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Treatment of Child and Adolescent Problems
Thyroid Problems Treatment
Thyroid Disorder Treatment
Paediatric Critical Care
Treatment of Childhood Infections
Child Nutrition Management
Growth And Development Including General Paediatri
Management of New Born Care
Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (Pgd)
Congenital Ear Problem Treatment
Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome In Adolesce
Treatment of Thyroid Disease in Children
Cleft Lip Treatment
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Gastritis is the most common silent disease of the gastrointestinal tract, affecting more than half of the world population. It is well known that H.pylori is the chief etiological agent of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, gastric adenocarcinoma, malt lymphoma. Helicobacter pylorus was discovered by Warren and Marshal in 1983. H. pylori has some unique characteristics:
It defied its detection by scientists for centuries.
It survives in the stomach, an organ which is devised by the nature to kill all bacteria.
85% of the population hosts this organism asymptomatically.
It persists in the gastric mucosa for decades.
It does not penetrate the gastric mucosa for decades.
It reduces the risk of oesophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus, esophageal adenocarcinoma, in the infected individual.
Gastritis is defined as an inflammatory response of the gastric mucosa to infections or irritants.
In the histology of normal gastric mucosa, inflammatory cells – neutrophils are spare and lymphoid tissue is absent.
ACUTE GASTRITIS is diagnosed endoscopically in the presence of hyperemia, intermucosal hemorrhages, and erosions in the gastric antrum and/or body mucosa.
Erosions are flat, or elevated white based lesions with an erythematous margin, and are frequently seen in the antrum.
Histology shows marked surface epithelial degeneration and heavy infiltration with neutrophils, but it is rarely performed.
CHRONIC GASTRITIS may be classified as chronic active, non-atrophic (superficial), atrophic and pernicious anaemia.
On histology of the gastric mucosa, there is a predominant increase in the chronic inflammatory cells – lymphocytes, plasma cells and an occasional lymphoid follicle may be present.
Presence of numerous neutrophils indicates activity (chronic active gastritis).
The vast majority of chronic gastritis patients are asymptomatic. Non colicky pain in upper abdomen within 15 minutes after ingestion of a spicy meal and absence of pain on delaying or omission of a spicy meal are considered suggestive of chronic gastritis. Heaviness in upper abdomen immediately after a meal is also not an uncommon symptom. With a fiberoptic gastroscope a definite diagnosis of chronic gastritis is easy with biopsy from the body mucosa and the antrum. H.pylori causes chronic gastritis in all subjects. H.Pylori colonizes normal antrum and may extend into the body mucosa causing corpus gastritis. Chronic gastritis due to H.pylori slowly progresses over a few decades from the superficial to atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia and gastric adenocarcinoma.
H. pylori was earlier responsible for more than 80% of chronic gastritis but its prevalence is decreasing in countries with improved sanitation.
H.PYLORI AND PEPTIC ULCER
The patients. with duodenal ulcer may present with dull aching pain in the epigastrium, occurring daily on an empty stomach or at midnight relieved soon after the ingestion of antacid, milk or non-spicy food. Nearly half of the numbers of patients with typical history of duodenal ulcer do not show any ulcer on endoscopy. The popular multi-factorial theory of stress and spices causing duodenal ulcer, died its natural death, with the discovery of H.pylori in 1983.
A major breakthrough in understanding of the etiology of duodenal ulcer was the discovery of H.pylori in the antral mucosal biopsy of humans, on upper gastrodudenal endoscopy- as; H.pylori is present in the antral mucosal biopsy of >90 % of duodenal ulcer patients., following the eradication of H.pylori from the gastric mucosa, annual duodenal ulcer recurrence reduced to less than 10% compared to 80%. Failure to eradicate H. pylori results in a higher recurrence rate of duodenal ulcer. H. pylori infection of the antral mucosa increases the risk of duodenal ulcer by 3-6 folds.
Pt. with benign gastric ulcer does not have any classical pattern of symptoms for a clinical diagnosis. Pt. may complain of dull aching pain in upper abdomen soon after food intake, nusea, heaviness, heamatemesis or symptoms of anemia.
Benign gastric ulcer is rare in Indian population, it may occur with ch.gastritis due to H.pylori or following ingestion of aspirin or NSAID. H. pylori increases the risk of benign gastric ulcer by 3 folds.
Gastric mucosal Biopsy
Gastric secretion: Acid, Pepsin, Intrinsic factor
Co vita B12 excretion test
Fasting serum pepsinogen,serum gastrin
Parietal cell, intrinsic factor, helicobacter pylori antibody
H.pylori detection : invasive ,non invasive methods
THE HOMOEOPATHIC APPROACH
Abdominal pain and inflammation present difficulties in diagnosis for even the most experienced physician. All cases of dynamic diseases, acute or chronic even when resulting from mechanical or psychological injuries, are amenable to homoeopathy. The homoeopathic medicine works quite well in the treatment of an acute abdomen often averting the need for surgery in many of cases. The problem may range from entrapment of gas, to constipation, perforation of the bowel which results in sever inflammation and sepsis which may result in death. Any acute onset of abdominal pain should be considered a medical emergency.
By carefully applying the law of similars, the physician will observe that all cases of curable dynamic disease are curable with homoeopathy. To achieve this, the physician must be thoroughly familiar with the principles of homoeopathy as taught in the ORGANON and must know how to make the use of materia medica.
Repertories are used as essential links between the patient’s symptoms and the vast materia medica.
Clinical guides such as below mentioned, provide a synopsis of the most characteristic symptoms of the leading remedies in a given condition. Their objective is to give assistance only. While using it one has to be aware of two general drawbacks. One, it may fail because of its incompleteness as only leading remedies in given a given condition can be presented, and the symptomatology of each remedy presented is limited to only the leading characteristic symptoms.
In clinical practice the patient will most of the time present some symptoms that can only be found in a more complete materia medica. Second, there is the inevitable temptation to associate remedies with a given disease. The practice of homoeopathy consists of constant individualization. – The more we understand this science the more we individualize. Frequent follow up to monitor the patient’s condition is a must.
Gnawing, hungry faint feeling at the epigastrium
Burning and distension of stomach with palpitation
Tendency to eat far beyond the capacity for digestion
Great appetite, craving for meat, pickles, radish, turnips, coarse food
Flatulence disturbs the heart’s action
Wants to lie down all the time
Pain in stomach always comes on after eating
Sensation as if a hard-boiled egg had lodged in the cardiac end of stomach
Great craving for food at noon and night
Dyspepsia of the aged, after tea or tobacco
Constitution – Pale, lean, emaciated persons.
Symptoms relating to GIT indicating hyperacidity – Burning pains as of an ulcer
Cancer of stomach
Vomits every kind of food
Heartburn and water brash
Concomitants – Profuse salivation
Intense burning thirst
Haemorrhage from bowels
ALSO MANY REMEDIES ARS.ALB. , SULPH, CAL.CARB.ETC
Meri daughter 6 months ki hai or weight 6 k.g. Hai. Usko constipation ki problem hai last 2 months se. Usko glycerine ki bati laga kr potty karwani padti hai. please suggest.
My daughter is now 13 month old and still weighs 9 kg only. her appetite is also very poor does not likes spoon feeding at all her birth weight was 3.28 kg. please tell me what do I do?
My son is 5 years old and he has white blood cell count is 15800 and s. G. P. T is 50. 4. What does this mean. What will be the deaseas?
My five Months son suffer from cough and cold Can I give him Recofast syrup and how much drops or ml Please advice.
MY Son is 3 years old. Some docs say he is asthmatic, some say he has adenoids, some say he is allergic to weather and pollution, with the change of weather he always get cough and cold, that is so sever that I have to nebulize him with budesal, syrup levolin and an antibiotic. Sir, I want to know how long it will go, when can my son be alright.
It's observed infection in her stool microscopic report she is taking now ciplox 250 tab is this a effective medicine?
Epilepsy is repeated episodes of seizures caused by abnormal signals in the nerve cells in the brain, which can result in strange sensations, convulsions, muscle spasms and loss of consciousness. It is frightening to watch your child have an episode of seizure, but the good news is that most children with epilepsy outgrow seizures. An episode usually last from a few seconds to a few minutes.
Types of Seizures
There are 2 types of seizures:
Generalized Seizures affect the whole brain
- Generalized tonic-clonic seizure: It is the most common type of seizures in children. In this condition, the child's body becomes stiff and falls, the child may also experience shaking of the limbs. The skin becomes bluish and teeth are clenched. The child may fall into a deep sleep afterward.
- Absence or Petit Mal Seizures: The child is unresponsive and may have eyelid blinking/ staring.
- Atonic and tonic seizures: The child collapses suddenly due to complete loss of muscle tone. This can result in head injuries.
- Myoclonic Seizures: The child may experience sudden, brief jerky movements of muscles of head, neck, and shoulders.
Partial Seizures affect a part of the brain
- Simple partial seizures are characterized by uncontrollable movement of a part of the body. The child is conscious and aware but can't control the movement.
- Complex partial seizures occur mostly during sleep the child may make odd movements, run, scream and even hallucinate. And if the child is awake, he doesn't recall the event.
Do's and Don'ts during an episode of seizure
- Keep a track of how long the episode lasts
- Turn the child to one side to prevent choking
- Put a pillow under the child's head
- Never try to put anything in the child's mouth as it may obstruct the breathing.
There can be many causes of episodes of seizures
- During high fever in the first 48 hours (febrile seizures)
- Head injury
- Bacterial and viral infections of brain like meningitis
- Lack of oxygen to brain
- Disorders in brain development
- Organic disorders of brain like cysts and tumors
- It is confirmed by a pediatric neurologist
- Various investigations are done to confirm the diagnosis including MRI and EEG.
- Blood and urine tests to diagnose infections
Treatment of epilepsy
The pediatric neurologist usually decides the treatment plan depending on the child's age, weight, and type of epilepsy.
- Antiepileptic medications are the first line of treatment. The drugs are usually required for two years and then if there is no episode for these two years, it is discontinued. These drugs may have some side effects like drowsiness, inability to concentrate and gingival enlargement. Discuss with your pediatrician on ways to manage them.
- Sometimes a ketogenic diet is also prescribed. The child is given a fat rich and carbohydrate low diet.
It is worrisome as a parent if your child is diagnosed with epilepsy, but about 65% children need medication for 2 years and then outgrow seizures. However, remember that the child should never miss their medication and get enough sleep.
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Researchers have revealed that seven-month-old babies have basic social skills and can understand what their parents and relatives are up to..this study says small babies not only observe their surroundings but can also understand social interactions
The results provide evidence that directly links neural responses from the motor system to overt social behaviour in infants