Doctor in New Manak Healthcare Hospital
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Urinary incontinence is a common problem that afflicts many adults around the world. Stress related urinary incontinence is a fairly common problem that afflicts many as well. This form of incontinence is usually caused by physical activity, which exerts pressure on the bladder and may cause the leakage of small amounts of urine.
Triggers and Symptoms for stress urinary incontinence:
In terms of urinary problems, stress is used to describe physical problems in particular and not mental stress. So the triggers or risk factors of it could be any of the following:
This form of urinary incontinence is very common in women who are older or have already been through menopause. It may also be common for women who have recently given birth or are pregnant. The urethra or the bladder may become prone to external stress and then involuntarily leak out some urine.
The causes can be quite varied from patient to patient but are primarily attributed to the weakening of the pelvic muscles, bladder or the sphincter. If any of these muscles open involuntarily due to physical stress, it leads to urine leaking out. Some of the causes which may lead to this are:
- Pregnancy and childbirth: Pregnancy or childbirth related problems may cause damage to the urethra or sphincter during childbirth; leading to stress urinary incontinence.
- Surgery of the prostate: Another common problem, especially with men, is with surgical interventions to correct prostate problems.
- Menopause: Many older women often complain about stress incontinence after menopause due to the weakening of the muscles.
- Pelvic surgery: Any surgery to the pelvic area or illnesses which may cause the muscles to become relaxed or act involuntarily due to external stress, may cause incontinence.
- Weakening of the pelvic muscles: Certain illnesses may cause the pelvic muscles to become weak and thus cause the sphincter as well as the bladder to react involuntarily. UTIs or urinary tract infections have also been known to cause incontinence due to the same reason.
- Obesity: Obesity has been known to put stress on many of the bodily systems and it may affect the bladder and the urinary sphincters as well.
Cervical cancer occurs when abnormal cells on the cervix grow out of control. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus that opens into the vagina. Cervical Cancer is one of the most common ailments that women suffer from, making it only more important to be taken seriously and treated immediately.
Most cervical cancer is caused by a virus called human papillomavirus, or HPV. You can get HPV by having sexual contact with someone who has it. There are many types of the HPV virus. Not all types of HPV cause cervical cancer. Some of them cause genital warts, but other types may not cause any symptoms.
Most adults have been infected with HPV at some time. An infection may go away on its own. But sometimes it can lead to cervical cancer. That's why it's important for women to have regular screening. A screening can find changes in cervical cells before they turn into cancer. If you treat these cell changes, you may prevent cervical cancer.
Symptoms of Cervical Cancer may include:
- Bleeding from the vagina that is not normal, such as bleeding between menstrual periods, after sex, or after menopause.
- Persistent abnormal discharge.
- The Pap test (or Pap smear) looks for precancers, cell changes on the cervix that might become cervical cancer if they are not treated appropriately.
- The HPV test looks for the virus (human papillomavirus) that can cause these cell changes.
When to Get Screened
You should start getting regular Pap tests at age 21. The Pap test, which screens for cervical cancer, is one of the most reliable and effective cancer screening tests available. The Pap test is the best way to find cervical cell changes that can lead to cervical cancer. Regular Pap tests almost always show these cell changes before they turn into cancer. It's important to follow up with your doctor after any abnormal Pap test result so you can treat abnormal cell changes. This may help prevent cervical cancer.
In spite of being a fatal ailment, over the years various treatments have evolved that deal with this problem effectively. Some of them are:
1. Surgery: One of the effective and oft availed treatment to cure cervical cancer is surgery. Depending on the stage on which the disease is detected, doctors may suggest for a hysterectomy or removing the pelvic nymph nodes.
2. Chemotherapy: This has emerged as the most sought after way of treating any form of cancer. The abnormal growth of cells that triggers cancer in the first place is deterred in this method by administering drugs to destroy them.
PCOS or polycystic ovary syndrome is an endocrine disorder in women, in which the female hormones, progesterone and estrogen, are imbalanced. This imbalance leads to the formation of cysts (benign masses) in the ovaries. PCOS tends to affect your heart functions, fertility, menstrual cycle and appearance.
Diabetes is a condition wherein one suffers from high blood sugar levels. Gestational diabetes is a form of diabetes which occurs only during pregnancy. It is certainly possible to bear a healthy child, provided certain lifestyle modifications are adhered to. Once the baby is born, the condition usually tends to disappear. However, this does make you prone to Type 2 diabetes (a condition wherein the body is unable to utilize the insulin effectively).
Hypertension, which is also known as high blood pressure is a prominent factor that is responsible for the development of many serious health issues like cardiac disorder, chronic kidney diseases, vision loss and stroke. The dominant causes of hypertension include troubled lifestyle style, genetics, environmental factors and internal imbalances. You cannot possibly control the chances of suffering from hypertension but you can always prevent and minimize the risk of the problems that are associated with hypertension.
The following are some lifestyle tips that can help you to manage and minimize the risk of developing hypertension:
Maintain a healthy body weight: weight plays a crucial role in the prevention of hypertension. People who are obese run the risk of developing hypertension. It is advisable to lose excessive body fat to maintain an ideal body weight. A well-maintained body weight minimizes the risk of hypertension.
Eat a healthy and balanced diet: unhealthy food intake is a primary factor that causes hypertension. Eating a healthy and balanced diet enables you to manage your blood pressure effectively. Incorporate plenty of fresh fruits and leafy vegetables, especially the ones rich in potassium. Limit excess intake of calories, sugar, and fat as they tend to increase the risk of hypertension.
Reduce consumption of salt: higher sodium intake increases your blood pressure level. Avoid high-sodium processed and packaged foods as they are high in sodium content. A low-sodium diet enables you to keep your blood pressure normal.
Exercise regularly: an active lifestyle is known to lower the risk of hypertension. Make sure to indulge yourself into some physical activities on a daily basis.
Limit the alcohol intake: excessive intake of alcohol can raise your blood pressure level. Limit your alcohol consumption to minimize the chances of hypertension.
Monitor your blood pressure: monitor your blood sugar level on a regular basis. Hypertension usually does not show any symptoms. If your blood pressure ranges between 120-139/80-89 millimeters of mercury it is an indication that you run a higher risk of developing hypertension. A raise in blood pressure demands moderation of lifestyle practices and controlled food intake.
Manage stress level: excessive stress and anxiety are not good for your blood pressure. Severe stress is known to shoot up your blood pressure level which leads to the development of many other health related complications including the improper functioning of crucial organs like heart and kidney.
The most common form of arthritis is osteoarthritis and unlike rheumatoid arthritis, the cause of osteoarthritis is not due to any inflammation such as the immune system attacking the joints. Rather, the cause of osteoarthritis can be attributed to the wear and tear of the protective cartilage on your bones over time. The most common parts of your body which may get affected by osteoarthritis are the knees, hands, and spine. Even though osteoarthritis cannot be cured, it is worth noting that the symptoms can be well managed.
Here is everything you need to know about osteoarthritis:
- Intense pain in your joint: This is the most common symptom indicating that you may have osteoarthritis.
- Tenderness in your joint: If after applying a little pressure, your joint feels tender, then it can be considered a sign of osteoarthritis.
- Stiffness in your joint and loss of flexibility: If you feel stiff after a period of inactivity such as waking up in the morning, it's likely you have osteoarthritis. This may also mean that you may not be able to make movements you were previously able to due to the stiffness in your joint.
- Bone spurs: You may also feel extraneous bits of bone from around the affected joint.
The most common cause of osteoarthritis is old age. As you grow older, the cartilage that cushions your bones begins to deteriorate. Without this cartilage to cushion your bones, different bones might rub against one another, thus causing the pain you feel.
As mentioned earlier, it is not possible to cure osteoarthritis, but the pain can only be managed. Here are the best ways to manage pain from arthritis.
- Medications: Depending on how severe your pain is and whether it is chronic or acute, you may be given drugs such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen.
- Physical therapy: An exercise routine can be worked out between you and your physical therapist so that your pain reduces and you are able to regain the range of movements you had before you were affected by osteoarthritis.
- Surgery: There are a number of surgeries which can be done to reduce your pain; ranging from a simple lubrication surgery by using hyaluronic acid all the way to a complete joint replacement.
Diabetes features as one of the most common ailments in the contemporary times. Mostly assumed as a congenital disease, diabetes is growingly targeting different age groups and often the outburst of diabetes is mostly unmapped. Diabetes is mainly spurred by the presence of high blood sugar content in the patient's blood.
In cases where insulin, the sugar absorbing hormone, is not produced normally, the patient becomes more prone to diabetes. Many attribute this phenomenon to the changing lifestyles of the people and their food choices. In clinical terms, however, diabetes is said to be triggered off by the destruction of insulin-producing beta cells in the body.
Besides the genetic susceptibility, there are a variety of causes that result in diabetes:
- Obesity and physical inactivity: An imbalance between calorie intake and the burning of the same often results in the storage of excess sugar. This aggravates the risks of cardiovascular diseases. The food and lifestyle choices are directly related to the phenomenon.
- Abnormal glucose production by the liver: Normally the pancreas secretes glucagon when the natural percentage of insulin is low and stimulates the liver to produce glucose which is then released into the bloodstream. But under certain conditions, the glucagon level is already high in some people. In such cases, the liver produces glucose thus increasing the risk of diabetes.
- Beta cell dysfunction: The beta cells are responsible for the secretion insulin in your body. In case the beta cells stop functioning normally, a medical condition called insulin resistance arises. Under this condition, your body cells stop responding to the insulins secreted and consequently, the glucose content increases thus causing diabetes. Various endocrine diseases contribute to the malfunctioning of the beta cells.
- Medicines and chemical toxins: Often certain medications like diuretics, anti-seizure drugs, psychiatric drugs, and drugs to treat HIV may lead to the worsening of the beta cell functions and cause diabetes.
Diabetes can be medically treated as well as its adverse effects can be assuaged by ushering in a few lifestyle changes:
- Periodically checking your blood sugar levels
- Taking adequate dental care often keeps the blood sugar levels in control
- Regularly exercising and being physically active
- Avoiding junk food and food with high glucose content
- Consuming relevant drugs prescribed by the doctors
- Being wary of the side-effects in cases of organ transplantations.
Knee replacement is a surgery wherein an artificial joint is used to replace a diseased, damaged or worn out knee. This surgery is common among people who fall in the age group of 60-80, but recent trends seem to suggest that younger people are opting for this surgery as well. The lifetime of the artificial knee joint is around 20 years, provided the knee is well cared for.
Why do you need knee replacement?
Most common reason is “high grade osteoarthritis” due to wear and tear of the knee joint. The pre-hospital study of the Knee joint is mandatory and would decide what kind of Replacement is suitable to the patient. If there is diabetes or hypertension associated with this, then it should be controlled well before undergoing surgery. Hemoglobin of at least 10 gm% is required.
If the mobility in your knee joint is reduced leading to impaired functioning of the knee joint, then you might need a knee replacement surgery. You may experience pain while walking, sitting and, in some cases, resting as well.
Some of the common reasons why you may opt for this particular surgery are:
- Gout, where, small crystals are formed inside the joint.
- Rheumatoid Arthritis, an autoimmune disorder, wherein the immune system of the body attacks the body’s healthy tissues.
- Hemophilia, wherein, the blood ceases to clot normally.
- Injuries to the knee.
- Disorders that cause unusual bone growth (bone dysplasias).
- Death of bone in the knee joint following blood supply problems (avascular necrosis).
- Knee deformity with pain and loss of cartilage.
- Unusual growth of bones in the knee joint.
Knee replacement surgery is classified into:
- Partial Knee Replacement: In this surgery, only one part of the joint is replaced.
- Total Knee Replacement: Total knee replacement surgery involves replacement of both sides of the knee joint.
The usual hospital stay period is around 2-3 days after the surgery is completed. Initially, you will require the help of crutches to walk for at least 2 months. You may also be asked to do gentle knee strengthening exercises. It may take up to 3 months to recover completely from a knee replacement surgery.
One of the most severe forms of pain is the pain that a woman experiences during the process of childbirth. On a scale of 1 to 10, with 10 being the most severe, it is believed to be 8 to 10. In the earlier days, a number of women would die during childbirth and survival was considered as a second lease of life. This belief has however, changed with the advancements in medical science. The delivery has now become an almost painless procedure.
How it works: The pelvis and the lower limbs receive nerve supply through the nerves coming out of the spinal cord. A strong anesthetic is injected into the lower back to numb the pelvis and down below. This ensures that the mother is comfortable and awake during the whole procedure and is able to see the child being delivered but has reduced pain in the lower half of the body.
What are its benefits?
- The mother has a painless delivery and is conscious and able to see the process of delivery.
- Significant relief from the painful experience of childbirth. The pain induces secretion of stress hormones in the mother, which adversely affects both the mother and the child.
- Blood pressure is better controlled using this procedure.
- Additional instruments can be used during the delivery if required without the need for additional anesthesia.
- If required, the procedure can be converted to a cesarean section too, by adding an epidural catheter.
- The duration of childbirth has been significantly decreased.
- Suitable for patients who have preeclampsia and heart disease
It has some disadvantages too
There are minor complications, including:
- This can develop after the painless delivery and the onset and intensity vary from one individual to another
- Post-procedure headache
- Pain at the site of injection
- Difficulty during urination
- The normal pushing effect by the woman is reduced due to the numbness and so vacuum may be used or delivery may have to be converted to a cesarean one.
- In rare cases, there could also be a sudden drop in the blood pressure
In the following cases, the doctor would advise the mother to go for a painless delivery
- Medical conditions like preeclampsia, high BP, or other heart conditions
- Subsequent births after having had a cesarean section (VBAC – vaginal birth after cesarean)
- People who have previously had prolonged or complicated labor, a painless delivery is easy on both the mother and the child
When it should be best avoided
In some cases, like the ones listed below, the painless delivery should be avoided
Can Stress Have an Effect on Your Fertility?
If your mind and body is under stress your body is signaled to release a hormone - Adrenalin. This is a stress relieving hormone and gives your body the rush to face the stress. This hormone inhibits the utilization of the hormone Progesterone, which is essential for fertility. Also during stress Prolactin, another hormone, is relapsed which also interferes with infertility. Hence to conceive its essential that your anxiety levels are under control.
Chronic Stress also decreases libido:
Chronic stress may cause lack of libido as well as a decrease in general fertility. This has become such a common issue that they have created a name for it Stress Induced Reproductive Dysfunction. These facts are very important to consider if you have been trying to conceive with no results. It also shows that stress relief should be a part of every couple's conception plan even if they are going through IVF.
Ways to reduce stress & improve fertility:
If you are having difficulty to conceive, it's imperative that you get fertility tests done and also evaluate your life. Look out for the stress points that may be hindering a relationship. Remember defeating the stress may be the solution to your worries.
Reduce stress in your life: The issues in your life may be work or result related. You need to learn to balance your personal and professional life. The sooner you do it the better; after all you are preparing yourself to welcome a new born in your life.
Change your reactions: Get a hang of the situation and react accordingly. Over reaction to a situation can harm your body and mind. Stop bothering so much about the future.
Let few things be the way they are: Stop getting bothered about people. Remember by nature everything will fall in place. Let few things be the way they are.
Make it your habit to reduce stress: Call it an obsession or a practice, train your mind to choose options where there is less stress.
Sleep well: A good rest is essential for a healthy mind and body. Meditate, do yoga or seek counseling. Go for facials if it sooths you.
Please note that if your fertility reports are normal, then it's just a matter of time. Give you, your partner and your body time. There are certain medical complications or disorders that can also be responsible for infertility. Be calm and composed so that you are able to face the rough waters clearly with your partner.