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Management of Abortion
Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
Well Woman Healthcheck
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
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Hi I am priyanka 27 year old. I need to ask as my periods are not regular. Hence I meet gynecologist and after all the test She prescribe me medicine Diane 35. By mistake I have taken it twice a day inspite Of taking once I a day. I have intimate the process for appointment Meanwhile please suggest will it be create any physical coMplication.
The countdown has already begun and 2 days are left for the arrival of 2016. The upcoming new year party is an occasion to dance, eat and rejoice with our friends and family. Everyone aspires to look gorgeous, look stunning and look beautiful. All that one need’s to do this party season is getting back in shape.
We need to make some healthy choices so that there is a steady weight loss. Take a look at some of the exciting tips for losing weight this party season.
Follow these tips and lose weight instantly this party season and to look stunning!
1. The Green Tea Effect - The best beverage
Consuming green tea more than twice a day shall keep the metabolism process active, this shall help in losing weight. The more the fat burning takes place, the lesser one needs to work on losing.
2. The Honey, Lemon and Luke warm water everyday
This amazing mixture should be consumed right in the morning before the breakfast on an empty stomach. Following this practice, it will not only help in reducing weight and make you look slim but also give you a glowing skin.
3. Yoghurt - A must-have dairy product
Yoghurt is a highly effective food which has to be included in the regular diet plan to make sure there is no fat accumulation around the tummy.
4. Exercise regularly for a healthy body
Regular exercise makes us active, fit and healthy. It also helps in burning calories. One must perform light exercises everyday for about half and hour to one hour.
5. A big No-No to Fatty foods
Avoid ghee, oil, butter, cheese, maida, potatoes, rice and sweetened products. We all may love non-vegetarian delicacies, but try to run away from spicy, oily and non-vegetarian food.
It is very difficult to resist ourselves and stick to a diet plan. But one can always give a try. After all, everybody appreciates a person with a sound mind and a healthy body. Give it a try, it will definitely do wonders.
I am 26 years old had protected sex using condom. My last period came on 12 Jan and I had sex on 26 jan. I started feeling of vomiting, headache, dizziness just after 2 days of having sex. Till date feeling of dizziness is there but vomit kabhi kabhi feel hota Hai Past two days. Se I am having backache. I got my period yesterday and it is heavy bleeding. Can I be pregnant. Before 5 days I took a home test it showed negative result. Kindly suggest.
I am having irregular menstrual problems since 1 year. I also consulted a doc they consult me the below mentioned medications which made my periods normal till the time I took the medications after that same condition is occurring. Recent usg reports are also normal.
Pregnancy gives a woman completeness by turning her into mother from a simple woman. It is the thing which makes the couple parents, the dream which they nurture right time from their marriage. Of course, there are many couples who are not fortunate enough to achieve pregnancy and they are usually termed infertile and we have discussed it in separate post. But there are other couples who may or may not (as this is the usual case) find difficult to conceive but the pregnancy does not continue to the age of viability. Age of viability means the age, when a baby born can survive. Thanks to the improvement in neonatal care by leaps and bounds and availability of NICU which made it possible to survive even a baby born at 22 weeks. For example, last month we delivered a baby at 28 weeks of pregnancy, who is fine now. But if the baby is 'born' before 20 weeks, it is called MISCARRIAGE. This is because these babies who weigh less than 500 grams cannot survive outside the uterus. It is seen that 10-15% couples who conceive successfully may not be able to carry pregnancy beyond 20 weeks. Thus, the miscarriage rate for a single pregnancy is 10-15%. But in most of the time this mishap does not recur in future. We call it 'sporadic miscarriage' and often the cause is not known. But almost 1% of the couples who want to get pregnant may suffer from repeated miscarriage. That means the unfortunate events can repeat. These are called 'RECURRENT MISCARRIAGE' or 'REPEATED PREGNANCY LOSS *RPL)
So, what's the reason for RPL which is equally frustrating for the patients as well as the doctors? First of all let me honestly confess that in most of the cases the cause is not known (50-60%) and this is called 'UNEXPLAINED RPL'. Again, we have to admit that despite tremendous advancement in science, the knowledge behind RPL is limited. Many theories and causes have been proposed but most of them could not withstand the taste of time. That means if a problem is found in husband or wife, we are not certain whether the treatment of that problem will prevent future miscarriage. This should be explained properly to the couples to have realistic expectations and avoid unnecessary frustration s in future. Only factors which are definitely associated with RPL are only two- anti-phospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) and chromosomal problem of either of the couples. Detection and treatment of these problems are often rewarding as after treatment pregnancy continuation rate us very high. The other causes have been proposed but as mentioned above the link between RPL and these causes are not yet very clear and need further scientific research. Please remember according to the timing, RPL may be divided into two categories- the 1st trimester RPL (occurring before 12 weeks in each pregnancy) or second trimester RPL (12-20 weeks in each pregnancy).
4-5% cases may be due to genetic or chromosomal problem of the couples. These problems can affect the egg (ovum) and/or the sperms. Even if the couples are normal, the baby may have abnormal chromosome.It is blessing that a genetically abnormal baby is miscarried by the nature, otherwise if it survives there is high chance that it may be mentally or physically handicapped. The reason may be increased age of the mother (above 35 years especially), exposure of mother to some environmental pollutants or sometimes increased age of the father (the latter is controversial). The diagnosis is done by chromosomal analysis of the couple by Karyotyping or FISH from blood samples. If the baby has been miscarried, it may be rational to send the tissue of the baby for chromosomal analysis to find out the cause. The treatment option in next pregnancy in such cases is genetic counselling by an expert and in most cases unfortunately only one option remains- that us IVF and PGD (pre implantation genetic diagnosis) where only genetically tested normal embryos are transferred by IVF ('test tube baby').
Anatomical factors are responsible for 12-15% if RPL, in most cases the second trimester RPL. The most common cause is 'CERVICAL INCOMPETENCE'. The cervix is the mouth of the uterus which should remain closed in pregnancy to support pregnancy and should only open during delivery. But in some cases, it can open prematurely leading to miscarriage. Usually this causes apparently painless miscarriage. In many women fibroid is found as a tumour of uterus. Whether fibroids cause RPL is again very controversial among the scientists and doctors. In some women who had repeated abortion or surgery to uterus and even tuberculosis (TB) there may be adhesion (binding together) between the walks of uterus. This is called Asherman Syndrome which causes scanty or absent periods and RPL. In few women there may be Congenital Anomaly of the uterus- that is where is some abnormalities inside uterus from birth. Therecan sometimes cause RPL, although controversial. These anatomical problems are diagnosed by proper examination, some tests like HSG (hysterosalpingogram), SSG (sonosalpingogram), 3D ultrasonography (USG), MRI, hysteroscopy and/or laparoscopy, depending on the women and test results. The treatment should be done cautiously as treatment may not always prevent RPL. For cervical incompetence usually, we put stitch in the cervix in pregnancy or sometimes before pregnancy. Operation can be done, before pregnancy for fibroids, Asherman and congenital anomalies.
In many cases (more than 70%) cases hormonal problems may be there and these may cause both 1st and 2nd trimester RPL. However, whether treatment us beneficial or not, is again controversial. The commonest pattern is Luteal Phase Deficiency (LPD) due to deficiency of hormone progesterone. PCOS (Polycystic Ovaries) is also associated with RPL. The other causes are uncontrolled diabetes, thyroid problems, high prolactin and high testosterone, high insulin and low ovarian reserve. As mentioned earlier, it is not clear whether they all need testing and treatment but usually tests advised for these are blood for progesterone, TSH, Prolactin, FSH, LH, AMH, Insulin, Testosterone, sugar, HbA1C etc. Treatment is usually progesterone supplement along with correction of hormonal imbalance. It is to be mentioned that these patients need high dose of thyroid drugs (TSH normal for other people may be considered abnormal for RPL) and more tight control of blood sugar in diabetes.
In 60-70% cases the cause is Thrombolphilia, that is tendency to thrombosis or blood clotting. The most common is anti phospholipidantibody syndrome (APS) which may or may not be associated with thrombosis in other sites but can cause thrombosis if blood supply to the baby and thus causes stoppage of its heart and miscarriage. Although more common in the Western World, some Hereditary Thrombolphilia may be found in other family members and commonly cause miscarriage and thrombosis. Deficiency of folic acid and vitamin B12 rarely can cause thrombosis and RPL. The APS testing is often successful, so as the treatment with aspirin and heparin injection throughout pregnancy. With this 80% women can expect full term pregnancy. Folic acid and B12 vitamin supplement is commonly given to RPL patients. Whether testing for hereditary thrombophilia is needed in our country or not is controversial. But treatment is like APS- that is aspirin and heparin injection.
Diseases of mother like diabetes, epilepsy, liver or kidney diseases, SLE etc can cause miscarriage. Exposure of mother to harmful substances like environmental pollution, radiation, chemotherapy and some toxic drugs, smoking, alcohol, cocaine, cannabis etc are also responsible but the latter usually cause sporadic miscarriage rather than RPL. So, these drugs should be stopped and replaced by safer drugs and the diseases must be treated properly. Even exposure of father to some drugs can cause RPL. Again, some abnormalities of sperms may cause RPL. So, semen analysis of the husband is usually done as a test for RPL.
The most controversial topic for RPL is the infections. But it is the fact proved by scientific studies that only infection in current pregnancy causes miscarriage. So, infection is a cause of sporadic miscarriage, not RPL. In the past TORCH testing was very much popular but nowadays it is obsolete test and there is no scientific ground for tests or treatment of TORCH. Only test we recommend is rubella testing. If rubella IgG is negative that means you may get infection in pregnancy so we advise to take rubella vaccine and avoid pregnancy for one month. On the other hand, rubella IgG positive means you are already immune and thus you can never get rubella. So vaccine is not useful in those cases. If any genital infection is found in husband or wife, both of them should be tested and treated aggressively.
First of all, we need to know when we should advise tests. Assuming that most cases of miscarriages are SPORADIC, we usually do not advise investigation after single miscarriage unless the couple insists or there is some reason by the doctor to suspect some abnormalities that might cause future miscarriage. In the past testing was started after 3 miscarriages. But nowadays we do not want to give the couple, especially the woman a third trauma. So, we usually advise tests after 2nd miscarriage. The tests usually start with checking for chromosome of the baby. It is followed by chromosome analysis of both the partners along with proper history taking and physical examination. Semen analysis is done for the husband. The wife is advised ultrasonography, routine blood, thyroid testing, testing for APS and blood group. These are tests usually done everywhere. Further tests are done depending on the results if initial tests and especially if no cause is found after initial tests. It should be mentioned to the couples that the 2nd group if tests often do not have scientific grounds and are done only on benefit of doubt. They may not change the management plan. TORCH test is not done in modern era.
The basic treatment is support if the couples, reducing stress as stress can be responsible for RPL. When a cause is found this should be treated. While an optimistic approach should be taken with expectations for normal pregnancy in future but this should be based on scientific and realistic approach to avoid future frustration. The treatment may not be 100% effective and most treatment may not have scientific base but are usually not harmful. Treatment may not guarantee a successful future pregnancy but a positive attitude is necessary. This is called TENDER LOVING CARE (TLC) where proper support and discussion can help more than explanation if mere statistics. Treatment should be continued both before and after pregnancy confirmation, as mentioned above. This is to be mentioned that even after 6th miscarriage, the chance that future pregnancy will be normal is more than 50%. So, the message should be not to give up hope.
I had sex with my boyfriend yesterday. Although we had sex for only a minute but he didn't ejaculated inside my vagina. I'm still feeling a bit nervous that I may be get pregnant. Are there any chances of me getting pregnant? Should I take any emergency contraceptive pill? What are the side effects of the pill?
Hey. My delivery date is 10 sep. But today I feel pain in my lower abdomen n in thigh. But I have no yellowish water in vagina. Its white n in little amount. I feel pain alternatively after every 15 min. It is the sign of labour pain. Please tell me symptom of labour pain.
I have some irritate feeling from dirt in the street and I am washing my body maximum time of the day. What should I do?
The most common causes of painful sex for women
If you often experience pain during intercourse with your partner, and no remedy seems to be working, the following may be the culprits:
#1 Lack of lubrication. Insufficient lubrication is one of the main causes of painful sex for a female, and in many cases, men also feel discomfort when there’s not enough lube. It can be caused by insufficient arousal, possibly resulting from a lack of foreplay, but it can also be caused by a range of other factors.
Some medications have been linked to decreased levels of arousal, which also affect lubrication levels. Birth control, allergy medications, sedatives, antidepressants, and high blood pressure medications are known to cause lowered levels of arousal in women. Decreased estrogen levels after having a child, while breastfeeding, and after menopause can also cause insufficient lubrication.
#2 Infection or Inflammation. Infections are common causes of irritation and inflammation linked to pain during sex. Rough sex is also a factor that causes inflammation and swelling in the vaginal cavity, making penetration difficult.
#3 Trauma, injury or surgery. Painful sex can also be caused by trauma or injury following an accident or surgery, such as a pelvic surgery or a fracture. Episiotomy, which is the emergency surgery to increase the size of the birth canal while in labor, is also considered a type of trauma that can result in painful sex. Female circumcision, though less common in the Western world, can also cause excruciating pain during intercourse.
Cancer treatments, including chemo and radiation therapy, can affect the sensations in the vagina, causing painful penetration. A hysterectomy or other pelvic surgeries can also cause unwelcome changes down there.
#4 Illness or a health condition. A range of illnesses and serious health conditions can make sex a less than pleasant experience. Pelvic inflammatory disease, an ectopic pregnancy, uterine prolapse, retroverted uterus, cystitis, uterine fibroids, irritable bowel syndrome, ovarian cysts, endometriosis, and hemorrhoids are all culprits that cause severe pain during sex. These conditions range from moderate to severe, and often require antibiotics and prescription medication in order to heal properly.
Vaginismus is another prevalent condition that causes muscle spasms within the walls of the vagina, and it causes incredible pain. Without seeking medical examination, you may ignore the warning signs, and thus make the problem worse.
#5 Sexually transmitted diseases. STDs are a common cause of painful sex, and the symptoms of the disease can also be intensified by engaging in penetration without treatment. These symptoms can also be passed to your sexual partner, making it just as uncomfortable to have sex for them as well. Herpes, genital warts, and HPV can all lead to pain, though symptoms are not always recognized in the early stages.
#6 Childbirth. An ectopic pregnancy can make for a very rough recovery and uncomfortable sex. In addition, having sex too soon after giving birth *less than 6 weeks* can be just as dreadful if the vaginal canal hasn’t healed properly yet.
Sometimes, a woman’s vaginal opening may be cut to allow a larger opening for the baby to come through, and this requires sufficient healing time to prevent complications or infection. It is important to wait 6 weeks, or as long as is recommended by your doctor, before having sex if you have recently given birth. You should also steer clear of any rough play until everything down there is back to normal.
#7 Psychological and emotional causes. There are quite a few emotional and psychological causes that make sex largely uncomfortable. Stress is a factor that tightens the muscles in your pelvic region as a result, and this can cause discomfort and difficulty during sex. Deep-seated insecurity, depression, anxiety, low self-worth, body image issues, relationship conflicts, or being afraid of intimacy are also possible causes.
Sexual abuse at any point in your life could also affect your views on sex as an intimate and safe act between consenting individuals. The emotional trauma as a result of sexual abuse could cause physical symptoms to manifest while having sex. Having fear associated with sex can also cause you to tighten your pelvic muscles, which often causes discomfort during penetration.
If you feel that sex is painful for you because of an emotional or psychological issue, a therapist may be able to help you deal with the problem, so that you may later enjoy the pleasures of sex.
There is no shame in seeking help for problems that arise in your sex life. Sexual intimacy is a natural and beautiful thing, so be sure to get assessed if you often experience discomfort.