Patient Review Highlights
Haematology is a science, which studies the functioning of blood, blood producing organs and blood related diseases. Previously people are not aware of the functioning of Haematology and its effectiveness. But as more and more research is being conducted on this health care science the modern world is introduced with this amazing stream of medical science.
Haematology can study and provide best curing measures for many severe diseases and one of the diseases, which are considered as the most dangerous is Thrombocytopenia. This is the condition in which the blood cell fragments known as platelets reduce. Difficulty faced by the body to clot the blood and stop the bleeding is a major symptom and when the platelet count reduces too much then mild to severe bleeding happens. Bleeding can be inside the body, on the surface of the body or underneath the skin as well.
How to control it?
The individuals suffering from lack of platelet count or Thrombocytopenia are advised some preventive measures to maintain the conditions from becoming severe.
- People should avoid the medicine that they know had decreased the platelet in the past.
- They should avoid alcohol consumption which slows down the production of platelets.
- Avoid contact with toxic chemicals like arsenic, pesticides or benzene as they can slow down the production of platelets.
- Be aware of the substances or medicines that may affect the counts of platelets or increases the risk of bleeding.
Haematology is very helpful for doctors to know the hidden causes of blood related diseases. To cure the low platelet count many effective medicines are available in the various health care systems. There are many Haematology experts who are accomplished with their expertise in treating people. Patients of blood cancer should consult the doctor and get the best remedies to live a happy and pain free life.
Thalassemia is a genetic (which is passed from parents to children through genes) blood disorder. People with Thalassemia disease are not able to make enough hemoglobin, which causes severe anemia. Hemoglobin is found in red blood cells and carries oxygen to all parts of the body. When there is not enough hemoglobin in the red blood cells, oxygen cannot get to all parts of the body. Organs then become starved for oxygen and are unable to function properly.
There are two types of Thalassemia disease
- Alpha Thalassemia disease: There are two main types of Alpha Thalassemia disease. Alpha Thalassemia Major is a very serious disease in which severe anemia begins even before birth. Pregnant women carrying affected fetuses are themselves at risk for serious pregnancy and delivery complications. Another type of Alpha Thalassemia is Hemoglobin H disease. There are varying degrees of Hemoglobin H disease.
- Beta Thalassemia disease: Beta Thalassemia Major (also called Cooley's Anemia) is a serious illness. Symptoms appear in the first two years of life and include paleness of the skin, poor appetite, irritability, and failure to grow. Proper treatment includes routine blood transfusions and other therapies.
Causes of Thalassemia
Thalassemia occurs when there’s an abnormality or mutation in one of the genes involved in hemoglobin production. You inherit this genetic defect from your parents.
If only one of the parents is a carrier for thalassemia, the child may develop a form of the disease known as thalassemia minor. If this occurs, the born child probably won’t have symptoms, but he/she will be a carrier of the disease. Some people with thalassemia minor do develop minor symptoms.
If both of your parents are carriers of thalassemia, you have a greater chance of inheriting a more serious form of the disease.
The symptoms depend on the type of thalassemia:
- Thalassemia Minor: Thalassemia minor usually doesn’t cause any symptoms. If it does, it causes minor anemia.
- Beta-thalassemia: Beta-thalassemia comes in two serious types, which are thalassemia major, or Cooley’s anemia, and thalassemia intermedia. The symptoms of thalassemia major generally appear before a child’s second birthday. The severe anemia related to this condition can be life-threatening. Other signs and symptoms include:
- frequent infections
- a poor appetite
- failure to thrive
- jaundice, which is a yellowing of the skin or the whites of the eyes
- enlarged organs
This form of thalassemia is usually so severe that it requires regular blood transfusions.
- Alpha-thalassemia: Alpha-thalassemia also has two serious types, which are hemoglobin H disease and hydrops fetalis. Hemoglobin H disease can cause bone issues. The cheeks, forehead, and jaw may all overgrow. Hemoglobin H disease can cause:
- jaundice, which is a yellowing of the skin or the whites of the eyes
- an extremely enlarged spleen
Hydrops fetalis is an extremely severe form of thalassemia. It occurs before birth. Most individuals with this condition are either stillborn or die shortly after being born.
How is thalassemia diagnosed?
Thalassaemia is often detected during pregnancy or soon after birth.
- Screening during pregnancy: Screening to check if a baby is at risk of being born with thalassemia is offered to all pregnant women.
- Testing after birth or later in life: Newborn babies aren't routinely tested for thalassemia because the test used isn't always reliable soon after birth and the condition isn't immediately dangerous. However, the main form of the condition – beta thalassemia major – is often picked up as part of the newborn blood spot test (heel prick). A blood test can be carried out at any point to diagnose the condition if a child or adult has symptoms of thalassemia and the condition wasn't picked up earlier on.
- Testing for the Thalassemia Trait- A blood test can be done at any time to find out if you have the thalassemia trait and are at risk of having a child with the condition. This can be particularly useful if you have a family history of the condition or your partner is known to carry thalassemia.
If your child has thalassemia, blood tests may reveal:
- A low level of red blood cells
- Smaller than expected red blood cells
- Pale red blood cells
- Red blood cells that are varied in size and shape
- Red blood cells with uneven hemoglobin distribution, which gives the cells a bull's-eye appearance under the microscope
Blood tests may also be used to:
- Measure the amount of iron in your child's blood
- Evaluate his or her hemoglobin
- Perform DNA analysis to diagnose thalassemia or to determine if a person is carrying mutated hemoglobin genes
Treatment for Thalassemia-
The treatment for thalassemia depends on the type and severity of disease involved. Your doctor will give you a course of treatment that will work best for your particular case.
Some of the utilized treatments include:
- blood transfusions
- a bone marrow transplant (BMT)
- medications and supplements
- possible surgery to remove the spleen or gallbladder
If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.
Im (48) I had fissure surgery 2ys ago. Ek saal se mujhe burning sensation hai after stool in rectum. Bhut medicine le. Pgi chd se check karaya. Toh doctor ke kaha minor plies hai. Uske liye sclerotherpy ka treatment kiya 6 weeks ho gaye hai. Crema gal aur lox2%gel use ki hai. Isbgol daily 2 time le rahi hu. Simple khana le rahi hu .kali mirch leti hu. Green vegetables le rahi hu. 10glass pani le rahi hu. Sab kuch kar liya per burning after stool. Theek nahi hui. Ager ek motion se jyada aaye toh burning bhi badd jati hai. Pura din burning rahti hai. Ek saal ho gaya hai kabhi burning itne baad jati hai ki raat ko sona tough ho jatahai. Mera treatment Pgi chandigarh se ho raha hai mujhe acid reflux ki problem bhi hai uska treatment bhi PGI se le rahi hu. Two time khali pat medicine leti hu .anar &apple ki smoothy leti hu. please suggest reason kya ha. Main kab theek hogi meri life upset ho gaye hai.
Anemia (or anaemia) is a medical condition which generally occurs in a human body because of the lack of required healthy red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood. Diagnosis of anemia is done through a blood test, a man is anemic when his hemoglobin level is less than 13.5 gram/100 ml and a woman is anemic when her hemoglobin level is less than 12.0 gram/100 ml.
Risk factors: People suffering from long-term or chronic diseases such as cancer are more susceptible of developing anemia. Hemoglobin is the salient constituent of red blood cells and is an iron rich protein. It provides the red color to the blood and binds oxygen. Red blood cells carry this oxygen to all the vital tissues and organs of the body. Due to lack of appropriate amount of red blood cells, the amount of blood required in a body to function normally is also low. One of the most prominent causes of occurrence of anemia is the deficiency of required amount of nutritional iron, vitamin B-12, and folate in the body. This iron is needed for the formation of hemoglobin. Apart from these causes, the other causes of anemia comprise of the following:
- Loss of blood
- Insufficient production of red blood cells (inadequate intake of iron, vitamin B-12)
- Fast rate of destruction of red blood cells (disorders of liver and hemorrhage)
Diagnosis: It is relatively easy to detect an anemic person. The symptoms of anemia include pale appearance, complaint of cold, giddiness, unsteadiness, laziness, particularly when the person is in action or is standing up. Sometimes people suffering from anemia crave for eating clay, ice, or even dirt. Also, there are complains of exhaustion along with issues of constipation and concentration. Other indications of anemia are brittle nails, gasps for breath even in mild activities, and pain in the chest. Since the level of oxygen in the blood is low, there could be even scope of a heart attack.
A person suffering from anemia is usually diagnosed on the basis of a complete blood count. The blood test brings out if serum folate levels are quite low. In case the anemia is severe, sometimes doctors take the help of erythropoietin injections so as to foster the production of red blood cells in the bone marrow. In case there is bleeding or if the level of hemoglobin is low, it might become essential to carry out blood transfusion.
Treatment: Anemia is straightforward to diagnose and treat, but at the same time could prove to be deadly if it is left undiagnosed. Proper heed should be paid to the intake of adequate and required food which is rich in vitamins and minerals, dietary iron, folic acid, including other vitamins and minerals.
I had appendicitis problem and I was operated. Will it affect my growing? I mean to become tall. And one of the doctor told me that don't take alcohol. Will taking beer is affect our growing.
Anemia is a condition where the red blood cell count is reduced due to deficiencies within the system. This is usually caused by a lack of iron, folate and other related nutrients in the diet. Anemia is a major public health concern in India as over 50 percent of women are known to be anemic. This pushes up the mortality rate of young mothers and even children.
Some symptoms of Iron deficiency anemia
Anemia has a wide range of symptoms which varies from person to person. However there are some generic symptoms which can be noticed in most people. Some of these are
- Pale appearance of skin - Many people exhibit this symptom where their skin appears to be pale as there is a reduced amount of oxy - hemoglobin in the skin.
- Physical weakness, light headedness and fatigue - This is a general symptom, which many tend to suffer from and complain about. Fatigue and weakness may come in very quickly even with the slightest effort.
- Hair loss - Many women may complain about hair loss due to Iron deficiency anemia.
Some other symptoms are:
- Missed or irregular periods
- Numbness or burning sensations
- Tinnitus among others
Causes of Iron deficiency anemia
The primary cause of Iron deficiency anemia is the lack of iron in the diet which causes the hemoglobin in the blood to be reduced. Some of the patients may still have Iron deficiencyanemia as they have developed gastrointestinal disorders which prevents the absorption of nutrients like iron within the body.
How to treat Iron deficiency anemia
Diet related anemia can be easily cured or controlled with changing diets. Inclusion of certain foods within the diet can easily reverse the Iron deficiencies. Some of the food items that help with deficiencies are:
- Fortified cereals
- Green dark leafy vegetables
- Poultry items
You may also require certain iron supplements if you have certain underlying conditions which is causing issues with iron absorption.
How to prevent Iron deficiency anemia
It is important, especially for women to go for regular checkups to your doctor and also a hemoglobin check up. Your doctor or dietician can tell you to include certain foods in your diet that include folate, iron and vitamin B 12 so that the level of hemoglobin in your blood can be maintained at healthy levels.
Related Tip: "Why Iron Is the Most Underrated Factor in Health"
I am 24 years old having nausea recurrently and not being able to sleep well. Having fever for last 2 days with headache.
My brother has a ringworm type itching problem in his feet (in between the toes) for the past 1-2 months. He have been applying Zalim Lotion till date but still it does not heal. He gets a sharp pain when water get into it. Please tell me what should be done to get rid of it.
Hi, I am 25 years old, male. Actually I am am having problem regarding my sleep. I mean I don't get proper sleep, when I try to sleep suddenly lots of things starts coming into my head. I don't no what to do. I want to sleep nicely. Any suggestions?
Sir, I am prasanth, from Andhra pradesh. I am getting too sleepy through out the day. And my eyes get stressed with my laptop. I do not know how to reduce this effect. I am getting slept through out the day. Even in the times of my college hours also. It is necessary to do work on my laptop. I can not reduce my work in laptop. Can you please suggest any remedy for this.
I am a badminton player. I have been suffering from shoulder pain for last 4 months. I stopped playing 2 months ago. Even then it hasn't been paining. I must go back to stadium within 15 days. Wat should I do please explain briefly.
Causes and Symptoms of Hemophilia
Hemophilia is a genetic disorder, which is marked by improper blood clotting. In this bleeding disorder, a person suffers from low levels of certain proteins called clotting factors, which aid in the process of blood clotting. There are 13 types of factors that combine with platelets to help in the formation of a blood clot. People who suffer from hemophilia start bleeding due to minor reasons and their blood takes a very long time to clot.
Causes of Hemophilia
Depending on the type, the causes of hemophilia can vary. There are three types of hemophilia, namely hemophilia A, B, and C.
- Hemophilia A, the most commonly occurring form, is caused by a deficiency of factor VIII.
- Hemophilia B, also known as Christmas disease, is caused by the lack of factor IX.
- Hemophilia C, on the other hand, occurs due to the lack of factor XI.
However, hemophilia is a genetic condition, which usually passes down from generation to generation. A defect in the genes, which causes the body to make factors VIII, IX, or XI causes the condition. These particular genes are located in the X-chromosomes and, thus, it makes hemophilia an X-linked recessive disorder.
What are the symptoms of hemophilia?
The intensity of symptoms would depend upon the seriousness of the factor deficiency. A person with a serious deficiency may bleed for no apparent reason, which is also known as spontaneous bleeding.
Some of the symptoms of this bleeding disorder are:
- Blood in the urine and stool
- Large, deep bruises
- Excessive bleeding
- Bleeding gums
- Frequent nosebleeds
- Pain and stiffness in the joints
- Irritability and anxiety
- Severe headaches
- Repeated vomiting
- Neck pain
- Cloudy or foggy vision
- Extreme sleepiness