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Dr. Vipul N Parikh

Radiologist, Mumbai

Dr. Vipul N Parikh Radiologist, Mumbai
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My favorite part of being a doctor is the opportunity to directly improve the health and wellbeing of my patients and to develop professional and personal relationships with them....more
My favorite part of being a doctor is the opportunity to directly improve the health and wellbeing of my patients and to develop professional and personal relationships with them.
More about Dr. Vipul N Parikh
Dr. Vipul N Parikh is a trusted Radiologist in Mulund East, Mumbai. He is currently associated with Sana Clinic in Mulund East, Mumbai. Save your time and book an appointment online with Dr. Vipul N Parikh on Lybrate.com.

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Causes and Symptoms of Uterine Fibroids

Fellowship In Minimal Access Surgery, MS - Obstetrics and Gynaecology, MBBS
Gynaecologist, Hyderabad
Causes and Symptoms of Uterine Fibroids

Uterine fibroids are referred to as benign, abnormal growths which tend to develop in the uterine walls of a woman. The size of such growths can range from a few centimeters to even excess of a few inches. As such, they can cause the uterus to increase to the size of a five month pregnancy. Although, the symptoms of fibroids are not always apparent, they often cause heavy bleeding and pain in women. A recent research concluded that around 60 to 75 percent women contract such fibroids by the age of 50, at least once in their life.

Depending on the site of formation, uterine fibroids are distinguished into different types. Intramural fibroids in the lining of the uterus and subserosal fibroids which develop outside the uterus are the most commonly observed fibroids.

What causes Uterine Fibroids?
Although, the exact reason for the formation of fibroids are obscure, medical professionals have determined certain factors that may affect their formation. Some of them are:
1) Hormones: Progesterone and estrogen, produced by the ovaries regenerate the uterine lining during each menstrual cycle and trigger the growth of fibroids.
2) Family history: If you have had a family history of uterine fibroids, then you're likely to develop the condition yourself as well.
3) Pregnancy: The production of progesterone and estrogen increases during pregnancy which increases the likelihood of fibroids.

What are the signs of the condition?
Depending on the location and size of the tumors, symptoms of such fibroids include:
1) Heavy bleeding and blood clots during periods
2) Pain in the pelvis
3) Frequent menstrual cramps
4) Pressure and pain in the lower abdomen
5) Swelling in the abdomen
6) Pain while intercourse

What is the procedure of the treatment?
Ultrasound and pelvic MRI are common diagnostic procedures to check for uterine fibroids. After diagnosis, depending on your age, size of the fibroid and your comprehensive health, the doctor would prescribe you with appropriate medications. Only after medications prove futile, doctors opt for minimally invasive surgeries. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.

2790 people found this helpful

I want to know about exercises being done in case of diffuse disc bulge at l1-l2 level indenting anterior the cal sac mildly with bilateral mild neural foraminal narrowing.

Diploma in Radio-Diagnosis
Radiologist, Shimla
If pain is there no exercise indicated, after relief mild passive exercises, lumber exercise, lumbo-sacral exercise, mild lumber extension exercise; click on private quastion in my name for any clarification.
1 person found this helpful
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Breast Cancer - 4 Common Symptoms

MD, MBBS, Advanced Infertility
Gynaecologist, Jalandhar
Breast Cancer - 4 Common Symptoms

Breast cancer is a type of a cancerous infection that develops in the skin cells of the breast. This condition is more commonly diagnosed after you have skin cancer and is more common in women than men. There are certain signs to identify this disease, which are as follows.

1. Breast lumps - Lumps are patches of skin that occur due to the thickening and swelling of the skin. Breast lumps is a very common phenomenon for women but that does not always lead to a breast cancer; however, frequent and reoccurring instances of the same increases the risk of breast cancer. A breast lump is easily identifiable through the naked eye as it looks different from the surrounding tissues.

2. Blood discharge - The nipple is one of the most sensitive areas in the human body. In case of women, it is meant to emit milk during pregnancy, in order to feed the infant externally. A probable symptom of breast cancer can also be a frequent discharge of blood from the nipple without any visible damage or injury.

3. Breast changes - If you are experiencing any visible changes in the size, appearance or shape of the breast, then it is an indicative sign that you may have breast cancer. Thus, it is of paramount importance that you observe, touch and physically examine your breast regularly for changes. If there is any major change detected then it is advisable to consult a doctor.

4. Inverted nipple - The tip of the nipple is generally bulging and pointing outwards both in cases of men and women. But sometimes the tip of the nipple is pushed inside due to excessive suction caused by the skin tissues present inside the breast around the nipple area. This suction forces the nipple to grow inwards which is abnormal and might harm the breast and skin in various ways.

However, apart from these main symptoms, some other signs are also there that increase your chances of being diagnosed with breast cancer. They are redness or pitting of the skin over your breast like an orange, peeling or scaling of the pigmented area around the nipple, dimpling of the skin on the breasts, and such others. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.

4700 people found this helpful

Can Physiotherapy Cure cervical disc prolapse and L5 S1 Disc bulge.I am suffering from Neck pain for the Past 6 years

BPTh/BPT
Physiotherapist, Gurgaon
these days there is lots of advanced techniques in physiotherapy can cure disc prolapse in various levels. At my experience if you go for a right physiotherapy center you will get result..
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I am 24yr old male and have backache for 7 month. My mri report is mild annular disc bulge is seen at l4-5 level with subtle anterior thecal sac impression. What should I do?

Diploma in Radio-Diagnosis
Radiologist, Shimla
At this age only excersises-lumber and sacral, har, bed rest, avoid jjerky movements, and sitting posture normal advised.
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Should You Get a Mammogram?

MHA, PGDPMC, DGO, MBBS
Gynaecologist, Delhi
Should You Get a Mammogram?

A mammogram is an imaging test where an X-ray is taken to recreate the internal imagery of your breasts. This is a screening test that is widely used to find the earliest signs of cancer. There have been instances where the early signs of cancer have been found up to three years before the actual development of the same. There are a number of benefits and risks in this screening method. So let us find out more about getting a mammogram, and whether or not you should get one.

  • Procedure: A special X-ray machine is used for conducting a mammogram. There is a clear plastic plate on which the specialist will place the breast while another plate will press on the breast from above. While both the plates serve to flatten the breast and hold it still, the X-ray will be taken. Some pressure will be felt and the same steps will be repeated so as to get the side view of the breasts. The same procedure will be repeated for the other breast. Meanwhile, once it is done, you will need to wait so that the technician can check for clarity, and whether or not the procedure needs to be done again. The results of this procedure cannot be relayed by the technician, and all the images will be different because all breasts are slightly different from each other.
  • Preparation: You will need to remember that the process can be a slightly painful one, especially once the pressure gets applied. Many women complain of discomfort and pain. Yet, this discomfort gets over before you know it. The pressure and pain will depend on the size of your breasts and how much they will have to be pressed in order to get a picture. The skill of the technician will also come into play here. One must remember not to get this procedure done a week or so before or after the menstrual cycle, as the breasts tend to be tender around this time, and the pain will be much more.
  • Radiologist: Within a few weeks after the procedure, the radiologist will usually deliver the result. This is the professional who does an accurate reading of the X-ray.
  • Normal and Abnormal Readings: If your mammogram result has a normal reading, then you can resort to getting one done every once in a while. But an abnormal reading will require further X-ray and tests so as to be able to tell for sure.
  • Why should I get one: If you are over 40 and have a family history of such ailments, then you will have to get a mammogram done regularly. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.
2767 people found this helpful

An Overview Of Bone Cancer

MD - Oncology
Oncologist, Hubli-Dharwad
An Overview Of Bone Cancer

Bone cancer is a cancerous tumour in the bone, destroying the normal bone tissues. Tumours on bone tissues are not always cancerous or malignant, they are mostly benign. Primary bone cancer is when the malignant tumour begins to form in the tissues of the bones, but when these cancerous cells spread to other body parts like breasts, prostate or lungs, it is called metastatic cancer. Primary bone cancer is less common than metastatic cancer.

Bone cancer can be of three different types:

  1. Osteosarcoma: In this case, the malignant tumour arises from the osteoid bone tissue. This occurs mainly in the upper arm and knee areas.

  2. Chondrosarcoma: In this case the cancerous cells form in the cartilaginous tissues, causing a lot of pain. This occurs mostly in the pelvic area.

  3. The Ewing sarcoma generally arises in the bone but it can also form in the soft tissues. Other kinds of soft tissues affecting cancerous cells are known as soft tissue sarcomas.

Causes-

There aren’t many clear defined causes; however, several factors have been identified by researchers.

  1. Osteosarcoma is seen to occur more frequently in people who have been through a high external radiation therapy dose.

  2. In people who have frequently been treated with anticancer medications, children tend to be most affected.

  3. Heredity may be an adding cause, although the percentage of hereditary transfer of cancer cells is very low.

  4. People with hereditary bone defects or implants have a higher chance of acquiring bone cancer.

Symptoms-

The most common and saddening symptom of bone cancer is painful, although not all bone cancers cause pain. Unusual or persistent swelling or pain around a bone maybe a red flag for bone cancer. In case of a situation like this, immediate doctor’s opinion is required.

Diagnosis-

Usually, diagnosis of a bone cancer can be made using X-rays; for example, a bone scan, a computed tomography scan, a magnetic imaging procedure—positron emission tomography, and an angiogram. Biopsy and blood tests are also helpful in bone cancer diagnosis.

Treatment-

The size, location and stage of cancer, age, and health of the person decide the kind of treatment that should be given to the patient. Various treatment options include chemotherapy, radiation therapy and cryosurgery.

Survival-

The combined survival rate of all sorts of bone cancers is 70%. This percentage may vary with the type of bone cancer and also its stage.

14 people found this helpful

I have a herniated disk (bulged disk/slip disk) at c7 and the c7 nerve is compressed for last 2 months. Do you have treatment in ayurveda ?

MBBS, MS - Orthopaedics
Orthopedist, Delhi
However you may try sleep on a hard bed with soft bedding on it. Use no pillow under the head. Kindly take biod3 max 1 tab dailyx10 paracetamol 250mg od & sos x5days do back (spine)/shoulder/knee exercises make sure you are not allergic to any of the medicines you are going to take do not ignore it. It may have to be further investigated. It could be beginning of a serious problem. If no relief in 4_5 days, then contact me again. Contact your family doctor or nearest hospital for emergency help.
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What should I be doing to releave the pain for two herniated disc's one above and one below a fusion surgery of the cervical spine.

MBBS, MS - Orthopaedics
Orthopedist, Delhi
Sleep on a hard bed with soft bedding on it. SPRING BEDS, FOLDING BEDS OR THICK MATRESS ARE HARMFUL Use no pillow under the head. DO HOT FOMANTATION. Paracetamol 250mg OD & SOS x 5days. Caldikind plus 1tab OD x10. Do neck, back & general exercises. It may have to be further investigated. You will need other supportive medicines also. Make sure you are not allergic to any of the medicines you are going to take. If it does not give relief in 4-5days, contact me again.. Do not ignore .It could be beginning of a serious problem.
1 person found this helpful
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As per my MRI report for lumber spine, disc protrusion seen at L5-S1 indenting anterior thecal sac and narrowing left neural recess. Disc hydration is Los at L5-S1. I have severe lower back pain for last one month. What is the ideal plan for treatment?

BPTh/BPT
Physiotherapist, Delhi
Take bed rest for 15 days. Consult physio they will guide you better. Avoid forward bending. Use hot pack for 15 mint at lower back.
3 people found this helpful
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Breast Cancer - Local and Systematic Form of Treatment!

MBBS, DNB (Obstetrics and Gynecology), MNAMS, Training in USG
Gynaecologist, Delhi
Breast Cancer - Local and Systematic Form of Treatment!

Breast Cancer - What exactly is it?
‘Breast cancer’ is a term that is used to refer to a malignant tumour, which has developed from cells present in the breast. Generally, all tumours can be divided into two categories i.e. benign and malignant and it is the malignant tumour that is responsible for causing cancer. Breast cancer generally originates in the cells the  milk producing glands of the breast's or the passage, which carries milk from the glands to the lobules. Additionally, breast cancer can also originate in the stromal tissues, including the fibrous and fatty connective breast tissues.

Breast Cancer: Treatment Options
Treatment for breast cancer depends upon two things: the exact type of the cancer and how advanced the cancer is. Treatment options for breast cancer can thus be broadly divided into two categories as Local treatments and Systemic treatments.

Local Treatments
Treatments that target the tumour without having any effect on the rest of the body are called local treatments. The following types of local treatment options are available for treating breast cancer:

  1. Surgery: Surgical breast cancer treatment involves removal of the malignant cancerous tumour in an operation. Smaller tumours can be removed using a surgical process referred to as ‘lumpectomy’, wherein the tumour along with a small amount of healthy tissue surrounding the tumour is removed. For larger tumours, removal of the entire breast becomes mandatory, in a surgical process known as ‘mastectomy’. Women who undergo mastectomy can choose to undergo reconstructive plastic surgery for reconstruction of the removed breast(s).
  2. Radiation Therapy: This basically involves using radiation to kill cancer cells present in the body. Radiation therapy is a long-drawn process that usually involves a set number of treatments administered over a long period of time. Radiation therapy is also generally the follow-up procedure after a lumpectomy, or more rarely, a mastectomy.

Systemic Treatments
Treatments involving drugs that are administered via either the mouth or direct injection into the bloodstream are called systemic treatments. These include:

  1. Chemotherapy: This includes using drugs to destroy the cancer cells present in the body by stopping the cancer cells from growing and dividing. Chemotherapy can be administered using either an IV (intravenous) tube or via pills that can be swallowed.
  2. Hormone Therapy: This treatment option is used for treating tumours which have tested positive for progesterone or oestrogen receptors. Blocking hormones that fuel the tumour’s growth is the basis of this therapy.
  3. Targeted Therapy: This targets specific proteins and genes which contribute to growth and survival of the cancer cells. Targeted therapy is an extremely focused treatment, and is very effective in blocking the growth and division of cancer cells, as well as minimizing damage to surrounding healthy cells.
2587 people found this helpful

I am 20 years old. But my weight is 85 and my height is 5.11 so is it correct weight or should reduce my weight? tell me how to reduce. And I have a backache means one disk in my back has pressed inside than the normal of other disks. So please give a perfect solution.

MBBS, MS - Orthopaedics
Orthopedist, Delhi
Sleep on a hard bed with soft bedding on it. SPRING BEDS, FOLDING BEDS OR THICK MATTRESS ARE HARMFUL Use no pillow under the head. DO HOT FOMENTATION. Paracetamol 250mg OD & SOS x 5days. Caldikind plus 1tab OD x10. Do neck back knee & general exercises. It may have to be further investigated. Make sure you are not allergic to any of the medicines you are going to take. For emergency treatment contact your nearest hospital or family doctor. Weight reduction can not be done overnight. You have to take it as a way of life. Do Diet control. no sugar in tea,coffee,milk etc. NO sweets Take small frequent meals. When you get used to it, skip one meal. Then after 3 months skip another meal, & so on? You should do non weight bearing Yoga exercises. Do ask for detailed treatment plan. Do not ignore It. could be beginning of a serious problem. Why not discuss with me in a video conference?( Facility Provided by lybrate.com) Why not discuss with me in a video conference? (Facility provided by lybrate.com)
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Breast Cancer - Can Ayurveda Help You Treat it?

BAMS, MD - Ayurveda
Ayurveda, Navi Mumbai
Breast Cancer - Can Ayurveda Help You Treat it?

If you are suffering from breast cancer, it is recommended that you undertake Ayurvedic measures for an effective and natural treatment. Breast cancer is a form of cancer that occurs in the cells of your breasts. The breast cells undergo abnormal growth and go out of control. This form of cancer is likely to occur in both women and men, although it is most common in women. A lot of breast cancer cases start from the ducts or lobes, while others start from the cellular lining of your milk ducts.

Ayurvedic view
According to the principles of Ayurveda, your body is based on the tridoshas, which include vata, pitta, and kapha.

  1. An imbalance in these doshas can lead to diseases and disruption in your health. Cancer occurs when an imbalance of all the three doshas is experienced.
  2. An improper diet and lifestyle account for being the primary reason for this imbalance in doshas, leading to breast cancer.
  3. Your digestive fire is also affected, which leads to the accumulation of toxins, thereby blocking all the channels of your body.
  4. All these factors are collectively responsible for the development of breast cancer.

Ayurvedic treatment

  1. Ayurvedic treatment for breast cancer is very effective because of its natural approach.
  2. Without the use of any chemicals and radiation, you get efficient management by using Ayurvedic remedies for breast cancer.
  3. Your body functioning is enhanced without the concern of any negative effect on your health.
  4. Several Ayurvedic herbs are used for breast cancer treatment. These herbs help in controlling the abnormal growth of breast cells, and in the later stages of breast cancer, these also help in reducing pain.

The herbs play an important role in preventing the condition from spreading to other organs.

Ashwagandha

  • This powerful Ayurvedic herb contains natural rejuvenating properties for your body.
  • It also helps in eliminating stress, weakness and fatigue, which are associated with breast cancer.

Curcuma

  • This effective Ayurvedic herb contains several medicinal properties.
  • It is an antioxidant and helps in reducing free radicals from your body. This is beneficial for an improved health and immunity.
  • The herb is capable of dealing with toxins and infections, and is super effective in treating malignant cancers.

Kanhnaar Guggul

  • This is an Ayurvedic product, which is obtained by mixing several herbs such as amalaki, haritaki, ginger, kachnar bark and a lot more.
  • This is effective in maintaining healthy tissues and cells. It also stops the abnormal growth of cancerous cells.

It is important for you to visit a licensed and experienced Ayurvedic practitioner for getting the best Ayurvedic remedies for breast cancer treatment. This will ensure that you get the most effective remedies, based on your condition.

5774 people found this helpful

Breast Cancer - Know More to Say 'No' More!

MBBS, DGO, MD - Obstetrics & Gynaecology, MRCOG
Gynaecologist, Delhi
Breast Cancer - Know More to Say 'No' More!

Cancer is the abnormal, uncontrolled growth of cells in a particular body part. With continued growth, pieces of this tissue travel through the blood to different body parts and continue to grow in the new area. This is known as metastases. Breast cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer and affects about 1 in 8 women in the USA. Read on to know more details of breast cancer – breast anatomy, causes, symptoms, risk factors, detection, prevention, and of course treatment.

Anatomy: The main function of the breast is lactation through its milk-producing tissue that are connected to the nipple by narrow ducts. In addition, there is surrounding connective tissue, fibrous material, fat, nerves, blood vessels and lymphatic channels which complete the structure. This is essential to know as most breast cancers develop as small calcifications (hardened particles) in the ducts or as small lumps in the breast tissue which then continues to grow into cancer. The spread can happen through lymphatic or blood flow to other organs.

Warning signs/symptoms: The following are some symptoms that need to be watched out for if you have a predisposition to breast cancer.

  1. A lump in either of the breasts or armpits
  2. Change in size, shape, or contour of either breast
  3. Redness of your breast or nipple
  4. Discharge of clear or bloody fluid
  5. Thickening of breast tissue or skin that lasts through a period
  6. Altered look or feel of the skin on the breast or the nipple (dimpled, inflamed, scaly, or puckered)
  7. One area on the breast that looks very different from the other areas
  8. Hardened area under the breast skin

Either one or a combination of these should be an indication to get a detailed checkup done. Early diagnosis results in controlling the disease with minimal treatment and reduced complications.

Causes and risk factors: The exact cause for breast cancer is yet to be pinned down. However, risk factors are clearly identified, and women with risk factors need to watch out for warning signs.

  1. Family history: Of all the risk factors, the family history is the most important. Breast cancer runs in families, and if there is a first-degree relative with the breast cancer, the chances of developing it are almost double. Two genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 are the carriers of the disease, and this testing can be done in women to identify if they are at risk.
  2. Family history of other cancers: Even if there is no breast cancer, if there are other cancers that run in the family, watch out.
  3. Age: Women over 50 are at higher risk of developing breast cancer.
  4. Race: Caucasian and Jewish women are at higher risk of breast cancer than African-American women.
  5. Hormones: Greater exposure to the female hormone estrogen increases the chances of developing breast cancer. Women who use birth control pills for contraception and hormone replacement after menopause are at a higher risk of developing breast cancer.
  6. Gynecologic milestones: Women who have abnormal menstrual milestones need to watch out. These include those who attain menarche before 12 years of age, get pregnant after 30, attain menopause after 55, and have menstrual cycles shorter than 26 days or longer than 29 days.
  7. Obesity and alcohol abuse are also likely to increase a woman’s chances of developing breast cancer.

Stages: Starting from stage 0, higher stages indicate advanced disease.

  1. Stage 0: The growth which has begun in the milk-producing tissue or the ducts has remained there (in situ) and not spread to any other area, including the rest of the breast.
  2. Stage I: The tissue slowly becomes invasive and has begun to affect the surrounding healthy tissue. It could have spread to the fatty breast tissue and some breast tissue may be found in the nearby lymph nodes.
  3. Stage II: The cancer at this stage grows considerably or spreads to other parts. There are chances that cancer may grow and also spread.
  4. Stage III: It may have spread to the bones or other organs but small amounts are present in up to 9 to 10 of the lymph nodes in the armpits and collar bones which makes it is difficult to fight.
  5. Stage IV: The cancer is widespread to far-flung areas like the liver, lungs, bones, and even the brain.

Screening: This is one of the most effective ways to identify the disease in its early stages. This will help in controlling cancer from spreading with minimal treatment.

  1. Self-examination: A thorough self-examination to look for changes in terms of shape, size, colour, contour, and firmness should be learned by all women. Watch for any discharge, sores, rashes, or swelling in the breasts, surrounding skin, and nipple. Examine them while standing and when lying down.
  2. In most women, annual screening mammograms are advised after the age of 40. However, in women who have a strong family history or genetic makeup, it is advisable to have screening mammograms starting at age 20 every 3 years and then annually from the age of 40.
  3. Women in high-risk categories should have screening mammograms every year and typically start at an earlier age.
  4. Ultrasound screening can also be given in addition to mammograms.
  5. Breast MRI is another way to screen for breast cancer if the risk is greater.

Breast Cancer Prevention: Now that there is so much awareness about causes and risk factors, there are definitely ways to prevent or delay the onset of the disease.

  1. Exercise and a healthy diet with reduced amount of alcohol are definitely effective in minimising the chances of developing cancer.
  2. Tamoxifen is used in women who are at high risk for breast cancer.
  3. Evista (raloxifene) which is used to treat osteoporosis after menopause. It is also widely used in preventing breast cancer.
  4. In high-risk women, breasts are surgically removed to prevent the development of cancer (preventive mastectomy).

Treatment: As with all cancers, treatment would depend on the stage at which it is identified and include a combination of chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery. As noted earlier, if you are at risk, look out for warning signs as early diagnosis is the key to maximum recovery.

2622 people found this helpful

Sir I am suffering from. L4-5 problem since 2 years there is any treatment with out operation please help me.

MBBS, MS - Orthopaedics
Orthopedist, Delhi
Kindly show me a photograph of the affected part. Rule out diabetes & vit. D deficiency or any other metabolic disorder. Sleep on a hard bed with soft bedding on it. Spring beds, folding beds or thick matress are harmful Do hot fomantation. Paracetamol 250mg od & sos x 5days. Caldikind plus 1tab od x10. Do neck, back & general exercises. It may have to be further investigated. You will need other supportive medicines also. Make sure you are not allergic to any of the medicines you are going to take. If it does not give relief in 1 wk, contact me again. Do not ignore. It could be beginning of a serious problem.
1 person found this helpful
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I am 42 year old female .After slip disc L1toL4 problem, pain in left heel and becomes severe at times. Is it spur in the foot ,slip disc or something else.

FRHS, Ph.D Neuro , MPT - Neurology Physiotherapy, D.Sp.Med, DPHM (Health Management ), BPTh/BPT
Physiotherapist, Chennai
Do Take IFT and laser Therapy for pain relief for 12 days followed by strengthening exercise from physiotherapist and need to be with Clinical examination.
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I am 27 year boy I have back pain l4 and l5 disk light move. I there any full relief treatment means contact me sir. Back pain person do sex fully or not. After two month marriage fixed so im tired.

BPTh/BPT
Physiotherapist, Delhi
Start with physiotherapy treatment. Learn spinal exercise. Don't sit on floor. Don't lift heavy things. Share your x ray report for further discussion.
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All About Breast Cancer

MS, MBBS
Gynaecologist, Delhi
All About Breast Cancer

Breast cancer is a type of cancer, which occurs due to the development of cancerous cells in breasts. Women are usually affected by breast cancer and breast cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer after skin cancer. Usually fatal if not diagnosed in its early stage, breast cancer is a very serious medical ailment. Read on more to find all about the different symptoms, causes, preventive measures and treatment of breast cancer.

Symptoms: Breast cancer has few distinct characteristics and if you have a few or all the following symptoms you could be more likely to suffer from breast cancer. 

  • The formation of a lump in your breast, which is different from the surrounding tissue and usually more thickened.
  • The discharge of bloody fluid  material from the nipples.
  • Sudden change of the size, shape and appearance of the breast.
  • Certain distinct changes to the skin over the breast for example an indentation in the skin similar to that of a dimple.
  • Appearance of an extra nipple which is inverted.
  • If the darkened area around the nipples known as the areola is flaking or peeling off. 

Causes: Studies and researches remain inconclusive on what causes breast cancer. Breast cancer occurs due to abnormal division of the cells located in the breast, which over time accumulate and form lumps. They
might spread to other parts of the body. Breast cancer is caused mainly due to a complex interaction of personal genetics, environment and lifestyle choices. Breast cancer can also be caused due to genetics as about 5% to 10% of cases are due to gene mutations which pass onto generations.

Risk factors: There are certain factors, which increase the probability of contracting breast cancer. Increasing age, personal and family history of breast cancer, obesity, radiation exposure, pregnancy at an older age, postmenopausal hormone therapy are some of the factors that increase the chances of breast cancer.

Treatment: Several forms of surgical methods exist to treat breast cancer. Depending on the condition and spread of the disease a suitable surgery is performed. These include mastectomy, lumpectomy, axillary lymph node dissection and removal of both breasts. Other forms of treatment include chemotherapy or the use of high doses of drugs to destroy cancerous cells. Radiation therapy where X-rays are used to destroy the cancer cells is also effective.

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