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Kidney Stones Treatment
Removal Of Stitches Procedure
Corn Removal Procedure
Dressings Of Wounds Procedure
Varicose Vein Laser Treatment
Hernia Repair Surgery
Urinary Incontinence (Ui) Treatment
Stitching Of Wounds Procedure
Treatment Of Deep Vein Thrombosis - Dvt
Male Breast Reduction Treatment
Prostate Laser Surgery
Gastric Bypass Surgery
Vascular Surgery Treatment
Accident Injuries Treatment
Stem Cell Transplant
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Patient Review Highlights
These Gallstones don’t cause any problems in most cases. But prompt treatment is required if stones block ducts and cause infections and inflammation in the pancreas. This may lead to the removal of the gallbladder through a surgery, known as cholecystectomy, which further includes techniques such as laparoscopic (keyhole) cholecystectomy or open surgery. Although it is a less vital organ, the body can cope up even after removal.
Procedure of surgery:
- The surgery involves removal of gallbladder and gallstones through several incisions in the abdomen. In order to see clearly, the surgeon inflates the abdomen with air or carbon dioxide.
- A lighted scope attached to a video camera is inserted into one incision near the belly button. The video monitor is used as a guide for inserting other surgical instruments into the other incisions to remove the gallbladder.
- Intraoperative cholangiography is the X-ray procedure which shows the anatomy of bile ducts. This is done before the surgeon removes the gallbladder.
- Bile flows from the liver through the common bile duct after the surgery into the small intestine. As the gallbladder has been removed, the gallbladder can no longer store bile between meals but has no effect or little effect on digestion.
- In case of open surgery, the surgeon reaches the gallbladder through a large, single incision in the abdominal wall.
This surgery carries some degree of risk like any other surgery. Complications such as internal bleeding, infection, injury to nearby digestive organs, injury to the bile duct and injury to blood vessels.
Types of gallstones:
There are three main types of gallstones. They are
- Mixed stones: They are made up of cholesterol and salts. They tend to develop in batches.
- Cholesterol stones: Mainly made of cholesterol, which is crucial to many metabolic processes. They can grow large enough to block the bile ducts.
- Pigment stones: The colour of bile is greenish-brown, due to some particular pigments.
Medical factors to consider before cholecystectomy:
The most important factor is a consideration of your medical history. This is because the pre-existing conditions influence decisions on surgery and anaesthetic and information about any bad reactions or side effects from any medications would be helpful for surgery.
Self-care after the surgery:
Taking rest is the most important thing after surgery. Avoid things such as heavy lifting and physical exertion. The usual recovery period after the surgery is one week.
Any surgery that requires an incision will involve sutures or staples as the last step of the procedure. This helps close the incision and keep out infections. Taking care of your stitches can help limit scarring and discomfort and speed up the healing process.
Here are a few things to keep in mind.
- Keep it clean and dry: For the first few days, use a washed wet cloth to clean the incision site. After a few days, you may start washing the area with soap and water unless advised else wise by your doctor. Ensure that you dry the skin thoroughly after washing it. Avoid baths that involve soaking the area in water. Also, avoid swimming. Do not use any powders, lotions, creams, deodorants etc on the wound site.
- Look out for signs of infections: Avoid activities that may involve exposing your wound to dirty water, chemicals, dust etc. This increases your risk of infections. Also look out for signs f infections such as redness, swelling, pus or bleeding, fever or increased pain from the wound. In case you notice such signs, consult your doctor at the earliest.
- Do not scratch: As it heals, your skin is likely to turn itchy. However, refrain from scratching so as to reduce chances of infections. Do not try and pull away from the scab but let it fall off on its own. This will also help limit scarring.
- Limit contact: Avoid wearing tight clothes or anything that sticks to the skin while your wound is healing. Instead have plenty of loose, comfortable clothes easily accessible. Also, do not take part in close contact sports such as football etc until the stitches have healed completely.
- Change your dressing regularly: A dressing should be changed as soon as it gets wet or soaked with blood or other body fluids. Wear clean medical gloves while changing a dressing. When putting on a new dressing do not touch the inside of the dressing or apply any creams on the stitches unless advised so by your doctor. In the case of removable stitches, the doctor will usually remove the stitches after a few days. DO not attempt to pull the stitches out on your own.
- Avoid exposing the wound to sunlight: New skin that forms as the incision heals is very sensitive to sunlight and gets sunburnt very easily. Limiting your exposure to sunlight can help reduce the effects of scarring.
When an organ residing in a cavity such as the abdomen tries to push through the muscular layer it resides, it is called as hernia. Though said to be genetic, hernias can be caused by things such as improper heavy lifting, incorrect posture, or chronic constipation and as a result of surgical complication or injury. Factors like obesity, pregnancy, smoking, chronic lung disease aggravate the severity of the hernia. It is believed that about 27% of all males and 3% of females can have a hernia during their lifetime.
Types of hernias:
- Inguinal hernia: The groin is the most common area, where the abdomen pushes through a weak spot in the lower abdominal wall, causing a protrusion into the inguinal canal. More common in men than women.
- Hiatal hernia: The abdomen has the diaphragm separating it from the thoracic cavity in the upper border. When it pushes through the diaphragm, a hernia is caused and there is almost always associated food reflux in these cases. Though the most common cause is associated old age, due to muscle weakness, there also are cases of congenital hiatal hernias.Incisional
- Umbilical hernia: The abdomen finds a weak layer along its length and protrudes through the skin on the stomach. Most commonly seen in babies around the bellybutton, it gradually corrects itself on its own. Quiet rare in adults, seen during pregnancy and in chronic obese people.
- Incisional: These are post-surgical, and happen when the organ protrudes through the weakened wall due to surgery. The abdomen is again the most common area and the hernia can happen either onto the external surface or internally, when they are called ventral hernias.
These are the most frequent types, though hernia affects other organs like the spine, brain, appendix, etc.
Treatment: This includes a combination of constant monitoring followed by a decision to do surgical treatment. Hiatal hernias and umbilical hernias can be monitored for a while before deciding on surgery. Inguinal hernias may require surgery earlier in the stage. Post-surgery, a mesh is placed to hold back the tissue in its corrected place. The umbilical hernia in children could be self-limiting. If it does not get auto-corrected in the first year of life, that also would qualify for a surgical treatment. Dependent on each patient, hernias need to be managed under medical supervision. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Traditional open surgery requires an 8-10 cm incision to expose the surgical area of the abdomen which needs to be operated. This large incision is a major post-operative side-effect which results in longer recovery period.
The alternative technique, laparoscopy also known as minimally invasive surgery or keyhole surgery, is a modern surgical procedure in which small incisions of about 0.5–1.5 cm are made far from the location of the operation. One or more such holes on the abdominal wall serve as passageways for a specialised instrument called a laparoscope. A long, thin tube headed by a high-resolution camera and a high-intensity guiding light is inserted through the incision. As the instrument moves along, the camera transmits images to a video monitor enabling your surgeon to see inside without opening up your body for surgery.
This process is used to diagnose unidentified abdominal or pelvic pain. Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is usually performed when all non-invasive alternatives have been tried. Imaging techniques like ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are sometimes unable to provide enough data for diagnosis.
Laparoscopic surgery is used for the removals of an inflamed appendix, gall bladder, hernias, and cancer-affected organs, fibroids from the uterus, the womb (hysterectomy) and also for performing weight-loss surgeries. Laparoscopy has a lot of advantages over the more common, open procedure. They are:
1. Less post-operative pain
2. Smaller scars
3. Reduced haemorrhaging and blood loss
4. Shorter recovery period
5. Less pain medications and analgesia requirements
6. Reduced exposure to internal organs
7. Faster return to normal activity
8. Reduced risk of infection
Laparoscopy is a proven safer choice with a fast-healing process side-stepping conventional surgery!
Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory condition whereby tiny abscesses and ulcers are formed on the inner lining of the large intestine, or on the colon or rectum. These ulcers may burst frequently resulting in diarrhea and bloody stools. This disease may also be responsible for causing anemia as well as harsh abdominal pain.
Ulcerative colitis normally alternates periodically from flaring up to receding quickly. These periods of remission can either last for weeks or maybe, even for years at a stretch. They are however, not permanent and although the disease may seem to have disappeared completely, it can soon show up again in no time. Usually beginning in the rectum, it can, by and by, spread rapidly to other parts of the colon. If it is, however, limited only to the rectum, then it is more commonly referred to as ulcerative proctitis.
Here are the different types of surgery that you may undergo:
- Colectomy: This is done when the entire colon needs to be removed and is usually performed to eliminate the perils of acquiring colon cancer.
- Proctocolectomy: This concerns the total removal of both colon and rectum, and is usually the standard procedure when dealing with ulcerative colitis.
- Ileal Pouch Anal Anastomosis: If the treatment does not require a permanent stoma, and if you can still manage to let out stool from your anus, then this surgery, also called restorative proctolectomy, would be most appropriate. Here, both colon and rectum are removed but at the same time, the small intestine is utilized to form an internal reservoir, called a J-pouch, which is linked to the anus and can hereafter serve as your new rectum.