Bone fracture is a medical condition where the continuity of the bone is broken. It can occur in nay bone in the body. Most bone fractures are caused by falls and accidents, and the condition caused by disease are known as pathological fractures. A fracture may also be due to some underlying medical conditions which weaken the bones, such as osteoporosis, osteogenesis imperfecta, etc. There are different types of fractures, including avulsion, comminuted and hairline fractures. Stress fractures due to repetitive movements are common. Some of the common symptoms of bone fractures include bruising, pain and swelling, discoloured skin around the affected area, a grating sensation in affected bone, etc.
HOW IS BONE FRACTURE DIAGNOSED?
The only way a physician can detect a fracture is by physical examination along with details of injury and laboratory tests which are bone scan of the affected area and bone X-ray or radiography.
HOW IS BONE FRACTURE TREATED?
Bone healing is a natural process. Fracture reduction treatment is based on the severity of the condition. IT may be done by manipulation, closed reduction (pulling the bone fragments), surgery or immobilization which include plaster casts or plastic functional braces, metal plates and screws, etc.
DID YOU KNOW?
Metal plates and screws may also be used to fix a fracture.
Osteoporosis means ‘porous bone’, is a bone disorder when your bones tend to become too weak and brittle. The bones become so brittle and weak that a slight movement or fall can result in a fracture. In this condition, too much bone is lost and the body is not capable to replace the lost bones. Osteoporosis can affect people of all ages and is common in both men and women. Osteoporosis also called thinning bones has the following signs and symptoms:
• Loss of height
• A stooped posture
• Back pain which results from a fracture
• A bone fracture
Some of the risk factors of osteoporosis are:
• Sex- women are most likely to develop osteoporosis than men
• Age- the risk of osteoporosis increases with age
• Family history- you will likely to have osteoporosis if someone in your family has it
• Body size- people with smaller frame tend to develop the disorder more than people with larger body frame size
Bone fracture is the most common complication resulting from osteoporosis. An injury may even result in death. X-rays help to determine the bone density of the person and osteoporosis can be detected. Certain medications, hormone related therapy and some other alternative medicines can also help reduce the risk of death at an early age.
A bone fracture or simply a fracture, has the following types:
1. Comminuted fracture- comminuted fracture is when your bones are shattered down into several pieces
2. Greenstick fracture- in case of greenstick fractures, the bones do not break into thousand pieces but it only bends and cracks. Common in children, greenstick fracture looks similar to breaking of a small green branch of a tree. Resulting from a fall or an injury, the signs and symptoms greenstick fracture varies from person to person.
3. Leg fracture- a leg fracture or a broken leg is a crack or break of the bones in the leg. Swelling, tenderness, severe pain and inability to walk are some of the sign and symptoms of a leg fracture. Complications of a leg fracture includes, ankle pain, arthritis, bone infection and blood vessel damage.
4. Clavicle fracture- a clavicle fracture or a broken collarbone are more common in children and young adults. Any kind of falls, sports injury, vehicle trauma and birth injury can result in a clavicle fracture.
5. Hand fracture- a hand fracture or a broken hand/wrist is when there is a break or a crack in one of the bones in the hand/wrist. Extreme pain, bruising, tenderness, numbness and stiffness or inability to move the hand are some of the symptoms of a hand fracture.
6. Humerus fracture- humerus is one of the three bones in the arms and any kind of fall or injury can result in a humerus fracture. Treatment varies on the type of the injury.
7. Patella fracture- a fracture of the kneecap is known as a patella fracture. Patella fracture is one of the most common type of knee injuries. The doctor might recommend a surgery or prescribe few medicines to treat patella fracture.
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