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Valvar aortic stenosis, commonly called aortic stenosis, is a disorder which occurs when the aortic valve of the heart becomes narrow (know Main Indicators of a Heart Disease in a Child). The narrowing of the valve prevents its full opening, and hence, blood flow from the heart to the aorta is restricted. When the aortic valve gets obstructed, the heart has to exert much more effort to pump the blood. The heart muscles get weakened as a result. This condition is more common in children.
Diagnosis of Valvar Aortic Stenosis:
Before diagnosis, we should know about the symptoms of valvar aortic stenosis in children. They include:
- Feeling breathless
- Angina or chest pain with a feeling of pressure or tightness
- Syncope of fainting
- Palpitations and enhanced heartbeats
- A steady decline in regular activities and energy levels
- Fatigue due to little exertion
- Not gaining weight
- Poor eating patterns
- Problems in breathing
The wall of the left ventricle also thickens muscularly, and the thick wall occupies more space in the lower chamber of the heart and hence, the room for adequate blood supply is reduced. This may lead to heart failure.
Echocardiogram: The initial test that is recommended for patients with symptoms of valvar aortic stenosis is Doppler Echocardiography. This test enables the doctor to estimate the aortic valve region, peak or mean transvalvular gradients and the maximum aortic velocity. These primary measures are required to assess the severity of the disease. Echocardiography provides important information on the valve function, left ventricular filling pressure and disruptions in other valves.
Other major tests which help in the diagnosis of valvar aortic stenosis include:
- MRI or magnetic resonance imaging, which provides images of internal body structures with great detail.
- CT scan or computed tomography where three-dimensional images are extracted.
- Chest X ray
- Cardiac catheterization where a dye is used to highlight blockages, if any, in the heart.
Treatment: Usually, there are no medicines for fixing valvar aortic stenosis as the disease is not reversible. Medicines can be used to treat the problems, which are caused by the condition.
Replacement of the damaged valve by surgery is the best treatment for valvar aortic stenosis. The surgery performed is called valvuloplasty. This is a cardioscopic surgery where a tube with a small balloon is inserted into a vein. The tube is guided into the heart, and the balloon is inflated. The balloon and tube are removed after the valve is opened. The damaged valve is replaced by mechanical valve or the valve of a cow or pig by an open-heart surgery.
Valvar aortic stenosis is a severe heart condition in children, and the only permanent remedy for this disease is a valve replacement surgery.
My son is 4.7 years old he is having dry cough from last 2 ,3 month tried so many medicines. please help
There are few things I hear over and over again from students:
- How they are studying for so many in a day
- How they do not have even time for anything else in their life due to study pressure
- How they are sleep deprived
- How much they are stressed
- And finally, after all the sacrifices and hard work, their exam performance is not what they expect.
Here are few tips to study smart, improve your grades and yet have a life!
We all know that 2 hours of focused study will be much more productive than 4 hours of distracted study. And, the good news is that concentration is a mental skill that you can develop and improve. There are two ways to improve your concentration:
A. First, work on raising your brain's natural ability to concentrate or in other words, learn to increase your attention span.
B. Second, adjust the environment around you to make concentrating easier.
Improving your concentration takes a little time and effort, but it is worth it. In my personal experience with students, I have seen noticeable improvement in relatively short time.
A. Ideas for daily concentration boosting habits include
- Mindfulness meditation: Many studies confirm that 20 minutes of meditation or more per day improves concentration and attention span. Mindfulness meditation, where one focuses on one's breathing, is one of the simplest way of meditation. Start with ten minutes in the morning and ten minutes before bed. To begin with you may try a guided meditation. One can easily find audios for guided meditation online.
- Proper sleep: I am sorry to say this. Pulling all nighters will not help with your grade. Unless you are getting sufficient restful sleep, you are not going to be as mentally focused as you could be to study as well as answer questions in exams.
- Food for your Brain: The more you use certain skills, the more they are reinforced in the brain. So it makes sense that playing concentration games and games that require you to focus will improve your concentration ability. You need to be consistent in this. Play for about 10 to 20 minutes each day. Have fun, and get the benefits but remember not to spend more than 20 minutes a day. Your goal is to improve your concentration and not just keep scoring higher in the game! Try Lumosity and use only free version this will help you restrict your daily play time to 20 minutes and have maximum benefit.
- Eat healthier: Your brain needs the proper nutrients to allow you to focus. Eat more vegetables and fruits and avoid consumption of junk food as much as possible. Instead you could keep some nuts such as walnuts, almond or peanuts as in between munches. Lot of research has now proven that sugar is very harmful for our health. Reduce sugar and refined white flour in your diet as much as you could.
- Exercise: It is helpful in both reducing stress and increasing energy and focus. At least 20 minutes a day would go a long way. Going for a short jog of 20 minutes will make next 4 to 5 hours of study very efficient.
B. Optimize your mental state & environment
In addition to building the habits described above into your daily routine; also adjust your environment and your current mental state to improve your concentration when studying.
- Create a study space: Your brain loves routine. Create a place where all you do is study. An obvious choice is a secluded desk of some kind, but the trick is to make sure you only study in that spot. Studying in bed is a bad habit, for example, because your body is trained to want to sleep once you get into bed.
- Remove distractions: Turn off the ringer on your phone and take other steps to prevent interruptions. Don't study with the television on or with radio playing. Some studies have shown that soft instrumental music (no vocals) can help improve your concentration.
- Reduce background noises: If you have to study or work in an environment where it is too loud (classroom or open space) or too quiet (such as at home or at a library) you can get easily distracted by outside influences. With the right amount of background noise you can actually block out distractions and enhance your creative thinking.
- Use timer: Set a time limit when you need to study new material. For example, let's say you want to read one chapter in a book (and remember it). Decide in advance that you can have 45 minutes to read the chapter, and 15 minutes to review it. Set a timer to keep yourself honest, then pace yourself to keep within the allotted time.
- Stay motivated: If you see studying as burden, it's hard to concentrate. One way to stay motivated is to set up a reward system. Tell yourself you have to earn that hour of watching your favorite show later in the evening by first completing 2-3 hours of intense studying. That way, even if the material is dry, you have the reward to look forward to.
- Take breaks: Take a break every two hours. You mental energy will begin to decline after a long period of study. So every two hours or so, take a ten minute break. Walk around, eat a light snack, or just stare at the wall to relax your mind.
Concentrating is the first step to learning anything new. It only makes sense that if you improve your concentration, your memory will improve also.
How an expert can help?
If you want to get individualized expert opinion about how you are studying currently and what ways you can improve; you can always consult the expert. Once he/she knows what your current study methods are, they will be able to give you specific tips to improve upon. Most likely once you incorporate those tips you will be spending less time studying and your grades will improve. That's what is studying smarter and not harder means!!
10 Tips to Maintain Healthy Teeth :
“Be true to your teeth, they won’t be false to you.”
- Brushing :
- Brush your teeth twice a day.
- Night brushing is very important, because during sleep our mouth is at rest so there are more chances of accumulation of bacteria which cause further cavities and leads to disturbance in the oral cavity.
- Follow a proper brushing technique.
2. Use a good fluoridated toothpaste with a right toothbrush. Toothpaste should have 1000ppm of fluoride and toothbrush should have a small and narrow head with soft bristles.
3. Flossing :
- Flossing helps to remove food stuck in between your teeth.
- It can be done daily or 2-3 times a week.
- Waxed dental flosses available in market are of Oral B, Colgate.
4. Interdental Brush:
- If the spaces between the teeth are wide, you can use an interdental brush.
5. Oral Irrigation:
- Now-a-days, a new dental aid is added which helps to clean the teeth, interdental areas, inside the gums and below the crowns more easily.
- It is also known as dental “Water flosser” or “Oral irrigator” available in brands like waterpik, panasonic etc.
6. Drink plenty of water and rinse after every meal.
7. Clean your tongue surface daily.
8. Pit and Fissure Sealants:
- The grinding teeth in a person mouth erupt at 12-16 years of age. They have deep grooves and pits in which food gets stuck. A Sealant is applied to these teeth which makes the grooves shallow and prevents food and bacteria from getting into the teeth and causing decay
9 .Whitening - Home Remedies :
- Add a pinch of baking soda in drinking water and rinse twice a day.
- Consume strawberries once a day or crushed strawberries applied to teeth helps as teeth whitener.
10.Visit your dentist every 6 months and get your scaling (cleaning) and polishing done.
Dr. Puja Bansal - Prudent International Health Clinic, Kalyani nagar, Pune.