Kidney Stones Treatment
Removal Of Stitches Procedure
Corn Removal Procedure
Dressings Of Wounds Procedure
Varicose Vein Laser Treatment
Hernia Repair Surgery
Urinary Incontinence (Ui) Treatment
Stitching Of Wounds Procedure
Treatment Of Deep Vein Thrombosis - Dvt
Male Breast Reduction Treatment
Prostate Laser Surgery
Gastric Bypass Surgery
Vascular Surgery Treatment
Accident Injuries Treatment
Stem Cell Transplant
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Gall bladder is a very important digestive gland, which is located on the right side of your abdomen, just beneath your liver. Its main function is to collect, store and release bile, a digestive fluid produced in your liver, essential for metabolizing fats, into your small intestine.
Sometimes, small hard stones comprising of cholesterol, bile pigments and calcium salts in the shape of a pebble, can form in your gall bladder. Gallstones may cause no symptoms but when the gallstone lodges in ducts and blocks the flow of bile, it can cause persistent high-intensity pain which requires gallstone surgery.
Surgery is then prescribed to remove the gall bladder. This surgery is called cholecystectomy. It’s done when there are
- Gallstones in the gallbladder
- Gallstones in the bile duct
- Gallbladder inflammation
- Inflammation in pancreas
Gallstone surgery or cholecystectomy is a common surgery, and it comes with only a small risk of complications and you can walk out of the hospital on the day of the surgery itself.
- Minimally invasive or laparoscopic cholecystectomy
- During this procedure, the surgeon makes 4 tiny incisions in your abdomen and inserts a tube with a tiny video camera inside it.
- Through a video monitor, the surgeon watches while he inserts surgical tools through the other 3 incisions to remove your gallbladder.
- After the surgery, the surgeon confirms that there are no gallstones left. Once this is done, he sutures your incisions and you are taken to the recovery area. A laparoscopic cholecystectomy takes just 2 hours or so.
- But the problem with this procedure is that it’ not appropriate for everyone. Sometimes, what happens is that, the surgeon may start with a laparoscopic surgery and then may decide to go for an open gallstone surgery because of scar tissue or complications.
- Traditional or open cholecystectomy
- This procedure requires a bigger incision of about 6-inches in your abdomen, below your ribs on the right side. The liver and gallbladder are exposed and the surgeon removes the gallbladder.
- An open cholecystectomy takes one or two hours.
Single-incision Laparoscopy Surgery
Traditional laparoscopic surgeries use a telescopic rod attached to a video camera called a laparoscope, which is inserted through a small incision. Apart from this, 3 to 5 additional small cuts are made to insert the other surgical instruments to perform the surgery.
However, single-incision laparoscopy surgery (SILS) is a revolutionary minimally invasive surgical procedure conducted through a single incision. It provides a better cosmetic outcome, as a small incision is made through the patient’s navel or belly button, resulting in an almost scarless outcome.
Most patients who are good candidates for laparoscopic surgery are eligible for single-port procedures. Some of the surgeries that single incision laparoscopy is indicated for include cholecystectomy (removal of gall bladder), appendectomy (removal of appendix), splenectomy (removal of spleen), hepatectomy (removal of liver) and adrenalectomy (removal of adrenal glands). SILS can also be used for diagnostic purposes.
However, patients who have previously undergone multiple major surgeries to the abdominal region and those who are morbidly obese are not considered for SILS.
Single Incision Laparoscopy is usually performed as day surgery either in the hospital or outpatient surgery center under general, regional, or occasionally local anesthesia depending on the type of procedure performed and the surgeon’s preference.
The patient is made to lie down in a tilted position so that the feet are placed higher than the head. The surgeon makes a single incision of about 3/4th of an inch at the belly button and injects a harmless gas to expand the area and obtain a clear view of the operative site. A tube called a trocar or port is placed through the incision, through which the laparoscope (a narrow telescope having a light source and camera) and tiny surgical instruments are inserted. The laparoscope guides your surgeon with images of the abdominal contents that can be viewed on a large screen. Once the diseased organ is excised, your surgeon removes the instruments, releases the gas, and closes the incision with a small bandage.
Common post-operative guidelines following Single Incision laparoscopy include the following:
- You will need someone to drive you home after you are released as the anesthesia may make you feel groggy and tired
- Do not remove the dressing over the incision for the first two days and keep the area clean and dry. No showering or bathing during this time. The incision usually heals in about 5 days
- Your surgeon may give you activity restrictions such as no heavy lifting. It is very important that you follow your surgeon’s instructions for a successful recovery
- You may feel soreness around the incision area. Your surgeon may give you a prescription pain medicine or recommend NSAID’s (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) for the first few days to keep you comfortable
- If the abdomen was distended with gas, you may experience discomfort in the abdomen, chest, or shoulder area for a couple days while the excess gas is being absorbed
You must be very careful with your diet after gallstone removal as your body will not be able to digest fats well. You will of course be sticking to a liquid diet for a week or two and then introduce solids back into your diet. When you do so, you have to stick to a low fat diet. Stay off fried foods and gas-forming foods. Also make sure that you consume no more than 60 gm of fats per meal to avoid discomfort. Stay off spicy foods to avoid bloats and abdominal pains.
Obesity is unarguably one of the most regularly discussed topics around the world. A major section of the world's population is suffering from a variety of obesity related problems. There are a number of natural methods to check obesity; however, several medical surgeries are gaining popularity among the masses with instant results to reduce weight.
Here is a list of the most common types of weight loss surgeries:
1. Gastric sleeve surgery: This surgery is performed where removal of a large part of the stomach takes place. A long pouch is created, which connects the small intestine with the oesophagus. The pouch gets stapled and after that the other parts of the stomach are reduced. In some cases, an additional step is taken for reinforcement of the staple line.
Gastric sleeve reduces the size of the stomach and a patient will feel full after eating lesser amount of food. Because a portion of the stomach is reduced, lesser amount of hunger causing hormones are produced. The patient will therefore feel less hungry.
2. Gastric bypass surgery: This is another effective weight loss surgery, which reduces the patient's stomach size, resulting in reduced appetite. The intestines are rearranged, which makes the body absorb fewer minerals. While performing this surgery, the stomach is cut and stapled to create a pouch.
The remaining stomach is attached to the small intestine's top portion, and the small intestine is cut and attached to the pouch as well. After this, the end portion of the small intestine is connected with the non-pouch part of the stomach and is attached to the roux limb bottom. This makes the stomach's digestive juices to meet the food present in the intestines.
3. Duodenal switch: This surgery reduces the stomach size in patients, which leads to decreased appetite or craving for food. Fewer hormones, which cause hunger, are secreted and the rearrangement of the intestine causes the body to absorb minimal minerals or calories.
A part of the stomach is removed and a pouch is created. The small intestine's top portion is cut off, but the duodenum is kept attached to the stomach. The small intestines are cut, and the part attached to the large intestine called colon is connected with the duodenum. Finally, the loose end of the small intestine gets attached to the small intestine to enable digestive juices to mix with food.
4. Lap band surgery: By this surgery, a band is wrapped around the upper middle section of the stomach which squeezes the stomach. Thus a smaller section of the stomach is created above the band which fills up very quickly while having food. The patient feels full by eating less. A laparoscopic adjustable gastric band is used.
There are many different weight loss surgeries. Most of them aim at reducing the capacity of the stomach, so that the person eats less food.
Laparoscopy is used to diagnose a number of ailments such as ovarian cysts, endometriosis, and pelvic inflammatory diseases to name a few.
It is a type of surgery, which involves the usage of small tubes, surgical instruments and video cameras for operations through small incisions or cuts in your body.
Even though laparoscopy is a very popular form of surgery, there are quite a few myths associated with it, which are:
- Myth: If you've undergone multiple abdominal surgeries in the past, you can't opt for a laparoscopy: The truth is that you can go for a laparoscopy even if you've gone through multiple surgeries previously, irrespective of the location or size of the previous incisions. This is done through the use of a special instrument, called a microlaparscope that enables safe entry into the abdomen of the patient.
- Myth: If you're overweight or underweight, you can't undergo a laparoscopy: No matter if you're obese or too thin, you can still undergo a laparoscopy as the tools used for this surgical procedure are available in different lengths and sizes, and can be adjusted as per the body type of the patient before the incision is made.
- Myth: The images taken through a laparoscope are of poor quality: This is not true. In fact, the visuals obtained through a laparoscope are clearer and much more accurate when compared to those obtained via an open surgery. The visuals of a video laparoscopy provide a detailed magnification of even those parts of the area that are inaccessible by the human eye.
Though different people experience the surgery differently due to difference in health conditions, there are some points everyone should know about a laparoscopic surgery.
- The problems that laparoscopy addresses: Conditions like ectopic pregnancy, endometriosis and pelvic inflammatory disorders are generally treated using laparoscopic surgery. Moreover, laparoscopy is also used to remove the gallbladder, appendix, patches of endometriosis or detect adhesions, fibroids and cysts. Also a biopsy of the organs inside the abdomen can be done through laparoscopy.
- The duration of your stay in hospital: Usually performed on an outpatient basis (release on the same day as the surgery), a laparoscopic surgery may require you to stay overnight at the hospital if your condition requires a complex or lengthy surgery. Moreover, if the doctor feels that a bowel resection or partial bowel resection needs to be performed, you may have to stay at the hospital for a few days.
When an organ residing in a cavity such as the abdomen tries to push through the muscular layer it resides in, it is called as hernia.
Though said to be genetic, hernias can be caused by things such as improper heavy lifting, incorrect posture, or chronic constipation and as a result of surgical complication or injury. Factors like obesity, pregnancy, smoking, chronic lung disease aggravate the severity of the hernia. It is believed that about 27% of all males and 3% of females can have a hernia during their lifetime.
Types of hernias:
- Inguinal hernia: The groin is the most common area, where the abdomen pushes through a weak spot in the lower abdominal wall, causing a protrusion into the inguinal canal. This is more common in men than women.
- Hiatal hernia: The abdomen has the diaphragm separating it from the thoracic cavity in the upper border. When it pushes through the diaphragm, a hernia is caused and there is almost always associated food reflux in these cases. Though the most common cause is associated old age, due to muscle weakness, there also are cases of congenital hiatal hernias.
- Umbilical hernia: The abdomen finds a weak layer along its length and protrudes through the skin on the stomach. Most commonly seen in babies around the bellybutton, it gradually corrects itself on its own. Quiet rare in adults, seen during pregnancy and in chronic obese people.
- Incisional: These are post-surgical, and happen when the organ protrudes through the weakened wall due to surgery. The abdomen is again the most common area and the hernia can happen either onto the external surface or internally, when they are called ventral hernias.
These are the most frequent types, though hernia affects other organs like the spine, brain, appendix, etc.
This includes a combination of constant monitoring followed by a decision to do surgical treatment. Hiatal hernias and umbilical hernias can be monitored for a while before deciding on surgery. Inguinal hernias may require surgery earlier in the stage. Post-surgery, a mesh is placed to hold back the tissue in its corrected place. The umbilical hernia in children could be self-limiting. If it does not get auto-corrected in the first year of life, that also would qualify for a surgical treatment. Hernias need to be managed under medical supervision.
Related Tip: "Is It Crucial To Treat Hernia, Surgically?"
Here are some tips to prevent yourself from gall bladder diseases
The thought of undergoing a major surgery worries most people as they stress about the possible surgical complications, outcomes of the procedure or just get scared with the idea of getting an incision. But, following a few simple steps before the surgery may enable you to not only lessen your fears but also accelerate the recovery process.
Here are some of the most effective tips to prepare yourself in a way that ensures a stress-free surgical procedure.
1. Acquire knowledge about the surgery beforehand
Keep yourself thoroughly informed about the surgical procedures you will undergo. Ask your surgeon about the time required for complete recovery, your stay at the hospital, hygiene standards of the hospital etc. Also, talk about the surgical complications that you may experience and the measures to be taken from your side to deal with them.
2. Inform the doctor about your prevalent health issues
Talk to your doctor if you are suffering from any medical conditions currently like diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, arthritis etc. Also inform him if you are under any kind of medications or allergic to any particular drug.
3. Enquire about the types of anaesthesia available
Knowing about your anaesthesia choices always help you prepare better for an operation. While some surgery requires specific types of anaesthesia for other you can decide whether you want a local, regional or general anaesthesia. Local anaesthesia is used for affecting a small area while the regional one is used for numbing a larger part and general, your entire body.
4. Be prepared to deal with the post-surgery pain
You might experience post-surgery pain depending on the type of procedure followed. Ask your doctor for suggestions on the type of medicines you should do to curb this pain. Generally, most doctors recommend drugs, hot or cold therapy, massage etc.
5. Look for a caregiver in advance
You will require some support and care after the surgery while you recover. Seek the help of your family and friends in this regard and ensure that someone can stay with you for at least a day after you return from the hospital.
6. Follow the pre and post surgery instructions given by the doctor
Follow all the instructions given by the doctor regarding the kind of diet to be followed, restriction from consuming certain things like alcohol or any other lifestyle changes required to keep you healthy before and after the surgery.
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The development of minimally invasive surgical procedures has brought about great improvement in the medical field. This form of surgical procedure makes use of advanced technologies so as to reduce the need for making bigger incisions (or cuts) that characterise conventional open surgeries for the pelvic or abdominal region. A modern surgical technique that has made its appearance in the field of minimally invasive surgery is the laparoscopic single incision surgery.
So what is laparoscopic single incision surgery?
A variation of the traditional laparoscopic surgery, laparoscopic single incision surgery is a relatively a more complex process as it involves the manipulation of 3 surgical instruments through just one point of access. The chief advantage that it offers is that of fewer scar formations as the incision point is very small. Instead of the usual 4-5 small incisions that characterise a laparoscopic surgery, only a single incision of about 1.5-2cm is made and is used as point of entry for different surgical instruments to be inserted.
It can help procedures ranging from gynaecological and urological to colon and cover operations like removal of gallbladders, appendix, ovarian cysts, ovaries or the small bowel. The length of time that the surgeon normally takes to perform an operation using this approach is the same as you would normally expect from a conventional laparoscopic technique (which is roughly an hour).
What are the advantages of this form of surgery?
The reason behind the growing popularity of this type of surgical procedure is that unlike open surgery, it does not come with the disadvantages of longer recovery times, greater pain, infection and blood loss.
The key benefits that this form of minimally invasive surgery offers are:
1. It causes less discomfort than a normal open surgery as it requires only a single incision to be made on the body
2. Since fewer incisions are made, the chances of infection and scarring are also significantly reduced through this approach
3. Again, because the recovery time for this minimally invasive surgical procedure is short, the hospital stay following this surgical procedure is also of a shorter span
4. It also enables you to return to your diet of solid food much faster than you would normally do when you opt for the traditional surgery
5. It also sees you returning to your daily activities and lifestyle much faster
Offering a host of benefits, including fewer complications, single incision laparoscopic surgery can be opted if you suffer from problems of the abdominal or pelvic region.
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