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A person usually gets a heart attack when there is a blockage in the arteries of the heart. This is an emergency situation that can result in a fatality or death if it is not treated immediately. Not all heart attacks will have a crushing pain in the chest right in the beginning, there are a number of symptoms that can show the slow progression of this attack over a few hours. So how do you know if you are having a heart attack, and what kind of treatment will be required? This article seeks to answer all your questions.
Discomfort in the Chest: The patient will usually feel like there is some pressure and squeezing in the chest or pain or even fullness right in the centre. This pain can come and go every few minutes and it should not be ignored.
Pain and Discomfort in other Parts of the Body: There may be some amount of pain and discomfort in other parts of the body including the arms, the jawline, back, neck, stomach and even the teeth. This pain can also travel down to the abdomen above umbilicus. In case there is persistent pain along with the chest discomfort, then a doctor must be contacted immediately.
Other Symptoms: When you feel breathless without any reason or medical cause, and also when you experience symptoms like anxiety, indigestion, vomiting, nausea, light headedness, dizzy spells and fatigue, you may be suffering from a heart attack.
Immediate Treatment: Once you begin to experience these symptoms along with chest discomfort and chest pain, it is imperative to call the emergency unit of the nearest hospital or get in touch with a cardiologist. Until then, you will need to lie down and chew aspirin if you are not allergic to the same. This is usually more efficient that swallowing.
Diagnosis of heart attack: Heart attack is diagnosed if patient has 2 criteria out of following 3-
Pain or discomfort thought to be due to heart disease
ECG suggestive of heart attack
Elevated levels of cardiac enzymes (CK-MB and Troponin) in blood test (these levels start rising after 6 to 12 hours of heart attack)
Once you reach doctor an ECG should be done immediately along with blood pressure and pulse. If ECG shows heart attack then immediate action needs to be taken. Remember a normal first ECG does not rule out a heart attack. So a series of ECGs may be ordered by the doctor and at proper time blood test of cardiac enzymes may be done. Ruling out a heart attack may need an observation and testing up to 6 – 12 hours as cardiac enzyme test shows results only after that period.
Heavy Heart Palpitation after having food. Even Small meals trigger the said effect. What is Happening.
My fathers blood pressure is 100/170. After taking medicine it is not in control kindly suggest good treatment.
Dear sir/mam, I have male breast at right side. Or its looks odd when I wear tshrt. Etc so please suggest me what can I do?
Hypertension or high blood pressure can be defined as a condition wherein the thrust of the blood against the walls of the arteries is excessively high, thereby, increasing chances of health hazards. The amount of blood that is pumped by the heart and the resistance put up by the arteries usually determine one’s blood pressure count. For instance, if the heart pumps excess amount of blood while the arteries shrink, the blood pressure can soar high. High blood pressure or hypertension may give rise to symptoms such as nosebleeds, short breaths or headaches.
There are two types of hypertension, one is primary and the other is secondary. For essential or primary hypertension, there is no significant reason and the condition slowly develops over years. The secondary one appears all of a sudden as a result of a repressed condition such as thyroid or kidney problems, defective blood vessels and certain medications such as pain-killers, cold relievers, pills for birth control and others.
Other factors responsible for hypertension are:
- As you age it increases
- Family history
- Being obese or overweight
- Being physically inactive
- Consuming too much of sodium or salt in your diet
- Little intake of potassium and Vitamin D in meals
- Being subject to high levels of stress
- Chronic medical disorders such as diabetes
- Alcohol or drug abuse
- Thiazide diuretics can be administered. These help to flush out excess water and sodium from the body in order to reduce excessive volume of blood thrusting against the arteries.
- Beta blockers ease the workload of the heart by opening up the blood vessels.
- Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors help inhibit the production of chemicals narrowing the blood vessels.
- Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are used to obstruct and curb the action of the chemicals contracting the blood vessels.
- Calcium channel blockers help to loosen the blood vessel muscles
- Renin inhibitors can delay the production of an enzyme called ‘renin’ by the kidneys that increase one’s blood pressure
- One should follow a well-balanced diet that comprises of less salt.
- There is no substitute to regular exercises. Exercising regularly helps one maintain a balanced body weight that further reduces the chances of this condition.
- Abstaining from smoking and limiting alcohol intake helps provide that holistic cover to all the treatment modes mentioned above.
When I angry. My heart is beating speedily. And I take long long breathing. So please sir/mam help me.
I am a student. Am 23 years old. At 28th december doctor found my pressure high 150/100. At that time when Dr. was checking my pressure I realized that my heart is pounding so quickly, I think its a panic. Doctor told me its a very dangerous, and I have got tensed. Now in my home when am checking my blood pressure its showing 122/76,122/80. After few days I went to the doctor and he found my pressure dat much high and I observed at that time my heart is running so quickly. I can not even made myself relax during the check and its showing high. Am totally fit before 28th december. Is it ok or there is any kind of problem. Now am to much tensed. please help me. Thank you.
Life saving kit in case of mi / heart attack
A very handy kit which may protect a person from dying of sudden heart attack.
It should have following items:-
A. Tab disprin / aspirin 4
B. Tab glyceryl trinitrate 4
C. G. Tri nitrate skin patch-1
If one feels sudden tightness and pain in centre of chest, radiating to left arm or both sides of neck, accompanied by sweating and uneasiness, one is likely to be in a state of heart attack.*
Following measures must be taken immediately:-
A. Keeping one glyceryl tri itrate tablet under the tongue.
B. Chewing one disprin tablet.
C. Pealing of and sticking the skin patch on left side of chest.
Can definitely save a person from dying immediately of a heart attack.
Every person who is at risk and above 40 years should carry this.
Dr. Rahul kewalkumar.
I'm 20 years old and I want to become a singer. I get a chest pain when I sing loud and also I will get a gas evaporation from my stomach. I use mobile much. Please help me what to do?
Hello Doctor, From past few months (3 months) I am not feeling very great. I feel low in energy all the time and when I stand on my feet I feel like I have to hold onto something to be steady though I don't feel I am fainting or I will fall or lose my balance. But yes I feel like that I am disbalancing a bit. Secondly, I have this problem of heartburn and gas as well. No matter what I eat, sometimes I get severe heart burn and sometimes I am OK. Gas is constantly building whenever I eat anything. I would say that 65% after eating anything I get heartburn. Thirdly, I get palpitations and I think I have become very sensitive. Sensitive in the sense that whenever I am sleeping or resting on my bed, even a small sound or a bang or anything or even a slight banging makes me feel like my heart is pounding/dropping/ or something (dil ghabrana ek dum se). From past few days I got this pain in my chest (right side). Pain is not severe but it is disturbing and I don't feel comfortable at all. My stomach is upset all the time and some pain in bowel. I have got an ultrasound done, I can attach a copy of it if required. I feel low everything and I spend most of my time worrying about things or how to sort my life out. When I think too much these problems becomes intense and I feel really uncomfortable with all this happening. Headache is another issue, regular pain in temples of my head and itching inside my ear is also there. I have tried a lot of doctors but not happy with what they have suggested me. I would request you to consult or advice me in a best possible way please.
I am 23 year old boy. I suffer from mild chest pain that lasts for a maximum of one minute. What can be causes of my chest pain? I am afraid that can It be angina or what? Please help me.
Dear sir, I'm not speak English properly I'm asking you hindi , 13 July subah 10 baje ko heart attack aya jiske bad hum unhe najdiki hospital research center m admit karya jaha ki doctor ne bola ki inhe heart attack aya h inhe icu m admit karna hoga doctor ne bola ki treatment se sahi ho jayega , jab 14 July subah 10 baje patient se mila milkul aram tha maine bat v ki to bole m achchha hu , phir 1 baje 2nd attack a gaya jiske bad unhe ventilator m rakha gaya jiske bad unhe 4 baje hos a gaya doctor se mile to bole ki inka angioplasty karna padega wo v operation k samya ye agar jinda rh jayenge to theek h to phir ye theek ho jayega , rat 10 baje inhe operation room m le gaye jiske bad rat 12 baje wapas icu m la rhe the , doctor ne patient se bole kaka ye log Kon h patient jabab diya ki ye mere 3 bete h aur 1 mere bhatije h itna sunne ke bat doctor khush ho gaye bole yar log operation ke bad 24 hours behosh rahate h lekin ye bol rahe h , doctor ne bole ki ye ab sahi ho jayege , 15 July ko 10 baje sabhi log unse bat ki to sabhi se bat kiye , lekin 5 baje 3 attack a gaya jiske bad unhe hos nhi aya aur Hume unhe khi achchhe hospital me le Jane k mauka nhi mila jisse unka heart transplant ya by pass surgery ho sake , rat 12 baje death ho gaya , Kya reason tha ki bar bar heart attack a rha tha. Please bataye
Guidelines for vary from time to time, but generally accepted classification of hypertension ( JNC7)is
Average of two or more properly measured readings at each of two or more visits after an initial screen:
Normal < 120 mm Hg SBP AND DBP < 90 mm Hg
Prehypertension 120 -139 mm Hg SBP OR DBP 80 to 89 mm Hg
Stage 1 HTN 140 -159 mm Hg SBP OR DBP 90 to 99 mm Hg
Stage 2 HTN >/= 160 mm of Hg SBP OR DBP >/= 100 mm Hg.
Prevalence of prehypertension among adults in United States is approximately 37 percent.
Study done by Yadhav S et al showed prevalence of prehypetension was 32.3 percent in India with highest 36% among 30-39 yrs age group, indicates that awareness is necessary for regular blood pressure check up.
People diagnosed with hypertension represents “tip of an iceberg”.
Many patients get to know about their raised blood pressures at the time of diagnosis, heart attack, stroke or kidney disease( end organ failures) which would have been preventable if treated at an early stage.
Why hypertension should be diagnosed and treated ?
Hypertension currently causes 2/3rd s of all strokes and half of all cases of ischemic heart disease.
Reduction in high blood pressure leads to large reduction in stroke, heart failure, renal failure, aortic dissection, coronary events and death.
Prehypertension: It is an entity where SBP >120 -139 mm Hg or DBP 80-89 mm Hg.
Multiple epidemiological studies demonstrated increased cardiovascular risk in patients with prehypertension.People with prehypertension have increased risk of progression to sustained hypertension, the prevalence of hypertension increases from approximately 10 percent at age of 30 yrs to as high as 90 percent after age of 65 yrs.
Framinham hypertension risk prediction score, may help identification of prehypertensive patients who are at gretest risk for pregression to hypertension. Risk calculator includes variables like age, sex, family history of hypertension, body mass index and smoking. Most important predictors of these were higher baseline blood pressure and older age.
Screening for hypertension: optimal interval for screening is not known.
2007 USPSTF( United States Preventive Services Task Force) guidelines recommend
Screening every two years for persons with SBP <120 mm Hg and DBP < 80 mm Hg
Yearly for persons with SBP 120-139 mm Hg or a DBP 80 -89 mm Hg
How to manage Prehypertension:
TROPHY stydy( TRial Of preventing Hypertension) results showed that there is no role for pharmacotherapy in prehypertension except in special conditions like diabetes, chronic kidney disease etc.
Treatment:As per JNC 7 reccomendations patients with prehypertension who do not have diabetes, chronic kidney disease , end organ damage , or clinical evidence of cardiovascular disease are generally treated with non pharmacological therapies.
Major non pharmacological therapies that aid to decrease blood pressure are:
Weight reduction: Maintain normal body weight ( BMI 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2) this can reduce BP by 5 to 20 mm hg per 10kg weight loss.
Adopt DASH eating plan : (DASH- Dietary Approach To Stop Hypertension) consists of fruits, vegetables, legumes, low-fat dairy products with reduced saturated and total fat.This can reduce BP by 8 to 14 mm Hg.
Dietary sodium Restriction: Reduce dietary sodium intake to no more than 100meq/day(2.4 gm sodium or 6 gm of sodium chloride). This can reduce BP by 2 to 8 mm Hg.
Physical activity: Engage in a regular aerobic physical activity such as brisk walking (at least 30 min per day, most days of the week). This can reduce BP by 4 to 9 mm Hg.
Moderation of alcohol: Limit consumption of alcohol to no more than 2 drinks per day in most men and no more than 1 drink in women and lighter weight persons. This can reduce BP by 2 to 4 mm Hg.