Cardiac catheterization treatment is used to diagnose and plan the treatment of many heart diseases. Catheterizations are frequently performed to measure the pressure within the heart's chambers, collect samples of the heart muscle, measure blood oxygen levels and blood flow in the heart's chambers, and evaluate heart muscle pumping ability. This enables the cardiologist to access who how well the heart is functioning. During cardiac catheterization, x-Ray images, called angiograms, are usually recorded to examine the blood vessels supplying the heart muscle. This is necessary to determine the need for bypass surgery, angioplasty, or stent placement. Cardiac catheterization is usually very safe. A small number of people have minor problems. Some develop bruises where the catheter had been inserted (puncture site). The contrast dye that makes the arteries show up on X-rays causes some people to feel sick to their stomachs, get itchy or develop hives. A coronary catheterization is a minimally invasive procedure to access the coronary circulation and blood filled chambers of the heart using a catheter. It is performed for both diagnostic and interventional (treatment) purposes. Coronary catheterization is one of the several cardiology diagnostic tests and procedures. Coronary artery luminal narrowing reduces the flow reserve for oxygenated blood to the heart, typically producing intermittent angina. Balloon septostomy is the widening of a foramen ovale, patent foramen ovale (PFO), or atrial septal defect (ASD) via cardiac catheterization (heart cath) using a balloon catheter. This procedure allows a greater amount of oxygenated blood to enter the systemic circulation in some cases of cyanotic congenital heart defect.
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