Menstrual disorders include:
• Painful cramps (dysmenorrhea) during menstruation. Primary dysmenorrhea is caused by menstruation itself. Secondary dysmenorrhea is triggered by another condition, such as endometriosis or uterine fibroids.
• Heavy bleeding (menorrhagia) includes prolonged menstrual periods or excessive bleeding.
• Absence of menstruation (amenorrhea). Primary amenorrhea is considered when a girl does not begin to menstruate by the age of 16. Secondary amenorrhea occurs when periods that were previously regular stop for at least 3 months.
• Light or infrequent menstruation (oligomenorrhea) refers to menstrual periods that occur more than 35 days apart. It usually is not a cause for concern, except if periods occur more than 3 months apart.
HOW IS MENSTRUAL DISORDERS DIAGNOSED?
In addition to a physical exam and details of symptoms the doctor is likely to do a pelvic exam. Blood tests can help determine whether hormonal imbalances are causing the menstrual problems.Other tests may include:
• endometrial biopsy
HOW IS MENSTRUAL DISORDERS TREATED?
Treatment options for menstrual disorders include:
• Medicines such as painkillers and antibiotics.
• Oral contraceptives (birth control pills) can help regulate menstrual periods and reduce heavy bleeding. Newer continuous-dosing oral contraceptives reduce or eliminate menstrual periods. The LNG-IUS (Mirena), a progesterone intrauterine device (IUD), is often recommended as a first-line treatment for heavy bleeding
• Endometrial ablation is a surgical option. In some cases, hysterectomy may be considered.