Respiratory Disorder is a medical term that encompasses pathological conditions affecting the organs and tissues that make gas exchange possible in higher organisms, and includes conditions of the upper respiratory tract, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, pleura and pleural cavity, and the nerves and muscles of breathing. Respiratory diseases range from mild and self-limiting, such as the common cold, to life-threatening entities like bacterial pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, and lung cancer.
Obstructive conditions (e.g., emphysema, bronchitis, asthma attacks)
Restrictive conditions (e.g., fibrosis, sarcoidosis, alveolar damage, pleural effusion)
Vascular diseases (e.g., pulmonary edema, pulmonary embolism, pulmonary hypertension)
Infectious, environmental and other ""diseases"" (e.g., pneumonia, tuberculosis, asbestosis, particulate pollutants): Coughing is of major importance, as it is the body's main method to remove dust, mucus, saliva, and other debris from the lungs. Inability to cough can lead to infection. Deep breathing exercises may help keep finer structures of the lungs clear from particulate matter, etc.
HOW IS RESPIRATORY DISORDERS DIAGNOSED?
Respiratory diseases may be investigated by performing one or more of the following tests
Biopsy of the lung or pleura
Computed tomography scan
Culture of microorganisms from secretions such as sputum
Ultrasound scanning can be useful to detect fluid such as pleural effusion
Pulmonary function test
HOW IS RESPIRATORY DISORDERS TREATED?
The treatment is based on the underlying cause of the condition. Treatment of respiratory system cancer depends on the type of cancer. Surgical removal of part of a lung (lobectomy, segmentectomy, or wedge resection) or of an entire lung pneumonectomy), along with chemotherapy and radiotherapy, are all used. The chance of surviving lung cancer depends on the cancer stage at the time the cancer is diagnosed, and to some extent on the histology, and is only about 14-17% overall. In the case of metastases to the lung, treatment can occasionally be curative but only in certain, rare circumstances.
DID YOU KNOW?
The most common cause of illness in children in developed countries and the main cause of death of children in developing countries are diseases of the lungs and airways.