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Treatment of Child and Adolescent Problems
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Growth And Development Including General Paediatri
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Birthmarks in Infants
A baby's skin coloring can vary greatly, depending on the baby's age, race or ethnic group, temperature, and whether or not the baby is crying. Skin color in babies often changes with both the environment and health. Some of these differences are just temporary. Others, such as certain birthmarks, may be permanent.
What are birthmarks?
Birthmarks are areas of discolored and/or raised skin that are present at birth or within a few weeks of birth. Birthmarks are made up of abnormal pigment cells or blood vessels.
Although the cause of birthmarks is not known, most of them are harmless and do not require treatment. Babies with birthmarks should be examined by your child's health care provider, especially if they are:
- Located in the middle of the back, along the spine (may be related to spinal cord problems)
- Large birthmarks on the face, head or neck
- Interfering with movement of activity, for example a birthmark on the eyelid that may interfere with vision
Some common birthmarks include:
- Stork bites
- Angel kisses
- Salmon patches
These are small pink or red patches often found on a baby's eyelids, between the eyes, upper lip, and back of the neck. The "stork bite" name comes from the marks on the back of the neck where, as the myth goes, a stork may have picked up the baby. They are caused by a concentration of immature blood vessels and may be the most visible when the baby is crying. Most of these fade and disappear completely.
Congenital dermal melanocytosis (also known as Mongolian spots)
Congenital dermal melanocytosis refers to areas of blue or purple-colored, typically on the baby's lower back and buttocks. These can occur in darker-skinned babies of all races. The spots are caused by a concentration of pigmented cells. They usually disappear in the first 4 years of life.
This is a bright or dark red, raised or swollen, bumpy area that looks like a strawberry. Hemangiomas are formed by a concentration of tiny, immature blood vessels. Most of these occur on the head. They may not appear at birth, but often develop in the first 2 months. Strawberry hemangiomas are more common in premature babies and in girls. These birthmarks often grow in size for several months, and then gradually begin to fade. They may bleed or get infected in rare cases. Nearly all strawberry hemangiomas completely disappear by 9 years of age.
A port-wine stain is a flat, pink, red, or purple colored birthmark. These are caused by a concentration of dilated tiny blood vessels called capillaries. They usually occur on the head or neck. They may be small, or they may cover large areas of the body. Port-wine stains do not change color when gently pressed and do not disappear over time. They may become darker and thicker when the child is older or as an adult. Port-wine stains on the face may be associated with more serious problems. Skin-colored cosmetics may be used to cover small port-wine stains. The most effective way of treating port-wine stains is with a special type of laser. This is done when the baby is older by a plastic surgery specialist.
These common moles (less than 3 inches in diameter) occur in about 1 out of every 100 newborns. They increase in size as the child grows, but usually don't cause any problems. Your child's health care provider will watch them closely as rarely they can develop into a cancerous mole.
Breast milk is the best for babies and the benefits of breastfeeding are one too many. Breast milk not only supplies your baby with its requirement of vitamins and nutrients, but also gets the substances which fight diseases, making your baby healthy and strong.
Benefits of breastfeeding are:
1. Protects Your Body - Breastfeeding induces some changes in your body which you might not be very delighted to accept, but are for the sake of your baby. Did you know, these very changes benefit you as well. Studies have proved that women who breastfeed are protected against breast and ovarian cancer. The longer you feed, the more protected you are.
2. Reduces Stress - Adding to the benefits of breastfeeding you can derive, is the fact that it helps you reduce stress. It also lessens your risk of postpartum depression. Breastfeeding has been found to be relaxing since it releases the hormone called oxytocin. This release also helps the uterus contract.
3. Averts Risk For Baby - A breastfed baby has lower risk of sudden infant death syndrome.
4. Reduces Obesity Risk In Baby - Breastfed babies have lower chances of obesity. They are good at judging when their tummies are full and therefore stop drinking on time. This leads to healthy growth pattern. Compared to babies who are fed on formula, breastfed babies gain weight at slower speed, hence reducing chances of obesity later in life.
5. Increases Cognitive Skills - Multiple researches have shown that there is a direct relationship between cognitive development and breastfeeding.
6. Enhances Baby’s Immunity - Breastfeed babies are also said to be better protected from developing allergies as immune factors like secretory igA is present only in breast milk. It creates a protective layer on the babys intestinal tract. Babies who aren't breastfeed are known to fall sick pretty frequently as formula diet doesn't build their immunity as mother's milk does.
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My baby is very weak she is 11 month 10 days old. Her weight is 7 kg and she didn't have teeth. Please suggest me solution.
Hi sir. My daughter has allergy from wheat. She is 5 year's old. Give me advice. You have any treatment for him. What should I do?
A small boy he was infected by small pimples like he iched where where it was producesd whre he was itched he was telling it was so painfull so please give me some suggestions he was 7 years old.
My child is suffering from epilepsy since last 2 years and now he is 8 years old. But still In spit talking medicine sezuires are not controlled. So please so advice me.
Hello dear doctors, My son's eyes and face looks swell. He is 16 month old .his temperature is normal. Why does it happen?
I am there, I hv 1yr 8 months old daughter. I want to stop breastfeeding. Can you suggest me some tips.
My 17 month son having problem of potty not clear discharge it is too much hard and panik. He take milk and other food but problem as it is. This problem occuring while from 7 month.
What to add with oats to make it more nutritious and with rice? Because my baby only eat oats and rice.
Is olive oil good for new born baby to improve his skin colour. If it is not good please suggest best solution to turn brighter and white.
Can I use pure coconut oil for daily use cooking to my one year old daughters food? Is it healthy for her?
Hi Doctor I got blesses with a baby girl on 6th may by caesarean. Both baby and mother are healthy. May I know when the baby can take bath.
My wife deliver a baby girl on 22-02-2016. The baby face is small changes, nose are pretty (face and eye is small yellow colour) legs & hands are power less. The Baby tested TSH level is 10.9 at a birth time. The pediatrician saw the baby problem is down syndrome. Iam shocked, at the time of pregnancy state doctor UT scanned at 9 times for 9 months. But no problems are identified. She has no natural problems (weight, height, Age is 20). Dr. Please help me my baby treating these problems. She recover a natural life? Please inform the status of recovery at downs at a baby. Please help me.
Sir my son is 13 years old. His activities remains delayed as compared to the normal child by birth. At present he seems 2nd standard. IQ have borderline. He do not go to school. Pehlay bhi yeh mushkil se school jaata tha. School main teacher se apne aap kuchh nahin bolta. Gussa bahut karta hai ghar main. Sara din ghar main sabhi ke sath mar pitai karta hai. Galat kam karne par use toke to veh bhut gussa karta hai aur aap se bahar ho jata hai. Iski badi bahan 15 saal ki hai aur choti behan 5 sal ki hai. Vase weh cricket, badminton etc. Khel leta hai. Lakin use har bardasht nahi. Harne par weh hinsak ho jata hai pariwar walo ka sath. Doctor sahab sare pariwar wale is bache se bahut presan hai. Apollo hospital se bhi ilaaj kara chuke hai. Bacha ghar se bhar akele jaane se ghabrata hai. Doctor shab koi advice dijiye.
My baby is 7th and half months old. I am a working woman now milk supply also have reduced. Can I give her cow milk? If yes how much should be given?
Epilepsy is an abnormal medical condition due to abnormal electrical discharge from the brain, which could be due to genetic defects, brain injury,brain infection,brain tumor etc.
Recent study shows, patients with awareness, knowledge and attitude towards the disease had better health related quality of life.
- Do take your medicines at the prescribed times.
- Do make it known to your family members, friends and people who work with you that you are seizure-prone. Tell them what should be done in case you get an attack in their presence. This is nothing to be ashamed of as epilepsy is a medical condition just like high blood pressure. If your child has epilepsy, do inform the teacher and the school authorities about it.
- Do tell your child's teacher what to do if your child has a seizure.
- Do keep an accurate record of your seizures and their frequency. Preferably, maintain a seizure diary.
- Do ask your doctor about medicines for other conditions before taking them.
- Do follow a balanced diet.
- Do exercise regularly but avoid over-exertion.
- Do have good lighting in the room where you watch TV. TV picture flashes can trigger seizures. Good lighting can prevent such attacks.
- Do tell someone if you are going for a swim; swim only if your seizures are under control. Moreover, whenever possible, go swimming with a friend.
- Do talk to your doctor about the pros and cons of using contraceptive pills (medicines used by women to avoid unwanted pregnancy) along with your epilepsy medicines.
- Do wear protective headgear when cycling.
- Do tell your doctor about any ill effects that you experience.
- Do get a good night's sleep daily.
- Do make sure you have enough medicine so that you don't run short, even when you are travelling.
- Do check-in with your doctor regularly.
- Don't stop your treatment unless your doctor tells you to.
- Don't consume caffeine or alcohol excessively.
- Don't take other medicines without checking with your doctor.
- Don't lock the bathroom/toilet door, if possible.
- Don't smoke.
- Don't give others your medicines and don't take anyone else's medicines.
Myths and facts about epilepsy
Is epilepsy a very rare disorder?
No. Epilepsy is not a very rare disorder. Epilepsy affects 50 million people worldwide. In India, epilepsy has been identified as a public health problem.
Epilepsy is a mental illness?
It is not a mental illness but disorder of the brain.
Are people with epilepsy violent or crazy?
No. The belief that people with epilepsy are violent is an unfortunate image that is both wrong and destructive. People with epilepsy have no greater tendency toward severe irritability and aggressive behaviours than other people. However, once the attack is over, they return to normalcy and usually display normal behaviour in between attacks.
Are children with epilepsy dull?
Except for children who are born with obvious mental handicaps, children with epilepsy have normal intelligence and should be encouraged by parents and teachers to attend school and complete their education.
Is epilepsy a curse or wrath of God?
No. Epilepsy has nothing to do with curses, possession or other supernatural processes, such as punishment for past sins.
Does epilepsy spread through touching or coughing?
No, epilepsy does not spread through touching or coughing.
Does the use of an onion, metal, etc., help in terminating an ongoing epileptic attack?
No. Some people think that an epileptic attack can be terminated by making the person smell onions or dirty shoes, or by placing a metal key in the person's hand. These are irrational beliefs.
Are epilepsy medications ineffective?
No. Epilepsy medicines are very essential for the control of epileptic attacks and should not be neglected.
Is marriage a cure for epilepsy?
No. Marriage is an important aspect of life but not a cure for epilepsy.
Epilepsy is hereditary hence unfit to get married?
Epilepsy is not a hereditary disorder, and the tendency of epilepsy being passed is only about 3 %, therefore no bar for marriage.
Women suffering from epilepsy cannot have children?
Epilepsy or anti-epileptic drugs cannot affect fertility, even during pregnancy, women can take their medicines under their doctor’s supervision.
Is life of a person with epilepsy miserable?
No. Life of a person with epilepsy can be very manageable and very similar to life of people without epilepsy provided you have a positive approach towards life.
Is epilepsy a hindrance in leading a happy and successful life?
No. People with epilepsy can live a happy and successful life. With the advent of newer medicines, availability of medical care and increased awareness of the condition, it has become possible for a person with epilepsy to lead a good life. There are many famous poets, writers and sportsmen with epilepsy who have excelled in their respective fields.
Special Precautions in Children with Epilepsy
Computerized and Lights:
Up to 5% of children with epilepsy have photosensitive epilepsy. Computers and TVs with a flat screen do not flicker and, so, are less likely to trigger seizures than screens that flicker. However, flashing lights/ flickering screen can act as trigger in photosensitive epilepsy patients.
Exams and Tests:
For Children who are likely to have seizures in stressful situations or at certain times of the day, this may affect how they perform in exams or tests. Tiredness, memory or concentration problems may also affect exams or tests. Tiredness, memory or concentration problems may also affect exams.
Physical Activities and Lessons:
Safety is important for all children, especially during physical activities and lessons, such as when studying science. Epilepsy does not need to stop a child from doing an activity as long as he or she is safe.
This must be allowed only in the presence of trusted lifeguards. It is essential that the swimming coach and the lifeguards fully understand a child’s epilepsy so they can quickly see if the child is having a seizure in the water.