Doctors in Apollo Clinic, V V Mohalla
Back Pain Treatment
Treatment of Joint Pain
Treatment of Leg Pain
Treatment of Depression
Treatment of Knee Pain
Treatment of Hand Pain
Treatment & Management of Stress
Treatment of Shoulder Pain
Treatment of Painful Teething
Treatment of Anxiety
Treatment of Alcohol Addiction Disorder
Treatment of Stained Teeth
Treatment of Foot Pain
Treatment of Mood Disorder
Treatment of Lower Back Pain
Treatment of Bone Fracture
Treatment of Arm Pain
Treatment of Fear
Knee Pain Treatment
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Joint Replacement Surgery is a procedure where the damaged surface of the advanced arthritic joints are removed and replaced with artificial joints, such as metallic, plastic and ceramic joints. These surfaces closely replicate the original anatomy.
When do you need a knee replacement?
When you suffer from severe pain or deformity in the joint (knee in this case), the pain or stiffness and deformity makes it difficult to perform simple tasks. Severe grade IV osteoarthritic knees of people over 50 years when have pain, swellingand deformity fail to respond to medicines, physiotherapy, injections and rest.
Aim of the surgery
- Correct the deformity: Relieve the pain and give near full movements almost immediately after the procedure. Details including techniques and safety, it is a safe, rewarding surgery with a success rate of as high as 99.5% when done by an able and experienced professional.
- Anaesthesia: Usually it is the spinal cord epidural where one is rendered numb for 3 to 4 hours waist down. Sometimes a general anaesthesia is given. A 4 to 5 inches cut is made in front of the knee and all the damaged cartilages, bones, loose bodies are removed from the lower end of the thigh, upper end of the tibia (usually of few millimetres) and the surface re-crafted to match the size and shape of the artificial joint (it is usually imported). They are fixed with bone cement. The ligaments and muscles are reattached and the parts closed.
Aftercare tips for joint replacement patients:
- Recovery: Stand up and walk a few steps with a walker the day after the procedure i.e. in 24 hours. Physiotherapy in hospital for 5 to 7 days and/or walking, progressively longer walks and exercises over the following 15 days. Stitches are removed in 15 days. The patient can return back to normal activity in 4 to 8 weeks after the surgery.
- Activities: Normal walks of 3 to 5 km per day, climbing stairs, cycling, swimming and driving can be performed with the new implant(s) now.
- Avoid: Squatting/kneeling, playing sports like football, cricket, tennis, jumping, adventure sports,
The longevity of joints will vary between 15-35 years depending on the material used by the doctor.
Relationships are entirely dependent on the personalities of the two individuals involved in it. While some are easy going and make it seem like a cakewalk, others have a tough time keeping the relationship stable and happy. If one of the partners is a narcissist, the relationship is going to suffer, as relationships are about mutual give-and-take, which never happens with narcissists.
By definition, they give themselves too much importance and do not have much regard for the other person. The good news though is that there are tell-tale signs which can help one identify if they are dealing with a narcissist and become aware at the earliest before too much physical or emotional damage is done. Read up and for best results!
- Right over you and your stuff: They feel that they are entitled to all their wants, irrespective of how the other person feels. There is also no reciprocation involved here.
- No rules apply: The person behaves as if no rules apply to them and do not feel any shame in skipping queues, jumping lanes or traffic signals, etc. They feel rules are not for them but only others.
- Emotional swings: Blow hot, blow cold syndrome where they are blowing praises on you one minute and embarrassing you and mocking you the next.
- Think too much of themselves: They also make their partner feel like they are indispensable and the person cannot live without them.
- Take credit: If the partner has done or achieved something good, the narcissist will make sure they draw credit for it or they might not give credit or might praise them for their achievements.
If one feels that a person has narcissism that could be causing harm to oneself or to others around, and if you are unable to handle the situations yourself then they can seek professional help or counseling.
Gridhrasi is what Sciatica is known as in Ayurveda. It is the disorder that causes mild to agonizing pain in the sciatic nerve or neuralgia. These nerves, emerging from the pelvis, run along the hamstring and may cause intense pain in one or both the legs when a person suffers from Sciatica. Sciatic pains fill your life with misery as the simplest of daily activities cause sudden and excruciating pain. There are two types of sciatia i.e. true sciatica and pseudo sciatica. Sciatica may be caused due to bulging disc or herniated disc, degenerative disc disease, piriformis syndrome, pregnancy or trauma etc.
According to Ayurveda, Sciatica is caused due to impairment in Vata i.e. the dosha responsible for the functional ability and movement of the body, and also in some cases due to impairment in the Kapha i.e. the dosha that is responsible for body fluids and lubrication.
1. Babunah is also known as Bitter Chamomile. Not only is it used to relieve and reduce the pain faced by a sciatica patient, but it is also used for treating problems such as rheumatism due to the advancement of age. Compressed bitter chamomile flowers are prescribed for sciatica.
2. Guggulu is also known as Indian Bdellium. Since guggulu is well known for its anti-inflammatory properties, it relaxes the sciatic nerves.
3. Rasna is also known as Vanda Orchid. Intense or agonizing pain due to the sciatic nerve issues can be reduced by this ayurvedic herb due to its anti-inflammatory properties.
4. Juniper oil is extremely helpful when massaged onto the thigh muscles with firm strokes or pressure. It is used extensively in massage therapy for treating sciatica since the extent of reduction in sciatic nerve pain is tremendous.
5. Jaiphal is also known as Nutmeg. After being mixed with sesame seeds oil, nutmeg is coarsely powdered and then fried till it turns brown. This is then applied to those areas where the sciatic pain is intense for instant relief.
6. Kumari is also known as Indian Aloe. Properties of Indian Aloe are extremely helpful in treating lower back ailments such as sciatica and lumbago.
7. Shallaki is also known as Boswellia or Frankincense. Containing anti-inflammatory properties, shallaki is applied externally to get relief from sciatic nerve pain.
Ayurvedic preparations such as yogaraja guggulu, Vataganjakusha, Saindhavadi taila are also very useful in treating Sciatica.
Knee replacement is a procedure where the weight-carrying surfaces of knee joint are replaced surgically to ease the pain or any disability. People suffering from osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis or psoriatic arthritis undergo knee replacement. All these conditions revolve around stiffness and painful knee. This surgery is usually performed on people aged over 50.
Knee replacement is mainly of two main types:
- Total knee replacement where both the sides of knee joints are replaced
- Partial knee replacement where only single side of the joint is replaced
Procedure: In case of partial knee replacement with minimal invasion, a smaller incision, which is 3 to 5 inches, is required. This leads to minimal tissue damage and the surgeon can work between the fibres of the quadriceps muscles. Here, an incision through the tendon is not required. This may result in less pain, recovery time is reduced, and motion is better as scar tissue formation is less.
In total knee replacement, four steps are performed:
- Removal of damaged cartilage surfaces, which is at the ends of the femur and tibia, with a small quantity of underlying bone.
- Replacement with metal components, which help as a recreated surface of the joint
- Incision of knee cap with a resurface made of a plastic button, which is optional based on the case
- Insertion of a medical grade plastic spacer amid the metal components. This creates an effortless gliding surface.
After general or spinal anaesthesia, an incision of 8-12 inches is made in the front part of the knee. Joint part which is damaged is removed from the surface of the bones. The surfaces are then formed in a way to hold a metal or plastic artificial joint. The thigh bone shin as well as knee cap is attached to the artificial joint with either cement or a special material.
After Effects of the Procedure: After the surgery, patients may stay in a hospital for three to five days. Post surgery, notable improvement can be seen after a month or later. The patient is gradually relieved from pain with the construction of new gliding surface during surgery.
There will be slow progress in the movement. In the beginning, one may walk with a support of parallel bars and then with the help of crutches, walker, or cane. After full recovery in about six weeks, people can enjoy normal activities except running or jumping.
Presently, over 90% of total knee replacements function well even after 15 years of surgery. Hence, knee problem is no problem at all!
Neck pain is a common medical condition, which can be easily treated if proper care and medications are taken. It usually occurs due to strained neck muscles, often caused bad posture, though there might be other causes as well. Rarely, neck pain can be a symptom of a more serious problem as the condition is relatively mild in nature.
Ankylosing Spondylitis Overview:
Arthritis can affect the quality of life of the affected in multifold ways. Ankylosing spondylitis is a type of arthritis can affects the spine. Pain and stiffness that runs from the neck to the lower back are the symptoms of this disease. This is an inflammation that can cause chronic pain and even lead to disability. Deformity too can be caused as the pain in the spine can lead to the formation of a new bone. It is not the only the neck and lowers back region that experiences the terrible pain, but even the other parts of the body are affected by this condition.
When affected by this condition, inflammation occurs between the vertebrae. This can also affect the joints in a few people. This can limit the movement of the affected. This disease often begins in early adolescence. When the spine becomes rigid, one can start seeing the changes. The changes can start at any point of time when the disease ranges from mild to severe. Over time, the affected also get a stooped posture. The disease is more common in Native Americans, and milder in women.
Ankylosing Spondylitis Symptoms:
1. Pain and arduousness: It is usual to experience the numbness, pain and stiffness in the back, buttocks and in the hips. When the symptoms exist for more than 3 months, the condition is moving from mild to severe. This usually begins in the lowest part of the spine, called the sacrum.
2. Bony fusion: the Abnormal joining of bones is called bony fusion, and ankylosing spondylitis can lead to this overgrowth of bones. This can occur in major joints like the neck, hips, or back. The affected starts losing efficiency in performing the daily chores. In severe cases, the affected will also find it very tough to take a deep breath.
3. Pain in tendons and sinews: The ligaments and sinews attached to the bones can be affected by ankylosing spondylitis. The inflammation of tendons called tendonitis is often on the cards. The pain and stiffness beneath the area of the heel can be experienced. This specific condition is called Achilles tendon. The back of the ankle is also affected, and the patient often finds it difficult to walk.
4. Other symptoms: This disease is systematic, and this is why the pain and discomfort are not related to certain areas only. Affected people can experience symptoms like fatigue, fever, eye inflation, problems in heart and lungs, and loss of appetite.
5. Weight loss, early morning stiffness, and anaemia are some of the symptoms experienced.
6. Inflammation in the bowels and heart valve inflammation too are experienced as this is an inflammatory disease
Causes of Ankylosing Spondylitis:
The exact cause for this disease is not yet clear. Doctors point fingers at the genetic susceptibility. But, it is also be understood that not all who are affected by this disease carry the gene HLA B27. The major point is that people who carry this gene, have the higher risk of a hit by this type of arthritis. The risk percentage is higher by 10 to 20%.
What is risk factors Ankylosing Spondylitis:
If one carries the HLA B2 protein, the chances of getting affected are higher. The same is the case when one or more family members are affected by this disease. The symptoms are often seen beginning at the age of 20 to 40 years. This is also common in men, and women are rarely affected by this condition.
How to diagnosed Ankylosing Spondylitis?
1. The diagnosis for ankylosing spondylitis is done through various ways. One of the major ways the doctor might identify the disease in the presence of the symptoms. Hence, it is important for the patients to ensure all the pain and discomfort experienced in different parts of the body should be intimated to the doctor.
2. A physical examination is carried out by the healthcare professionals to identify the inflammation. The doctor also might ask to move and stretch the limbs, to identify the affected areas. Restricted movements often unveil the disease.
3. X-rays are taken to notice the inflammation in the neck and the pelvic region. This screening offers a clear picture of the inflammation in various joints.
4. The chest breathing examination is carried out to check if the condition has an impact on the lungs and causes difficulty in breathing
5. The blood tests and other lab tests are also suggested by the doctor to check for anaemia, and other possible disorders that are associated with this condition.
6. Urinalysis is also recommended by the doctors. This is because the inflation can also affect the function of the kidney. This can be checked at the right moment with the urine sample test done at the lab.
Treatment of Ankylosing Spondylitis:
It has to be understood that ankylosing spondylitis has no cure. It can be treated to ensure that the discomfort and pain are reduced. The movement functions can be improved to ensure that the patient can do the daily chores with ease. The stiffness and pain are the major problems with the condition, and these can be eradicated to a great extent by this treatment. The goal of the treatment is also to prevent further damage and help retain a good posture. Proper treatment, methods help the affected to lead a fairly normal life, without having to depend on others. A team of doctors are involved in the treatment plan. Doctor, occupational therapist, ophthalmologist, who treats eye disease, gastroenterologist, who treats bowel disease, physiatrist, who specializes in physical medicine and rehabilitation, and a physical therapist, who provides stretching and exercise programs are present in the team.
1. Physical and occupational therapy: it is important to opt for these therapies at the initial stages to ensure that deformity is not formed. These therapies are given by trained professionals, who suggest a range of exercises specific to your needs and help in improving the functions, and also keep off from forming deformities due to reduced movements. For instance, a stooped posture can be corrected or prevented with the occupational and physical therapy.
2. Exercises: Exercises improve the daily functioning of the individuals, and help in proper posture maintenance. Apart from the exercise schedule the occupational therapist and the physical therapists suggest, the doctors can also suggest a list of exercises that can help in promoting deep breathing. When done regularly they can immensely help a lot. An exercise that is considered to be the best is swimming. For those, who cannot swim, the other options are yoga poses that help in improving the breathing pattern without any trouble.
3. Medications: Drugs are the important part of the treatment plan for ankylosing spondylitis, for they alone offer the much demanded instant relief from pain and stiffness caused by this disease. These drugs also ensure that the patients can do the exercises to improve the condition without facing much discomfort. Else, carrying out the daily chores too can be strenuous for the patients. The anti-inflammatory drugs that do not involve the use of steroids are often prescribed for this disease. A few examples are aspirin and ibuprofen. Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) like methotrexate (Rheumatrex) can be used when the condition is not mild, but severe. This is because the NSAIDs are not enough to control the inflammation. Other FDA approved drugs like certolizumab pegol (Cimzia), golimumab (Simponi Aria, Simponi), infliximab (Remicade), and infliximab-day (Inflectra), a biosimilar to Remicade, and secukinumab (Cosentyx), etanercept (Enbrel), etanercept-szzs (Erelzi), a biosimilar to Enbrel, and adalimumab (Humira), adalimumab-atto (Amjevita), a biosimilar to Humira,too are prescribed currently. The chronic back pain can also be dealt with a few anti-depressants.
4. Surgery: When the inflammation has affected the hips and waist joints very much, a joint replacement surgery is done. This has to be decided by the doctor, and various factors can be responsible for the doctor going against the same.
Apart from the treatment options, there are certain do’s and doughnuts that are instructed by the doctors to live with this condition.
1. Smoking exacerbates the condition. In many diseases, smoking can see to be aggravating the complications, and it is the same in the case of ankylosing spondylitis too. Smoking can impact inflammation. So, the patients are restricted from smoking.
2. Sleeping on the firm bed is a must. Too soft mattresses can aggravate the pain. Sleeping on the back is what the patients are supposed to do. It is also advised not to use large and soft pillows. Very thin pillows or cotton bed sheets can be folded under the head. This is because the neck fusion can be triggered by using large pillows.
3. Propping legs on pillows is another thing the patients are restricted to do. This is because, in the bent position, hip and knee fusion can result.
4. The tables, chairs and other work surfaces should be in such a degree that the stooping posture should not be encouraged.
5. Using armchairs is a good option, for they offer ample of support to the arms and shoulders.
6. Jumping, falling, and dancing can cause severe damage in the severe cases of the disease. The patient should take immense care in such cases.
Prevention of Ankylosing Spondylitis:
It is not easy to prevent ankylosing spondylitis. In fact, it is near to impossible. Majorly because the cause is unknown, the prevention is also yet to be known. However, if there are 1 or more family members diagnosed with this condition, then it is a good option to find the risk chances. Yearly health checkups can help in avoiding this condition. Leading a sedentary life too can add to the chances of getting affected by this condition. So, involving physical activities, and doing regular exercises can prevent this disease to a certain extent. Exercises can help in improving the flexibility, and in people who are very active, the symptoms are identified soon, making it easy to get treated even at the initial stages. It is also essential to stay off from smoking and tobacco. Even when not diagnosed with any form of arthritis, these substances can increase the risk factor and aggravate the condition. Eating a healthy diet is also recommended. This inflammatory disease can also lead to inflammation of the heart. So, when adding the junk and fatty foods, the heart can lose its efficiency sooner. A healthy diet can cut out the risk by half.
Complications of Ankylosing Spondylitis:
1. Fusion of the spine can lead to a curvature, which is called kyphosis. This can lead to a stooped posture when ankylosing spondylitis is left over time untreated.
2. The pain is often felt in the groin area when the hi; tp and shoulder joints are affected. This is called referred pain, which can be felt in the thighs too. This can have an impact on the occupational front of the patient too.
3. In most severe and rare cases, the heart’s electric functioning is also affected. This is because of the inflammation of the heart valves. A pacemaker must be brought in to ensure the proper functioning of the heart in such cases.
4. In 10% of the cases, the joints near the jaws are affected. This can lead to the problem not able to open the jaw fully to eat.
5. In the case of a few patients, the eye inflation can affect the quality of life, in case proper treatment is not given on time.
Myth #1: Ankylosing spondylitis affects only runs in families: only the risk factors high, and doesn’t mean it cannot occur to someone who has none in the family affected by this disease.
Myth #2: Exercises can prevent the occurrence: While exercising can keep symptoms at bay for long, and help in easy diagnosing at early stages, it does not guarantee to stay far from this disease.
Myth #3: Women are not affected: the risk factor for women is low. Men are affected 2 to 3 times higher but do not mean, women are spared by this disease.
It is not easy to lead a normal life with ankylosing spondylitis. It takes immense determination to fight this progressive disease. Sticking to medication and active lifestyle can only help to live with this disease.
Conjunctivitis, which is also known as ‘Pinkeye’, is an irritation on the outmost layer of the white portion of the eye and the inner layer of the eyelid. This makes the eye appear reddish or pink. There might be scratchiness, itchiness, or pain. The eye, which is affected, may be ‘stuck shut’ or have tears in the morning. Also, white portion of the eye can have swelling. Itching is very common in such cases because of allergies. Conjunctivitis can affect either both the eyes, or even one eye.
Anyone can get a pink eye, but schoolchildren, pre-schoolers, college student, day-care workers, and teachers are particularly at risk for the transmissible types of pinkeye because they closely work closely with others.
The very common contagious causes are viral followed by a bacterial infection. The viral infection might occur with other symptoms of common cold. Both the bacterial and viral cases are simply spread between the people. Allergies to animal hair or pollen are amongst the common causes. Diagnosis often depends on its signs and symptoms.
Conjunctivitis is also called neonatal conjunctivitis.
Few Facts on Conjunctivitis:
Here are a few facts about conjunctivitis. They are as follows:
- Pinkeye can result from an infection, an irritation, or an allergy.
- Bacteria or a virus can cause infection. Sometimes it is associated to a Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI).
- Antibiotics are used often, but these does not work if the cause if virus.
- The symptoms usually last up to two or three weeks, but they can continue for longer.
- It is vital to wash hands with care and not to share personal belongings, like towels, as this can spread the disease.
Types of Conjunctivitis:
There can be different types of Pinkeye. They are as follows:
Bacterial conjunctivitis is the most common type of pinkeye. It is caused by bacteria, which infects the eye via several sources of contamination. The bacteria can spread contact with exposure to contaminated surface, an infected person, or via other means like ear infection or sinus.
The common kinds of bacteria, which case bacterial conjunctivitis, are Streptococcus pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Haemophilus influenza and Staphylococcus aureus. A thick eye pus or discharge is usually produced in Bacterial conjunctivitis and one or both the eyes can get affected.
This type of conjunctivitis is another common form of pinkeye, which is highly infectious, as coughing and sneezing can spread airborne viruses. This form of pinkeye can also accompany common viral respiratory infections like the flu, the common cold, or measles.
Usually, a watery discharge is produced during viral conjunctivitis. Normally, the infection begins in one eye and rapidly spreads to the other eye.
Unlike with the bacterial infections, antibiotics do not work against virus. No ointments or eye drops affect against the common virus, which cause viral conjunctivitis. However, it is self-limited that means it will cure by itself after a short span of time.
Chlamydial and Gonococcal Conjunctivitis:
These bacterial forms are related to contamination from Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) including Chlamydia and gonorrhoea. Newborn babies might be infected while passing through the birth canal of the infected mother. A form of Chlamydia infection called Trachoma causes scarring on the surface of the eye. Trachoma is the leading cause of avertable blindness of the world.
Neonatal Conjunctivitis, also called Ophthalmia neonatorum, is a type of pinkeye contracted by newborn babies during delivery. The eyes of the baby are infected during the passage via birth canal from an infected mother with either Chlamydia Trachomatis or Neisseria Gonorrhoeae. If left untreated, it can lead to blindness. It may be contagious or non-contagious.
Eye allergies cause this form of conjunctivitis. Allergens including dust mites, animal dander, and pollen trigger eye allergies.
The most common indicator of allergic pinkeye is itchy eyes that can be relieved with a special type of eye drop consisting of antihistamines to monitor allergic reactions. These drops are available over both at medical counters and by prescription.
It is also imperative to avoid the allergen in treatment of this type of pinkeye. Allergic pinkeye can be perennial (year-round) or seasonal, based on the allergen that causes the reaction.
Giant papillary conjunctivitis (GPC):
Giant papillary conjunctivitis, generally involves both the eye. Also, contact lens wearers, often, are affected by GPC. This state can cause itching, contact lens intolerance, red bumps inside the eyelids, tearing and a heavy discharge. The person who suffers from this type of pinkeye needs to stop wearing contact lenses. The doctor may recommend to switch different type of contact lends, to trim down the chances of pinkeye coming back.
Non-infectious conjunctivitis: Diesel exhaust, certain chemicals, smoke and perfumes cause non-infectious conjunctivitis. Some types of conjunctivitis are resultant of sensitivity to certain consumed substances including herbs like turmeric and eyebright.
The immune responses of eye like a reaction to wearing ocular prosthetics (artificial eye) or contact lenses can cause certain types of conjunctivitis including the Giant Papillary Conjunctivitis. Toxic conjunctivitis can be caused by a reaction to preservatives in ointments or eye drops.
The most prevalent conjunctivitis symptoms include the following:
- Itchiness in one or both the eyes
- Redness in one or both the eyes
- A pus or discharge in one or both the eyes forming a crust during night that may not allow one to open eye in the morning.
- Gritty feeling in one or both the eyes
Viral Conjunctivitis: Sensitivity to light, itchy and watery eyes, are the common symptoms of viral conjunctivitis. This type of pinkeye can affect one or both the eyes.
Bacterial Conjunctivitis: The eye discharges a sticky, greenish-yellow or yellow discharge or pus in the eye’s corner. In a few cases, this pus can be stern enough to cause one’s eyelids to be stuck when s/he wakes up. It can affect one or both the eyes. Bacterial pinkeye is contagious, usually by a direct contact with contaminated items or hands that have been in contact with eyes.
Allergic Conjunctivitis: Itchy, burning, watery eyes; often accompanied by a runny nose, light sensitivity, and stuffiness. Both the eyes are affected by allergic conjunctivitis. This type is not contagious.
Causes of Conjunctivitis:
A virus, most commonly, causes contagious conjunctivitis. Allergies, bacterial infections, dryness and other irritants are also the common causes. Both the viral infections and bacterial infections are infectious, passing from one to another through contaminated water or objects.
Viral: The most common cause of the viral conjunctivitis (adenoviral keratoconjunctivitis) is adenoviruses. Herpes simplex viruses can cause herpetic keratoconjunctivitis. This can be a serious problem and require treatment with acyclovir. Coxsackievirus A24 and Enterovirus 70, two types of enteroviruses can cause a highly contagious ailment called acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis. These two enteroviruses were first identified in an outburst in Ghana in 1969. Since then, the viruses have spread across the world causing various epidemics.
Bacterial: Haemophilus influenza, streptococcus pneumonia, and staphylococcus are the most causes of acute bacteria conjunctivitis. Neisseria meningitides or Neisseria gonorrhoea usually cause hypercute cases (through very rare). Staphylococcus aureus, gram-negative enteric flora, or moraxella lacunata are the typical causes of chronic cases of the bacterial conjunctivitis, which lasts longer than 3 weeks.
Allergic: Allergens like perfumes, dust mites, pollens, cosmetics can cause allergic conjunctivitis.
Causes of Conjunctivitis in newborns:
Blocked tear duct, irritation, or infection can cause conjunctivitis in newborn babies. One cannot find it difficult to determine the cause as each form of pinkeye produces similar symptoms.
Sometimes, virus or bacteria are passed on from mother during her delivery, even though she has no symptoms of conjunctivitis. The virus or bacteria may be associated to STI.
If the infant has bacterial pinkeye due to Chlamydia, the symptoms usually, appear 5 to 12 days after delivery. The symptoms seem to appear 2 to 4 days if the infection is due to gonorrhoea.
The virus causing genital and oral can be transmitted at birth and emerge as conjunctivitis.
In a few cases, conjunctivitis arises as a reaction of the eye drops given to the infant at the time of birth, to prevent contamination. In such cases, the symptoms usually pass after 24 -36 hours.
Other causes of Pinkeye:
Red eyes can be symptoms of the following:
Acute Glaucoma is one of rarest forms of glaucoma. In this pressure is build up in eyes. Symptoms appear quickly including red eyes, pain, and loss of vision, which may be permanent, if not treated on time.
The cornea possible becomes ulcerated and inflamed. If the cornea is blemished, it can lead to perpetual vision loss.
Blepharitis, common inflammation of eyelids, causes irritation, itching, and redness. The patient will also have dandruff – like scales on eyelashes. This is not contagious.
Diagnosis of Conjunctivitis:
In many cases, the doctor can diagnose conjunctivitis by asking a few questions about the symptoms one experiences in recent past and perform a physical examination of the patient’s eye.
Not often, the doctor may also ask the patient to take a sample of the pus, which drains from his/her eye for lab analysis (culture). The doctor may require culture if s/he find the symptoms severe or suspects a high-risk cause like a serious bacterial contamination, sexually transmitted infection, or foreign body in the patient’s eye.
Treatment of red eye is based on the type of pinkeye.
Bacterial Conjunctivitis: The eye-specialist normally will prescribe an antibiotic ointment or eye-drop for the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis.
Viral Conjunctivitis: In many cases, this form of conjunctivitis will run for several days, and no medical treatment is indicated or required. One can try a home remedy like applying a wet washcloth, or cold water to the eyes many times in a day can relieve conjunctivitis symptoms.
Allergic Redeye: Allergic pinkeye can be prevented by allergy medications or this can even shorten the bouts of this form of conjunctivitis. Sometimes the medication should be started before allergy flare-ups or allergy season begins. Consult the doctor for details.
Prevention from Conjunctivitis:
The following remedies can reduce the risk of passing or catching an infective conjunctivitis:
- Avoid rubbing and touching the affected eye.
- Wash hands frequently with warm water and soap, or use sanitizer.
- Keep eyeglasses clean
- Use goggles in swimming pool, and do not swim if infectious.
- Always remove contact lens at night, and follow instructions about lens hygiene.
- Avoid sharing personal stuff such as pillows and towels, contact lenses and make up with other people.
- It is better to throw away any make-up or contact lens solution, after the contagion is gone.
- One can reduce the risk of allergic and irritant pinkeye by avoiding known or potential allergens and irritants.
- This includes ensuring air conditioning units are maintained and clean, rooms are well ventilated, and avoiding misty or smoky atmosphere.
Myths Related to Conjunctivitis:
Following are the most common myths about pinkeye:
Myth #1: All types of conjunctivitis are contagious:
One of the most harmful and common misconception about red eye is that there is only one, highly infectious form. Red eye actually has various causes, including advanced dry eye, allergies, infections, and exposure to chemical fumes.
Myth #2: Any pinkness points to Conjunctivitis:
Many people believe that any red or pink colouration in the eye indicate the presence of conjunctivitis. However, ‘pink eye’ applies to colouration changes of the eyeball itself.
One can be infected at first sight: This is the most persistent myths about conjunctivitis is that the infected person can transmit the ailment at a single glance. Nevertheless, there is no transmission of diseases through eye contact, including conjunctivitis.
How to deal with anxiety this is the problem I am facing right now please help me? While I do exercise I felt dizzy. Reason?
Bell’s Palsy is a disease, which causes a sudden, temporary weakness in the facial muscles. It is facial paralysis that makes patients unable to control his facial muscles on either side of his face. This disease can occur at any age.
There is no known reason for its cause. However, the disease is believed to be caused because of swelling and inflammation of the nerve that controls the muscles on the affected side. The risk factors include diabetes and upper respiratory tract infection. This is caused due to the malfunction of the cranial nerve.
Bell’s Palsy affects millions of people worldwide. For most of them, the disease is temporary. The symptoms usually start to improve within a few weeks from the first appearance. The complete recovery takes close to six months. There are a few people who continue to have the Bell’s Palsy for their complete life. The disease rarely affects someone twice. People who recurrently face the disease are often found to be a victim of diabetes or viral infections.
People, often, unknowingly interpret the disease as a stroke. It, however, is not a stroke. A stroke affecting the facial muscles would also affect the body muscles and cause weakness in other parts of the body too.
Bell’s Palsy Causes-
The causes that trigger Bell's Palsy in the human body are still unknown. Often researchers associate it with an exposure to a viral infection. The facial nerve passes through a narrow bony area in the skull and when it swells, it pushes against the hard surface of the skull when there is a viral infection. Apart from the facial muscles, the disease also affects tears, saliva, taste and a small bone positioned in the middle of the ear. At other times, researchers also associate it with physical damage to the facial nerve that causes a similar swelling of the face.
Mostly the disease occurs due to viral infections. The infections play an important role in the development of the disease. The viruses that are linked to the development of the disease are:
1. Cold sores and genital herpes, also known as herpes simplex
3. Infectious mononucleosis, which is also known as herpes zoster
4. Cytomegalovirus infections
5. Respiratory illnesses or adenovirus
6. German measles or rubella virus
7. Mumps or the mumps virus
8. Flu or the influenza B virus
9. Hand-foot-and-mouth disease or the coxsackievirus
Some Risk Factors of Bell’s Palsy-
It has often been noticed that Bell ’s palsy follows a pattern when affecting people. These include:
1. The disease often occurs in females who are pregnant and are in the third trimester of the gestation period. It can also affect the mother after the first week of the birth.
2. People having an upper respiratory infection, such as the flu and the cold, are commonly affected.
3. People having diabetes are also frequently affected.
As mentioned before, the disease rarely affects the same person recurrently. If there is a family history of the disease recurring repeatedly, it suggests a genetic trait or predisposition of the disease.
Bell’s Palsy Symptoms-
There are a few symptoms which constantly recur when Bell’s Palsy strikes a person. These symptoms include:
1. Inability to move the eyelid or blinking.
2. The eye on the affected side of the face waters more or less than it occurs usually.
3. Drooling even in a conscious state.
4. A reduced sense of taste in the mouth.
5. Twitching of the facial muscles.
Of all the symptoms drooling and facial weakness, reach their peak in a day or two. These symptoms then begin to reduce, which helps people to recover within a couple of weeks. Complete recovery happens within 3 months. Some of the patients may show neurological symptoms, which are defined as mononeuritis. This is what causes the tingling, headache, memory and balance problems. Other symptoms, which are unexplained by the facial nerve dysfunction, are ipsilateral limb weakness, ipsilateral limb paresthesias, and clumsiness.
Bell’s Palsy Diagnosis-
Bell’s Palsy is a disease which requires the diagnosis of exclusion. As there is no specific test for the disease, the doctor observes the diseased person’s face and asks him to move various parts of his face, including the facial muscles, for instance, closing the eyes, lifting the brow, showing the teeth and various other movements. Observing these parts, the doctor eliminates various other possibilities and tries to determine a reasonable cause for the disease.
As the disease is treated on the basis of exclusion, there is no routine testing or imaging test that can help in the diagnosis process. However, the degree of the nerve damage can be assessed using the House-Brackmann score. There are many studies, which have revealed that 45% of patients are not referred to a specialist. This simply suggests that the disease requires a straightforward diagnosis and is easy to manage.
Differential Diagnosis of Bell’s Palsy-
As there is no particular diagnosis in the treatment of the disease, doctors make use of the differential diagnosis technique in the treatment of Bell’s Palsy. In differential diagnosis, doctors distinguish a particular disease from other diseases that present similar clinical features. The technique finds its usage while diagnosing a particular disease to eliminate imminently life-threatening conditions.
During the differential diagnosis of Bell’s Palsy, there are various diseases which are easily eliminated such as a stroke. However, it is very difficult to eliminate the involvement of the facial nerve with the herpes zoster virus. In order to understand the major difference between the two, one must look for the small blisters on the external ear.
The Lyme’s disease also produces facial palsy, which occurs at the same time as the classic erythema migraine rash. Other times, it occurs at a later stage. In cases where the Lyme disease is common to the Bell’s Palsy disease, it may lead to facial palsy.
Bell’s Palsy Treatment-
As mentioned before, a vast majority of people have shown improvement in health and recovered completely from the disease with and at certain times, without treatment. There is no designated treatment for the disease. Doctors may suggest various medications or physical therapies that help to speed up the recovery of the patient. The medicines may vary from doctor to doctor. However, these medications may differ in accordance with the doctor. Surgery is rarely a solution or option in case of Bell’s Palsy.
Having said that, there are various procedures for the treatment of Bell’s Palsy. They include usage of the following:
5. Alternative Medicinal Therapies
1. Steroids – Various steroids such as corticosteroids, improve recovery of the patient within 6 months. Due to this, early administration of corticosteroids such as prednisone is recommended. The early treatment is necessary as it provides the patient with around 14% higher chances of recovery.
2. Antivirals –Various tests and reviews have shown that antivirals are not as effective in treating the disease as steroids. In fact, they are only beneficial in cases that display some form of mild diseases. There is another review, which stated that antivirals combined with corticosteroids were advantageous for the duration of the treatment. There is a huge amount of speculation when it comes to using antivirals for the treatment. However, antivirals still result in a benefit, which is slightly less than 7%, and therefore this course of treatment is not ruled out.
3. Physiotherapy – Physiotherapy helps in maintaining the tone of the impacted facial muscles and stimulating the facial nerve. Because of this, physiotherapy can be beneficial to some individuals.
4. Surgery – Surgery may help patients recover from facial nerve palsy. There are various techniques that exist to assist with the process of surgery. A form of surgery is a procedure that is beneficial in restoring the smile of patients suffering from facial nerve paralysis. However, this is a surgery that can be as harmful as it is beneficial. There are various side effects associated with the surgical technique. One may experience total hearing disability. In fact, around 3-15% patients experience hearing loss after the surgery.
5. Alternative Medicinal Therapies – Alternative Medicinal Therapies include various techniques such as acupuncture on the affected region. Paralyzed muscles often tend to shrink and shorten causing permanent contractures and pain. Physical therapies can guide the patient to prevent such an incident from occurring.
However, the efficiency of such techniques still remains unknown to the doctors. This is due to the fact that the studies conducted are available in a low quality. Another therapy is the hyperbaric oxygen therapy. However, the evidence available for the therapy is quite tentative.
Myths related to Bell’s Palsy
Bell’s Palsy disease often confuses people leading them to believe various myths. The most prominent myths include:
Myth #1: Bell’s Palsy Causes Permanent Facial Paralysis
Bell’s Palsy is a form of temporary facial paralysis. The facial nerve that is on one side of the face is disrupted. Due to this, the message, which is received from the brain, is interfered. However, in a majority of cases, the disease is temporary. The paralyzed area of the face starts to cure within a few weeks and within three to six months; the paralysis completely disappears on its own. In a few percentages of cases, the nerve function does not return to normal. The nerve function may return but the full function does not return.
Myth #2: There is No Treatment Which Ensures the Treatment of Bell’s Palsy
There are various techniques which are available for the treatment of Bell’s Palsy. As mentioned above, the disease can be defeated using steroids, antivirals, physiotherapy, surgery and alternative medicinal therapies. These are the most effective treatments for the disease. Apart from this, selective neurolysis and botox can be used to treat the disease.
Selective neurolysis involves releasing a platysma muscle downward and reducing the activity. The selective neurolysis is very useful for a patient to regain his ability to smile. The botox treatment is a non-surgical treatment. When injected by a nerve expert, it helps patients to regain some symmetry into their faces and improve their facial appearance.
Myth #3: Prognosis of the Disease is not Very Good
There are many people who are under the impression that prognosis for Bell’s Palsy is not very good and hence they hesitate in using it for the treatment. However, doctors state that prognosis is generally very good for the patients.
After making use of the prognosis method, a person starts to improve on his symptoms within the first two weeks. The duration for complete recovery remains the same, i.e. three to six months.