to work with the child’s teacher/coach to address such negative reputational effects, and improve their peer status.

ADHD can thus be managed by improving one’s social skills. Parents of a child who suffer from this hyperactive disorder can also seek help from a professional to get some input on the condition of their child.

Before applying the tips suggested here, it is highly recommended that an Energy Assessment be done for your child by an expert in ADHD. This will help establish the correct diagnosis in the first place and you can then explore unconventional or alternative healing methods such as Intent Healing that are helping parents who have children with ADHD see their child thrive with their talents and gifts by curing the limiting symptoms in the child.

What To Expect From Piles (Hemorrhoids) Surgery?

MS - General Surgery, FMAS, Fellowship of Indian Association of Gastrointestinal Endo Surgeons (FIAGES)
General Surgeon, Bangalore
What To Expect From Piles (Hemorrhoids) Surgery?

Piles are a common ailment, albeit distressing, which can be treated with proper operative measures. Piles refer to hemorrhoids which have become swollen or inflamed. Comprised of vital tissues, blood vessels, elastic and muscle fibers, Hemorrhoids are masses and clumps of tissue cushioning and lining the anal canal. The inflammation occurs when there is a rise in the pressure in the small arteries that make up hemorrhoid causing them to enlarge and swell with blood.

Besides the fact that piles, also called as pathological hemorrhoids, can be extremely painful, not operating can give rise to severe health issues. There are different types of piles surgery procedures conducted according to individual needs as prescribed by individual doctors.

Surgery For Piles - What To Expect? 
Piles are a common ailment, albeit distressing, which can be treated with proper operative measures. Piles refer to hemorrhoids which have become swollen or inflamed. 

Comprised of vital tissues, blood vessels, elastic and muscle fibers, hemorrhoids are masses and clumps of tissue cushioning and lining the anal canal. The inflammation occurs when there is a rise in the pressure in the small veins that make up hemorrhoid causing them to enlarge and swell with blood. Besides the fact that piles, also called as pathological hemorrhoids, can be extremely painful, not operating can give rise to severe health issues other than severe anemia and weakness. There are different types of piles surgery procedures conducted according to individual needs as prescribed by individual doctors. 

Sclerotherapy 
This procedure involves injecting a chemical into hemorrhoids. The chemical causes the hemorrhoids to contract and stop bleeding. Most individuals encounter little or no pain with the shot. In the case of small internal hemorrhoids, Sclerotherapy is shown to have the best benefit rates. 

Stapled Hemorrhoidopexy 
Stapled Hemorrhoidopexy, also commonly known as MIPH, is a form of surgery which requires 12 hours of hospitalization. This process necessitates general, regional, or local anesthesia. This kind of surgery is used to handle hemorrhoids that have already prolapsed. A surgical staple fixes the prolapsed hemorrhoid inside your rectum and cuts off the blood supply so that the tissue can contract. Recovery from hemorrhoidopexy is less painful and takes lesser time than the recuperation period of a hemorrhoidectomy. 

Haemorrhoidectomy 
Excision used to be prescribed for hemorrhoid sufferers. This therapy involves the surgical removal of the hemorrhoids with a cautery, laser or knife. Although these methods are slightly different, the outcomes are identical. Excision results in discomfort and pain in the perianal area that lasts from two weeks to two months. The pain during bowel elimination also lasts for approximately the same time. 

Management of the hemorrhoids with proper medication, diet and workout is by far the safest way to go. Only in the case of lifestyle changes failing to solve the condition, surgical interference should be considered.

Ovulation Induction & Follicular Monitoring - What All Should You Know?

MS - Obstetrics and Gynaecology, MBBS
Gynaecologist, Mumbai
Ovulation Induction & Follicular Monitoring - What All Should You Know?

Irregular ovulation or anovulation (a condition where a woman does not ovulate at all) can be quite agonizing, triggering a host of health problems, including difficulty in conceiving. The irregular ovulation could be an amalgamation of many factors including obesity, thyroid disorders, PCOS, endometriosis, fibroids, uncontrolled intake of caffeinated and alcoholic drinks, to name a few. With the advancement of medical science, the problem is no longer a big deal. In this article, we will discuss the role of ovulation induction and follicular monitoring in dealing with irregular ovulation cycles and the related complications.

What is Ovulation Induction?

Ovulation induction comes as a blessing for women who don't ovulate regularly (there is a deviation from the usual pattern of ovulation that takes place before every menstrual cycle). The procedure aims at regularizing the ovulation process. The medications (often hormones are used in the treatment) play a pivotal role in stimulating the follicular development of the ovaries so that healthy eggs are produced, developed, matured and finally released during ovulation. The procedure also benefits women get their menstrual cycles sans the ovulation (Anovulatory Menstrual Cycles). The problem mainly surfaces due to a drop in the progesterone level (a hormone responsible for the uterine lining thickening).

Steps involved

  1. The ovulation induction is an important process that requires a thorough examination and evaluation of the patient to understand their ovulation process, hormonal balance (or imbalance) and all the factors that could be a possible trigger resulting in the ovulation problem.
  2. In the next step, the physician carries out the stimulation of the ovulation process. For this purpose, selected hormones are given to the affected individual either orally or in the form of injections.
  3. The hormones work towards restoring the balance along with follicular development. This stimulation contributes significantly towards maturing an egg and ensuring its release for ovulation to take place.
  4. Through a series of regular pelvic ultrasounds, doctors are able to carefully monitor the development of the follicles along with how well the lining of the uterus thickens, following the ovulation induction.
  5. For those planning to conceive, ovulation induction, with proper monitoring, goes a long way to ensure at least one healthy egg will be available for the fertilization to take place.

Some women can also opt for Intrauterine Insemination, a pathbreaking procedure whereby, the sperm (collected and stored earlier) is injected into the vagina to facilitate the fertilization process.

Downside of the Ovulation Induction
The ovulation induction requires precision and accuracy and should be performed by experienced professionals who know their skill well.

  1. Even a small mistake in the ovulation induction can trigger many complications including Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome. The condition can swell up the ovaries with abdominal pain, vomiting, breathing problems (shortness of breath), sudden and rapid weight gain. The ovaries also appear tender with some pain.
  2. Ovulation induction increases the risk of gestational diabetes, hypertension, nausea, to name a few.

Declining Sperm Count - How IVF Can Help Deal With It?

MCH - Reproductive Medicine & Surgery, MS - Obstetrics & Gynaecology
IVF Specialist, Chennai
Declining Sperm Count - How IVF Can Help Deal With It?

When we talk about infertility attention usually falls on treatment for women. However, infertility can affect men as well. The condition of infertility, can be described as the inability to become pregnant for a period of 1 year despite having unprotected, well-timed sexual intercourse. A low sperm count is one of the primary reasons for infertility in men.

Typically there should be fifteen million sperm per milliliter of semen. Low sperm count refers to the ejaculation of less than a normal amount of sperm in semen. This can also be termed as oligospermia. A complete absence of sperm in semen is known as azoospermia. Low sperm count does not mean that you cannot impregnate your partner but it reduces the chance of a successful conception. Thus, one of the most common ways to treat infertility caused by low sperm count is IVF.

  • IVF involves harvesting eggs from the woman’s uterus and sperm from the male partner and combining them in a laboratory to form a zygote. When IVF is used to treat male infertility, a semen analysis is the first step. This helps determine the patient’s sperm count, sperm motility, volume, pH levels, white blood cell levels etc.
  • The ejaculated semen is then processed so as to separate the sperm cells from the plasma. In this process sperm cells with higher motility are identified and segregated. These cells have a higher chance of fertilizing the egg.
  • Sperm cells are then injected into the harvested egg. Some techniques may require the injection of 50,000 or more sperm cells while others such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) can be effective with a single sperm cell. Once the egg is fertilized, it is allowed to develop for a few days in the laboratory.
  • Two or three embryos are then selected to be reintroduced into the woman’s uterus with the help of a catheter. The remaining fertilized embryos are preserved in an embryo bank in case the pregnancy is not successful. If these need to be used later, the woman does not have to go through the initial stages of IVF treatment to stimulate the follicles and harvest eggs from the ovaries.

When it comes to IVF, the success rates are very high. However, one of the most common side effects is the birth of twins or triplets. This is because multiple embryos are inserted into the uterus. The number of babies born then depends on the number of embryos that are implanted successfully.

Understand Your Risk for Diabetes!

MBBS, MD - Paediatrics, FRACP - Pediatrc Endocrinology, SCE, Endocrinology
Endocrinologist, Kanpur
Understand Your Risk for Diabetes!

Type 1 diabetes is commonly referred to as juvenile diabetes and is mostly witnessed among young people. It can also occur in adults. In this condition, the body doesn’t produce enough insulin or completely stops producing insulin. The immune system, which saves the body from foreign microbes, attacks the cells that are responsible for producing insulin. The treatment methods include taking insulin shots, oral insulin intake, taking healthy diet, increased physical activity and controlling blood pressure and cholesterol levels.

Type 2 diabetes is a condition wherein the body refuses to use insulin in order to carry glucose to each and every cell of the body. The pancreas try to produce more insulin in order to counter the condition but soon give up due to an increased blood pressure. The treatment plan includes medication, making lifestyle changes, and controlling blood-sugar and cholesterol levels.

Gestational diabetes is observed in many pregnant women. The hormones produced during pregnancy can block insulin to be used by the body. While insulin resistance is common during pregnancy, failure of the pancreas to fill in the additional insulin in the body can result in gestational diabetes. Women who are overweight are more likely to develop this condition. Although gestational diabetes goes automatically after the baby is born, it often recurs in the form of type 2 diabetes in a later stage of life.

Risk factors for diabetes

  1. Weight: Being overweight is a primary risk factor for diabetes. An increased amount of adipose tissue increases the risk of insulin resistance by the body. It is therefore essential to shed as much weight as one can to avoid diabetes.
  2. Inactivity: Immobility increases the risk of diabetes in a person. It stacks up glucose in the body, making it difficult for the body to use glucose and convert it into energy. A daily routine which is devoid of physical activity ensures fat storage in the body, which can turn into type 2 diabetes.
  3. Family history: Diabetes, especially type 2, is closely linked with family history. If a person has diabetes, it is very likely that his immediate family or extended family has a history of diabetes.
  4. Ethnicity: African-Americans, people from the Indian subcontinent, Latinos, etc., are more likely to suffer from diabetes compared to their American or European counterparts. Lifestyle and eating habits are the major reasons for diabetes in these races.
  5. Age: Age has a direct correlation with diabetes. The age group of 45–65 is considered to be more diabetes-prone. Inactivity, immobility, and an increase of sugar intake are some of the primary reasons for developing diabetes in this age group.

Type diabetes

Surgery For Diabetic Foot - What All Should You Know

MBBS, MS - General Surgery, Laparoscopic, Burns & Plastic
General Surgeon, Delhi
Surgery For Diabetic Foot - What All Should You Know

Surgery is an art and surgeons are artists. It is a grueling process and requires extreme dexterity and quite a bit of courage. It is a process where specialized tools are used to remove unwanted tissues, infections or treat an injury or to reshape the human body.

A surgeon is a person who executes the process of surgery. A surgery team is made for these operations which is highly delicate and life risking task. Surgeon’s have their own assistants who assits or helps with the surgical equipments as instructed by the surgeon.

Foot infections are a very common problem in diabetic people. A very miniscule cut can turn into an untreatable infection and can claim a person’s life. A diabetic person loses the ability to repair and thus  the body is unable to repair itself. Prompt medical actions must be taken to treat the affected person and it is an extremely delicate procedure.

TYPES OF SURGERIESBASED ON TIME

  1. BASED ON PURPOSE
  2. TYPE OF PROCEDURE
  3. BY BODY PART
  4. BY EQUIPMENTS USED

Prevention

There are certain prevention methods of diabetic foot like regulating glucose levels, identification of the problem, proper self-care and self-examination. Doing routine examination of the foot is a necessary step and one should apprise one’s doctor of any development of any kind of infections. Wearing proper footwear is another essential.

Wearing improper footwear that cause repeated trauma to the foot may cause infections. The aim of a foot surgery is to control the infection without losing the limb. The skilled and able surgeons do this by removing the pus, removing every affected tissue and by making a healthy wound bed. In the whole process one should keep in mind the functionality of the affected foot. Untreated infections may create pressure points and trigger the infection again.

Classifications of foot infections

  1. A depth of the infection
  2. The severity of the infection
  3. The amount of tissue involved
  4. The anatomic site affected
  5. The causative factors

The treatment of the infections includes detection of the infection and it is considered an infection if the following symptoms are present

Symptoms

Infections may give rise to recalcitrant hyperglycemia and malaise, but systemic inflammatory manifestations may be absent. Patients with a serious conditions, may have an elevated erythrocyte-sedimentation rate or C-reactive protein level. With deep infections bone involvement is a concern. One study suggested that in the presence of an infection, a high specificity and positive predictive value for osteitis when the bone is felt with a sterile metal probe.

Clinical, radiological, and/or scintigraphic signs compatible with osteitis may lead to suspicion, but MRI is the imaging procedure of choice for classifying osteomyelitis from other conditions, like neuroarthropathy. A  study showed that on MRI of the infected foot, the nonenhanced areas represent infected tissue. Lack of enhancement in these areas can mask the presence of abscesses and osteomyelitis. This type of healing process requires time and patience and utmost self care.

Dehydration - 5 Signs You Must Not Ignore!

MD - Internal Medicine, MBBS
Internal Medicine Specialist, Mumbai
Dehydration - 5 Signs You Must Not Ignore!

5 signs your body is lacking in water

Water is indispensable for the human body as 90% of the brain and almost 60 per cent of an adult body is chiefly made up of water. Water is just as important as any of your meals. Each cell and organ depends on water for its proper functioning and for flushing out toxins and fats from the body. An average man must consume roughly 3 litres (10-12 glasses) of water per day; and a woman requires about 2.5 litres (8-10 glasses). If you're not meeting this requirement, you might be fall prey to dehydration.

The state of water deficiency or dehydration can be determined through various symptoms. Read on to know the 5 most common signs:

1. The colour of your urine is dark

The colour of your urine indicates your health. The lesser the water you drink, the darker is the colour of your pee. If your urine is pale yellow, you drink a sufficient amount of water. If it's dark yellow and concentrated, it's a sign for you to refill on water. Also, if you haven't urinated for more than two hours, you should immediately gulp 2 glasses of water.

2. You experience frequent headaches

Headaches are often caused by dehydration when the pressure from your blood vessels falls. Dehydration makes it tough for your heart to pump enough oxygen to the brain. Drinking sufficient amounts of water ensures the flow of oxygen in your body.

3. You feel dizzy and fatigued

Lack of water can often lead to laziness and restlessness. It may also cause a rapid change in your blood pressure. Low or high blood pressures are stimulants of fatigue. Water gives you instant energy that wakes up your whole system, thus making you feel revitalised.

4. You have constipated bowel movements

Water is one of the top natural remedies for constipation or troubled bowel movements. If your fluid intake is low, you're likely to have stomach, gastric and bowel problems. The digestive system depends on water to help food move through both the intestines. It checks the functions of the digestive tract, while also keeping it flexible and clean.

5. You experience brain fogs and blackouts

Your brain cells and nerves react severely to water loss. You may start feeling a lack of concentration along with temporary memory loss. Blackouts and fogs are common when you have a deficit of water. You might even experience difficulty in carrying out cognitive tasks.

If you're experiencing similar issues, you must enhance your daily water intake. You can try carrying a sipper around, which allows you to keep a tab on your water consumption. To relish water as a refreshing beverage, you can infuse freshly chopped fruits and herbs in a pitcher of chilled water. This flavoured water also cleanses your body of all toxins and chemicals, thus keeping you fresh.

consult.

How To Get Pregnant With PCOS?

Laproscopy Training, MS, MBBS
Gynaecologist, Ghaziabad
How To Get Pregnant With PCOS?

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and infertility are considered synonymous by most. However, the truth is that they are not and there are a lot of treatment options that can lead to pregnancy, even in a lady who is suffering from PCOS.

Reasons PCOS leads to infertility
Women with PCOS have different hormonal pathways than a normal woman without PCOS. It changes the system of how your body produces the eggs and prepares your uterus for pregnancy. Three reasons why women with PCOS do not get pregnant, or why it is difficult for them to maintain pregnancy are:

  1. Women who are suffering with PCOS do not ovulate normally.
  2. They have irregular periods and thus their monthly cycles are not predictable.
  3. As they have irregular periods, their endometrium may not be prepared when the egg is released. Thus, it does not help in sustaining the pregnancy.

Symptoms of PCOS
There are a lot of symptoms that show the hormonal imbalance due to PCOS.

  1. Ovarian cysts
  2. Excessive amounts of male hormones
  3. High levels of insulin
  4. Fertility problems
  5. Weight gain
  6. Ovulation and menstrual problems
  7. Excess body and facial hair
  8. Acne
  9. Anxiety and depression

As there is hormonal imbalance in a woman with PCOS, the eggs may not develop properly, and at the same time, they may not be ready to get fertilized, thus leading to infertility.

PCOS infertility treatment
The good news is that even if you are one of them with PCOS, there are treatments that can help you to get pregnant.

Here are the drugs that help patients with PCOS.
Metformin (Glucophage)

It helps in reducing the insulin levels and stabilizes the hormones. Thus, doctors often prescribe metformin that will help in making the ovulation cycles regular.

Clomid (Clomiphene citrate)
Another fertility drug that helps in conceiving is Clomid. It may be prescribed with or without metformin. When women with PCOS take these two drugs together, their chances of getting treated for PCOS and getting fertile become more. Many women may need a high dose of Clomid so that they can retain fertility.

Gonadotropins
This medication is necessary for helping you with ovulation as gonadotropins are hormones that stimulate your ovaries to release eggs. When someone is not responding to clomid then this medication may be tried.

If you too are trying to conceive and yet have not succeeded, and can find the symptoms mentioned above, visit your doctor and start the treatment.

How Diabetes Can Lead To Depression?

Diploma In Diabetology, MD - Diabetology
Endocrinologist, Delhi
How Diabetes Can Lead To Depression?

The risk of developing depression is found by the means of various researches to be two to three times higher in individuals suffering from a chronic disease than in normal individuals. Type 1 and type 2 Diabetes are chronic diseases that can prove to be very challenging to manage due to various setbacks and complications that can come in the way. Regular monitoring of the blood sugar levels is essential in managing the blood sugar. Navigation of the health care facilities, side effects caused by medications, and other related health conditions or even diabetic complications can cause an increased risk of developing depression. If left undiagnosed and untreated, depression can give way to a poor lifestyle choice that can further deteriorate the physical health of a person.

Various risk factors that are associated with diabetes and depression are as follows-

  • lack of physical activity
  • poor social environment
  • poverty
  • stress during pregnancy

Depression in diabetes can occur simultaneously due to a variety of factors. These include the psychological and psychosocial impact of the disease on an individual, a potential common genetic susceptibility and certain common pathophysiological abnormalities that involve neuro-immunological and neuro-endocrinal pathways, as well as microvascular brain lesions due to diabetes mellitus. However, issues concerning pathogenesis and causality of this high co-occurrence are not fully determined yet. Still, the presence of depression in patients with diabetes mellitus is of vast importance, as it is usually associated with poor disease control, adverse health outcomes and quality of life impairment.

When an individual is suffering from diabetes, the awareness of risks of developing depression is essential. It has been widely researched and found that these two conditions can occur simultaneously, where depression is usually undiagnosed. Diabetes, specifically type 2, and depression affect each other in a bi-directional manner, which means that each of the disease can prove as a risk factor for the other. In a state of depression, it is common for a person to consume high calorie foods and also to lead a sedentary lifestyle. This tendency can prove to be a risk factor for developing type 2 diabetes.

If an individual already has type 2 diabetes, the stress experienced during the management of disease can cause depression. Type 1 diabetes develops as result of the defect of pancreas in production of insulin.

People with type 1 diabetes can also develop depressive symptoms due to difficulties in the management of the disease. If the symptoms of depression develop in the patient already suffering from diabetes, management of diabetes also becomes difficult. This can lead to cause various diabetes related complications and also decrease the life expectancy.

Various signs that can be observed in a state of depression are as follows:

  1. Complete lack of interest in doing any activity
  2. Irritation or mood swings
  3. Depressed mood
  4. Disturbed sleep pattern
  5. Changes in the appetite
  6. Constant feeling of despair
  7. Guilt Fatigue, weakness
  8. Difficulty in concentration, transient memory loss
  9. Suicidal tendency

There is a certain risk observed between the consumption of antidepressant medicines and development of diabetes. It has been researched and concluded that consuming antidepressants should always be on physician recommendation, with a prior advice on the risks of developing diabetes. It has also been found that the people with type 2 diabetes, who are using insulin regularly, are at higher risk for developing depression as compared to the people on non-insulin medications or following only diet or lifestyle modification habits. An additional stress experienced in managing diabetes and accessing the health care services can cause such complication in insulin users.

Common treatment protocol for depression includes psychotherapy or the cognitive behavioral therapy. It helps people to correct destructive thought patterns and behaviors that tend to increase the depressive symptoms. Other interventions like a structured problem solving approach, motivational interviewing, and interpersonal approach towards the patient is also effective in management. Certain medications can also help in mood-lifting and the management of symptoms of depression.

In diabetics, the treatment options that are available in addition to the standard medical healthcare provision includes self-management training sessions that help the people to increase healthy habits and improve control on their blood sugar levels. Diabetes as well as depression can improve with complete focus on lifestyle changes, like proper diet management and exercising regularly.

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