Doctors in ASG Eye Hospital - Patna
Colour blindness is not a type of blindness at all; it is an insufficiency in the way some people see colour. Once afflicted by this vision problem, people face difficulty in distinguishing specific colours like red, green, blue or yellow. So to call it colour vision deficiency would be much appropriate, and it hits men more often than women. In a report by Prevent Blindness America, it is revealed that about 8% of males and less than 1% of females are affected with colour vision problems. Generally, red and green colour deficiency is the most commonly found. In very rare instances, a person may carry a trait which lessens his ability to distinguish between blue and yellow colours. This blue-yellow hue insufficiency normally is found in men and women equally.
Understanding signs and symptoms: Do you have any difficulty in seeing yellow, green or red colours? Do people often tell you that you are seeing the wrong colour? If so, then these are key signs that you are affected with a colour perception deficiency. Quite opposite to popular belief, hardly a colour blind person is able to see only the shades of gray. Most people who are deemed as colour blind are able to see shades but cannot distinguish between one colour and another and get easily confused with other shades, depending on the kind of colour blindness they are affected with. If you have suddenly developed a colour vision deficiency when you were able to view and distinguish all the shades previously, then you should visit an ophthalmologist without further delay.
Causes behind colour blindness: Colour blindness takes place when the light-sensitive cells within the retina stop responding accurately to variations in wavelengths of light.
Photoreceptors present in the retina are termed as rods and cones. Rods are present abundantly, and about 100 million rod cells are present in human retina and these cells are very sensitive to light, but rods are impervious to sunlight and therefore, are incapable of perceiving colours. The cones, on the other hand, are responsible for our understanding of different colours. There are three types of cones, each of which is responsible for perceiving red, green and blue light. The three cones work together to help us see the whole range of colours. People who are colour blind usually have faults in a particular cone cell, which makes them unable to distinguish that particular shade.
Combatting colour blindness: Gene therapies are reported to cure colour blindness in monkeys, as per the reports of a study conducted by researchers of the University of Washington and Florida in September 2009. While early methods appear promising, gene therapy is not considered effective for human beings unless the treatments are verified to be safe.
Hence there is no effective means of curing colour blindness, but there are some strategies that may aid you to function better. However, if you are into graphic designing or anything that requires handling of different colours, then you will need professional help. The sooner you become aware of your insufficiency, the better you can compensate for it.
Some people also use contact lenses or eyeglasses that act as filters to enhance colour perception. If you are affected by this problem, make sure you visit an eye-care practitioner for detailed advice.
If you have got diabetes, then it is quite natural that you will soon face acute eye troubles. This is the reason diabetic patients are always suggested to keep their blood sugar levels controlled so that eye troubles can be easily avoided.
Thorough medical check-up is required in order to detect conditions of the eyes. Some of the commonest eye troubles occurring due to diabetes are cataract, glaucoma, blurry vision, diabetic retinopathy and others.
List of eye diseases caused by diabetes
- Diabetic retinopathy: when retina' s smallest blood-vessels get severely damaged due to increased blood-sugar, then this kind of eye condition occurs. Early detection of this eye condition can save your eyes, but if it is too late, then nothing can be done, and it might even lead to blindness.
- Cataract: Fogging or clouding condition can bring this kind of condition, and this can only be corrected by wearing proper corrective lenses. However, if you fail to control diabetes, then in spite of wearing glasses, your eye condition might get deteriorated day by day. Glared or blurred vision is the commonest symptom in this regard.
- Glaucoma: When the eye-fluid is not drained properly, then this kind of eye trouble occurs. In fact, eye pressure increases to a great extent as a result of which delicate eye nerves can get severely damaged. The blood vessels of the eyes can get clogged causing greater interruption in vision. Medicines can make aqueous humor to get drained in a proper manner, and thus you should go for a proper eye check-up so that you can acquire the requisite medicines. Some popular symptoms of glaucoma are headaches, eye aches, blurred vision, watery eyes, vision loss and others.
- Diabetic macular-edema: This eye disease mainly occurs in the advanced stage of diabetic-retinopathy. Macula is nothing but the most delicate part of retina and when it gets swollen, then you might face this eye trouble. Only medications can help you to get rid of the same and thus immediate medical help is needed.
- Blurry vision: Though this is quite a small and temporary eye issue for diabetic patients, but this condition might turn into a serious one if you neglect to correct the same in the very beginning. You might even face blindness due to negligence of this trouble. Also, fluctuating sugar-levels should be stabilized so that this kind of trouble can be easily tackled.
Variety of contact lenses is used to correct refractive errors. Soft Contact (hydrogel) Lenses are most often used in various types of refractive errors but they have certain disadvantages. These lenses do not permit adequate Oxygen to pass through which is essential for health of cornea and hence they can be worn for limited hours, i.e 6 to 8 hours maximum and never while sleeping. The tear proteins get deposited on these lenses which limit their life to about a year. If worn for prolonged period or proper measures not taken to clean the lenses, cornea can get an ULCER which at times can result in permanent loss of vision. Disposable daily wear lenses provide safer alternative but the cost increases significantly. Since soft contact lenses are applied after cleaning with a solution which can be the cause of mild to severe allergic conjunctivitis which can become intolerable. Soft contact lenses are not ideal in eyes with high corneal astigmatism.
Merits of soft contact lenses are that they can be dispensed over the counter or purchased on line though it is not ideal. A correct curvature and power of a contact lens is determined by a contact lens specialist/ Ophthalmologist after measuring exact corneal curvature and using trial contact lens. Another merit is that these lenses can be accepted very easily since even on the first day they do not produce much of discomfort. These lenses can be worn off and on without any inconvenience. Recent introduction of Toric Contact Lenses have made them more acceptable in cases of moderate corneal astigmatism.
BREATHING CONTACT LENSES
These lenses are the one which permit significant amount of oxygen to pass through and hence can be worn for prolonged interval without any adverse effect on the cornea. These are of two types
1 Semisoft or Extended Wear RGP Contact Lenses
These lenses are made up of FP 92 which is a semi rigid soft plastic and is highly permeable to oxygen. These lenses are excellent for high refractive errors, especially in patients who have high corneal astigmatism. Even cases with irregular cornea or Keratoconus, these lenses can be accepted with rewarding results.
These lenses can only be fitted by an expert Ophthalmologist since precise measurement has to be carried out and various trial lenses have to be tried to evaluate the optimum fit. The lenses are made to measurement and the patient has to be precisely trained to fit the lenses and maintain them. As stated, the lenses can be safely worn while sleeping and there is practically no danger of corneal toxicity or infection. These lenses may last for 4-5 years. One of the demerits of these lenses is that they take 5-6 days to adopt and the patient is advised to use them regularly. They are excellent alternative to LASIK surgery.
2. SILICON HYDROGEL CONTACT LENSES
These are recent introduction of extended wear contact lenses with capacity to 'breathe' better than soft or hrdrogel contact lenses. Some of the recent Silicon Hydrogel Contact lenses introduced by Alcon and Bausch and Lomb can be worn for a week or so.
Silicon hydrogel lenses though indicated for prolonged wear but can cause mild keratitis and sometimes allergic keratitis if worn overnight. These lenses still needs lot of improvement to be free of complications
Advise: It is ideal to consult an Ophthalmologist specialized in contact lenses for fitting of a proper contact lenses. Advertised lenses some time misguide and can be damaging to the eye.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
There are a number of eye conditions that make the use of glasses and eye lenses mandatory for a more comfortable life where your vision is as normal as is medically possible. Poor eyesight and conditions like inward eyelids and others can lead to the prescription of contact lenses and glasses. Contact lenses are delicate optical tools that glide easily over your eyes and need a lot of care. One should also know how to wear them properly. If one does not wear and care for the contact lenses properly, it may lead to a variety of complications. Read on to know how you can take better care of your contact lenses.
Cleanliness: To begin with, keeping the lenses clean is of utmost importance. Since these lenses will go on to the eye and remain there for most part of the day, it is imperative that they should be clean so that no dirt comes to settle on the eye to cause complications and even possible infections in the long run. While the disposable soft contact lenses do not need a whole lot of care as they can be disposed as and when the wearer needs a new pair, the soft lenses are the ones that need regular care so as to avoid vision affecting problems in the long run.
Clean Hands: Before you handle the contact lenses, you must wash and clean your hands thoroughly with a non cosmetic soap that is free of additives like fragrances and artificial perfumes, oils and other lotions. These may get transferred to the lens which will leave you with blurry vision. Dry your hands properly using a lint free towel.
Makeup: If you have to wear makeup, we would suggest doing so after you have safely installed the contact lenses in your eyes. Also, you must remember to remove your lenses before you begin the makeup removal procedure. This is to be done so that you do not get any makeup on to the delicate surface of the lens.
Disinfecting Solution: When you buy your contact lenses, you will also get a disinfecting solution as well as a set of instructions for taking care of your lenses. So ensure that you use the correct disinfecting solution, eye drops as well as the prescribed enzymatic cleaners to keep your lenses clean and free of germs with a light rubbing action. Let the lenses stand in this solution at night too so that the germs cannot travel to the surface.
Never use tap water or your mouth to clean these lenses as the microorganisms found even in distilled water can latch on to the surface.
Any patient who needs to undergo cataract surgery must be evaluated in a thorough manner so as to establish the requirement, appropriateness, expected surgical problems, expected benefits and co-morbid conditions having an influence on cataract surgery.
The preoperative assessment consists of -
A test for your existing glasses prescription:
It is useful for your cataract surgeon to know your existing glasses prescription in cases where there is a high refractive error (people who are very short or long sighted), in order to plan to correct this error after cataract surgery.
A full ocular examination: This includes looking at:
- The eyelid anatomy and inflammation.
- The state of the tear film, dry eye changes could make surgery difficult
- The presence of abnormalities in the cornea that could make visualisation of the cataract difficult during surgery.
- The amount of dilation the iris undergoes with dilating drops.
- The type of cataract. Soft cataracts can be aspirated. Hard cataracts need more ultra-sound energy and surgical time to break up and remove. White cataracts may need trypan blue staining to visualize the capsule
- The measurement of intra-ocular pressure. With this test, we aim to exclude glaucoma and ensure optimal control of immediate pre-operative and intra-operative eye pressures often with extra eye drops that temporarily lower eye pressure.
Biometry Tests: This is a simple pre-operative measurement. It calculates the correct power of artificial intra-ocular lens. They will be implanted into your eye once your cataract is removed.
Corneal Topography: This is a test to map out the corneal curvature in greater detail. It is used prior to premium IOL Implantation like Toric IOLS either monofocal or multifocal , to ensure avoid postoperative refractive errors. This extra test is only required if the biometry readings show larger than normal differences in keratometry readings.
Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT): This test allows detailed visualisation of the macula (the central sensitive part of the retina used for fine vision). If the ophthalmologist suspects any macula changes that may prevent a patient from visual improvement after cataract surgery, he always suggest optical coherence tomography.
Blood Pressure Measurements: It is very important to know your blood pressure measurements before your cataract operation. The risk of having a bleed at the back of your eye during cataract surgery (supra-choroidal haemorrhage) is very small (1 in 10000). But is higher if you have uncontrolled blood pressure.
Blood Sugar Measurements in Diabetic Patients: Cataract surgery itself does not affect your blood sugar measurements if you are diabetic. A routine checkup of blood sugars in diabetics before cataract surgery is done and the surgery if often delayed if the levels were greater than 20mmol/L as the risk of post-operative infection is higher.
Good eyesight can be an outcome of a diet rich in Omega 3 fatty acids and vitamin C. Including certain foods in your diet can be directly beneficial for your eye health and can improve your vision. Here is a list of 5 foods which will help you combat age-related vision problems and will supplement your overall eye health.
1. Eggs - Eggs are rich in vitamin A and lutein, which help you combat age-related vision problems and night blindness. Eggs are also beneficial for dry eyes and improving your eye health. Egg yolks are considered to be one of the best foods for your eyes and should be included in your regular diet. It also helps prevent age-related macular degeneration (AMD), which is one of the primary causes of blindness in the 60+ age group.
2. Leafy Greens - Leafy green vegetables like spinach and kale are rich in lutein and zeaxanthin which reduce the chance of cataracts. It is best to consume them raw as they have more antioxidants when uncooked. Other green vegetables like broccoli, collard greens, and zucchini are rich in lutein and play an important part in preventing age-related vision problems.
3. Carrots - Carrots improve your overall eye health as it contains vitamin A, the lack of which is one of the leading causes of loss of vision. The orange hue in carrots is due to Beta-carotene which helps the retina function better. Other foods rich in beta carotene are apricots, mangoes, pumpkin and cantaloupe which also contribute to healthy eyes. So make sure you include them in your diet.
4. Almonds - Almonds are rich in vitamin E, which prevents macular degeneration. Include a handful in your daily diet as it not only improves your eyesight but also effectively lowers cholesterol and prevents heart diseases. Nuts like pistachios and walnuts contain omega 3 fatty acids which contribute to the maintenance of your vision.
5. Citrus Fruits and Berries - Citrus fruits like oranges, grapefruits and lemons are rich vitamin C which reduces the risk macular degeneration and cataracts. Blueberries also aid in the protection of the retina from damage caused due to sunlight and oxygen.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Vision is one of our most important senses. Reduced vision that triggers the need for corrective glasses is one of the most common disorders associated with the eyes. Crossed eyes are another such common disorder that affects the eyes. In medical terms it is also known as Strabismus. This condition is a result of miscommunication between the brain and the eye muscles that result in misalignment of the eyes. It is largely a hereditary condition and should not be confused with a lazy eye syndrome.
Crossed eyes can cause double vision and disorientation. Your depth perception may also be affected. It also causes eye strains and headaches that affect the quality of your life. This condition is seen mostly in children. If not treated in time, it can continue into the adult years as well. The development of crossed eyes in adults who have not suffered from this condition as children is usually a sign of a serious condition such as a stroke.
Some symptoms characteristic of this condition are:
1. Independent movement of eye balls
2. Tilting the head to a side
4. Varied points of reflection in each eye
5. Frequently bumping into things as a result of impaired depth perception.
Treatment for this condition can be surgical as well as non surgical. Non surgical treatment aims at strengthening the eye muscles and treating the visual system as a whole. The aim is to not allow the eye to become lazy or amblyopic. Wearing an eye patch over the strong eye and forcing the weak eye to be used is one of the most common form of this treatment. Corrective glasses can also be used to treat this condition in cases where it has been triggered by excessive farsightedness. In some cases, medication may also be injected into the eye to relax the eye muscles.
Surgery to correct this disorder involves correcting vision by strengthening or weakening the eye muscles. To do this, a surgeon must first make a small incision in the outer layer of the eyeball to reach the affected muscles. To strengthen the muscle a small section is removed from the muscle and the remaining part is then rejoined. This makes the muscle shorter and forces the eye to turn towards that side. Alternatively, the doctor may make a partial cut across the muscle to elongate it and let the eye turn further away from it.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Uveitis is a set of inflammatory diseases that results in the swelling and damaging of the eye tissue. It can lead to temporary or permanent loss of vision. This disease often affects a part of the eye called the uvea, from which it has derived its name. It can affect people of all ages and can last from a short to long period of time. Ophthalmologists categorize uveitis into four major parts posterior uveitis, anterior uveitis, panuveitis uveitis and intermediate uveitis. This disease can be infectious or noninfectious, depending on the nature of the infection.
What causes uveitis and what are the major risk factors?
This disease is caused by the eye's inflammatory response and is caused by a series of potential factors such as the following:
- Immune system attack from the body
- Eye bruises
- Eye infection or tumor within the eye
- Foreign toxins that penetrate the eye
What are the diseases associated with uveitis?
Uveitis is associated with a range of diseases such as multiple sclerosis, Behcet's syndrome, Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada's (VKH) disease, psoriasis, herpes zoster infection, tuberculosis, rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis, toxoplasmosis, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis.
What are the typical symptoms of uveitis?
One or both eyes can be affected by uveitis. Some of the common symptoms include pain in the eye, light sensitivity and blurred and dark spots in vision. Moreover, the symptoms might vary from person to person and greatly depends on the type of inflammation. The symptoms also vary according to the type of uveitis.
What is the detection process?
The process of detection starts with a patient's medical history followed by several medical tests to rule out autoimmune disorders. This is followed by an evaluation of the central nervous system to rule out multiple sclerosis. Some of the other tests conducted by ophthalmologists include measuring the ocular pressure, slit lamp exam, funduscopic exam and visual acuity test.
The primary aim of the treatment is to eradicate inflammation, restore vision, prevent tissue damage and reduce pain. The treatment plan depends on the type of uveitis a patient displays. Doctors often suggest a dose of corticosteroid eye drops to arrest the infection in and around the eye. Other treatment methods include the prescription of immunosuppressive agents.
Furthermore, a doctor may suggest steroidal medication in the form of an eye drop, pill or injection. It can also be surgically infused into the eye. Some other agents used for treatment are azathioprine, methotrexate and mycophenolate. Medications such as these require regular monitoring of the blood to check for any side effects. Doctors also suggest biologics such as infliximab, rituximab, and adalimumab. Most of these drugs have a specific target in the immune system.
While red bloodshot eyes may look worrisome at first sight, it is not a cause for concern all the time. There are benign, short-lasting bouts that will disappear on their own to serious medical reasons that could require intervention. Listed below are some common causes and ways to manage red eyes.
- Conjunctivitis: The most common cause of red or pink eye is conjunctivitis- infection of the membrane covering the sclera. The blood vessels are irritated and give the eye a red hue. This is contagious and very common in children, needs to be treated with antibiotic drops based on the cause.
- Allergy: Be it pollen, dust, dander, or some chemicals, the eyes could be sensitive to it and get inflamed and take on a red colour. This can be treated with a combination of prevention by avoiding exposure to the allergen (which causes the allergy) and some antihistamine drops if required.
- Contact lenses: Extended or improper use of contact lenses is the main reason for red eyes in contact lens users. There is reduced lubrication, increased accumulation of dust and microbes if the lens are not removed at frequent intervals. Removal of the lens and visit to the doctor are important for managing this.
- Computer Vision Syndrome: With people spending a large amount of time staring at computer screens and tablets and phone screens, the dryness in the eyes increases, thereby leading to red eyes. The reduced blinking when working on computers also affects the condition. It is therefore very important to take conscious breaks to stare away from the monitors and use special glasses if required. In some cases, eye drops may also be required.
- Occupational Hazard: For people working outdoors, conditions such as dust, heat, smoke, and dry air increase the chances of red eyes. Reducing exposure as much as possible and use of protective eyewear is extremely essential.
- Dry Eye Syndrome: The tear glands produce a constant source of lubrication for the eyes and also cleanse the eyes from the minute dust particles and other irritants. For various reasons, the tears produced may not be sufficient and can lead to red eyes. Artificial tear substitute could be used for managing this.
Some benign reasons like swimming, smoking, lack of sleep, pregnancy, common cold also produce bloodshot eyes. On the other hand, corneal ulcer, uveitis, ocular herpes, glaucoma, and other medical conditions could also lead to red eyes.
If it persists for more than 2 days, is painful, associated with discharge or sensitivity to light, it is important to seek medical help, especially if associated with injury or trauma.
If you thought smoking was causing damage to only your lungs, thing again. Your eyesight, one of your most valuable possessions, is at high risk of damage because of your bad habit.
The damage done to your eyes by cigarettes happens from two sources; the toxic smoke that hangs in the air which surrounds you as you puff on the cigarettes and 4000 odd toxic substances that enter your bloodstream once you smoke. In extreme cases, smoking also causes loss in vision. Here is a list of eye disorders and diseases, which can be caused due to smoking-
The risk of developing Age-related Macular Degeneration is there for people above the age of fifty. In case of smokers, the chance of developing AMD is three times more than in nonsmokers. It has been proven that smokers develop the chance of AMD ten years prior to non smokers.
This process involves the clouding of the lens inside the eye. Cataract develops with old age, usually. The risk of developing early cataract is common among smokers, who are twice at risk of cataract than non smokers. The effect of the cataract in the case of smokers is more severe.
Glaucoma is the eye disorder where the death of nerve fiber layer behind our eyes takes place, and that results in loss of vision. The increase in pressure within the eyes leads to glaucoma. Smoking enhances the pressure in your eyes, and so smokers are at a potential risk of acquiring this disease.
Diabetic eye diseases
A number of eye diseases are accompanied with diabetes. This can result in blindness when left ignored or not paid attention to in severe cases. Diabetic patients who are smokers are three times more at a risk of eye diseases associated with diabetes.
This eye disease causes sudden loss of vision to the eyes without any pain. It happens due to the disrupted flow of blood in the arteries of the eyes. Smokers are 16 times more at a risk of developing optic neuropathy at an earlier age.
Thyroid associated eye diseases
Patients having thyroid issues or Grave's disease have disorders in their vision. Grave's disease patients who smoke tobacco are likely to develop severe eye diseases associated with the thyroid.
Smoking causes irritation to the eyes and affects the tear film of the eye. Smokers and passive smokers are likely to develop dry eye disorders. Smoking causes a lot of eye diseases and disorders, and smokers are at a higher risk of acquiring eye diseases than non smokers.