Diabetes is often referred by doctors as diabetes mellitus which is a group of metabolic diseases in which the person has high blood glucose (blood sugar), either because insulin production is inadequate, or because the body's cells do not respond properly to insulin or both. Patients with high blood sugar will typically experience frequent urination, they will become increasingly thirsty and hungry.
HOW IS DIABETES DIAGNOSED?
Doctors can determine whether a patient has a normal metabolism, prediabetes or diabetes in one of three different ways - there are three possible tests:
• The A1C test
• The FPG (fasting plasma glucose) test
• The OGTT (oral glucose tolerance test)
HOW IS DIABETES TREATED?
Diabetes usually lasts a lifetime, however, some people have managed to get rid of their symptoms without medication, through a combination of exercise, diet and body weight control. Regular insulin injections are recommended for certain cases.
DID YOU KNOW?
Hospitalisation may be required for very severe cases.
Diabetes mellitus, commonly known as Diabetes, is a set of metabolic conditions marked by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. Insulin helps the body use food for energy. In the body of a diabetic, the pancreas either cannot produce enough insulin, or uses the insulin incorrectly, or both. If the insulin will not function properly, glucose cannot enter cells. This causes the glucose level in the blood to rise, creating a condition of high blood sugar level or Diabetes Mellitus.
Causes of Diabetes Mellitus:
The following issues may increase the chance of getting affected by Diabetes Mellitus (DM) or Diabetes:
• Family background history of diabetes or inherited
• Due to overweight
• Any physical stress
• Use of some medications, that includes steroids & blood pressure medications
• High Blood pressure or high cholesterol level
Types of Diabetes Mellitus (DM):
1. Type 1 diabetes:
The type 1 diabetes is also called as insulin- dependent diabetes. It is used to be called as juvenile-onset diabetes. In type 1 Diabetes Mellitus, the pancreas makes less or no insulin, so sugar cannot get into the body cells for use as energy.
Type 1 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes in people under the age of 20-30.
2. Type 2 diabetes:
In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas makes insulin, but it either doesn't produce insulin or the insulin does not work properly. The type 2 diabetes mellitus may sometime be controlled with a balanced diet, weight control & exercise.
3. Gestational diabetes:
Gestational diabetes occurs when there is a high blood sugar level during pregnancy. Gestational diabetes is diagnosed in middle or late pregnancy. Hormone changes during the pregnancy also affect the action of insulin, that results in high blood glucose levels.
Long term complications with diabetes mellitus:
1. Diabetic Retinopathy (eye disease) - patients with the diabetes mellitus face this problem. Diabetic Retinopathy is caused by damage to the blood vessels of light sensitive tissue at the back of the eye (retina).
2. Diabetic neuropathy- it is a type of nerve damage that can occur if one has diabetes mellitus. High blood sugar level injures nerve fibers throughout your body. Diabetic Neuropathy is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus.
Diabetes Mellitus can lead to serious issues with your blood vessels, nerves, heart, mouth, kidneys, eyes & feet. One of the major serious problems caused by the Diabetes Mellitus is the heart disease.
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