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I found the answers provided by the Dr. Deore Sapana to be very helpful. Whats the kind of sexual infection will occur ?
HIV testing in pregnancy should be done early so as standard care can be taken for the pregnant women. The HIV testing must be repeated in the third trimester, usually before 36 weeks of gestation. This should be done in women with HIV seronegative and also in pregnant women who are at a high risk of developing HIV infection.
Expedited HIV tests should be performed at the time of delivery and labor and this is a must in women who have not been documented for HIV. The results of the test should be available within an hour of the test and the testing should be available 24 hours. In case the results are positive then, infant postnatal antiretroviral and intrapartum drug prophylaxis should be started immediately.
Women who have not been able to get tested for HIV at the time of labor and delivery are suggested expedited screening for HIV. Their screening can be done immediately postpartum or their babies should undergo screening. In case the infant and mother, both are positive, then infant antiretroviral drug prophylaxis should be started immediately. These mothers should avoid breastfeeding their babies, until the supplemental HIV tests are negative. In infants with positive HIV, prophylaxis should be discontinued and antiretroviral drug therapy should be started.
In case of acute HIV infection during pregnancy, that is in the intrapartum period, or during breastfeeding, initial testing can be performed with an antigen/antibody combination immunoassay. If the supplemental test is negative, then an additional test which is the virologic test (DNA, RNA) are necessary for the diagnosis of the HIV infection. If the mother is HIV positive, then this information must be documented in the infant's medical record and also communicated to the infant's care provider.
The knowledge of an antenatal maternal HIV infection allows the:
- Women with HIV infection to get the correct antiretroviral therapy along with prophylaxis for the infections, which might occur due to the immunocompromised state of the body. This also prevents and decreases the risk of transmission to their partners.
- When there is provision for antiretroviral therapy for the mother during pregnancy and labor along with antiretroviral drug prophylaxis for the baby there is less risk of perinatal transmission of the HIV.
- The HIV-infected women should be counseled for a cesarean delivery. The option of an elective cesarean reduces the perinatal transmission of the HIV.
- The HIV women should be counseled about the risk of breastfeeding. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.
For nearly 30 years, HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) and AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) have been shrouded in myths and misconceptions. In some cases, these mistaken ideas have prompted the very behaviors that cause more people to become HIV-positive. Here are the top five myths about HIV, along with the facts to dispute them.
Myth No. 1: I can get HIV by being around people who are HIV-positive.
The evidence shows that HIV is not spread through touch, tears, sweat, or saliva. You cannot catch HIV by:
- Breathing the same air as someone who is HIV-positive
- Touching a toilet seat or doorknob handle after an HIV-positive person
- Drinking from a water fountain
- Hugging, kissing, or shaking hands with someone who is HIV-positive
- Sharing eating utensils with an HIV-positive person
- Using exercise equipment at a gym
You can get it from infected blood, semen, vaginal fluid, or mother's milk.
Myth No. 2: I can get HIV from mosquitoes.
Because HIV is spread through blood, people have worried that biting or bloodsucking insects might spread HIV. Several studies, however, show no evidence to support this -- even in areas with lots of mosquitoes and cases of HIV. When insects bite, they do not inject the blood of the person or animal they have last bitten. Also, HIV lives for only a short time inside an insect.
Myth No. 3: I'm HIV-positive -- my life is over.
In the early years of the disease epidemic,the death rate from AIDS was extremely high. But today, antiretroviral drugs allow HIV-positive people -- and even those with AIDS -- to live much longer, normal, and productive lives.
Myth No. 4: My partner and I are both HIV positive -- there's no reason for us to practice safer sex.
Practicing safer sex, wearing condoms or using dental dams can protect you both from becoming exposed to other (potentially drug resistant) strains of HIV.
Myth No. 5: You can't get HIV from oral sex.
It's true that oral sex is less risky than some other types of sex. But you can get HIV by having oral sex with either a man or a woman who is HIV-positive. Always use a latex barrier during oral sex. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
What is Monogamous Relationship?
You (who have been tested for STD/STIs and don't have any) are having sex with only one partner (who also has been tested for STD/STIs and doesn't have any) who only has sex with you. And you both keep it that way!
Stated another way, you are both STD/STI free and only have sex with each other. People of any sexual orientation can engage in monogamous relationships. The only thing implied by the term monogamy is that the relationship consists of two people who are romantically and/or sexually exclusive. Theoretically, outside of abstinence, this is really the safest type of "safer sex" that you can have.
Celebrated on 1st December of each year, World AIDS Day, aims to spread awareness about HIV / AIDs. It is an STD wherein, HIV stands for human immunodeficiency infection and AIDS stands for acquired immune deficiency syndrome. The disease hinders the immune system in keeping up our body’s security against sickness. HIV causes individuals to end up wiped out with infections that regularly would not affect them and HIV leads to AIDS.
Understanding the Symptoms:
HIV has few or no signs or symptoms for up to ten years or more before side effects of AIDS tends to manifest. There is no cure for HIV/AIDS, yet treatment is accessible. A few people have HIV symptoms not long after being infected. These include:
- There are a few phases of HIV illness. The primary HIV side effects may include swollen glands in the throat, armpit, or crotch.
- Other early HIV symptoms incorporate slight fever, headaches, exhaustion, and muscle throbs.
- These symptoms may keep on going for just a couple of weeks. At that point, there are typically no HIV indications for a long time. That is the reason it can be difficult to know whether or not a person is suffering from HIV.
The symptoms of AIDS show up in the most advanced phase of the HIV disease. These are as follows:
- Along with a severely damaged immune system, a person with AIDS may likewise have thrush. A thrush is a thick, whitish covering on the tongue that is brought about by a yeast infection and now and then joined by a sore throat.
- Serious or repetitive vaginal yeast infection.
- Pelvic inflammatory illness.
- Serious and frequent infections.
- Unexplained fatigue that might be followed by headaches, dizziness.
- Loss of more than ten pounds of weight that is not because of physical exercise or consuming fewer calories.
Risk Factors: There are a lot of ways in which you can get the infection. HIV is transmitted through blood, semen, vaginal fluids and breast milk. The most well-known ways in which HIV is spread, are:
- Having sexual intercourse without a condom with somebody who has HIV/AIDS.
- Using needles or syringes that have been used by someone who has HIV/AIDS.
- Being punctured with a needle or surgical instrument that has been contaminated with HIV.
- Getting HIV blood, semen or vaginal discharge into open injuries or wounds.
- Babies born to women with HIV/AIDS can get HIV from their mothers during birth or from breastfeeding.
There are numerous ways in which you can protect yourself from HIV. These are as follows:
- The most secure way is to limit the number of sexual partners you take on.
- Try to have safer sex and always use protection.
- Get your partners tested for HIV.
- HIV tests are a typical piece of social insurance.
In case that you think you may have been infected by HIV, talk to a specialist or a doctor about testing. Discussing what risks you might have taken can help you choose whether testing is ideal for you.
Hearing that a person is HIV positive instantly makes us wary of him or her and unconsciously we may begin avoiding social interactions with them. However, HIV does not spread through the air or by water and hence there is no reason to ostracize HIV positive people. To understand how to prevent the transmission of HIV it is essential to first understand how the virus is transferred from one person to another. There are three ways in which this virus can be transmitted from an HIV positive person to another. These are:
- Through blood
- Through bodily fluids such as semen and vaginal or rectal fluids
- From a mother to a child
Keeping this in mind, here are a few ways to prevent the transferring of HIV from one person to another:
- Use only Disposable Syringes: Getting pricked by a needle that has been used on a HIV positive patient can increase your risk of suffering from the disease. Hence, insist on using a fresh needle for blood tests etc. Also ensure that the syringe and needle and destroyed after being used.
- Registered Blood Banks: In case you need a blood transfusion, get blood only from registered blood banks. These blood banks need to run HIV screening tests before collecting blood and hence are guaranteed to have only HIV negative blood as opposed to local quacks.
- Use a Condom: The only way to prevent the transference of HIV cells while having intercourse is by using a condom. This is essential not only for vaginal intercourse but for anal intercourse as well.
- Get Tested: Today, an HIV screening test can be easily done and your results are guaranteed to be kept confidential. STDs can increase your risk of getting infected with HIV or spreading it to others. Get tested regularly for STDs and insist that your partners are checked for it as well. This is crucial if you have more than one sexual partner.
- Limit the Number of Sexual Partners: The more number of people you have sex with, the higher your chance of getting infected with the virus and transmitting it to others. Remember, HIV has no overt symptoms that are visible to the naked eye.
HIV cannot be cured but it can be controlled through medication. Hence, if you suffer from this disease, follow the doctor's prescription religiously to prevent transmitting the virus to your partner.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!