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Treatment of Child and Adolescent Problems
Thyroid Problems Treatment
Thyroid Disorder Treatment
Paediatric Critical Care
Treatment of Childhood Infections
Child Nutrition Management
Growth And Development Including General Paediatri
Management of New Born Care
Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (Pgd)
Congenital Ear Problem Treatment
Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome In Adolesce
Treatment of Thyroid Disease in Children
Cleft Lip Treatment
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Cleft lip and cleft palate are the two most common birth defects affecting children all over the world. What happens in the cleft lip is that the upper lip is incompletely formed and in cleft palate abnormalities, we see babies with an incompletely formed roof of the mouth. Both these can be found individually or can occur together. These conditions can be severe or mild and affect one or both sides of the face.
The fEtus undergoes the separation of the upper lip and the roof of the mouth pretty early. In certain cases, this separation does not happen or happens incompletely and certain parts of the upper lip and roof of the mouth fail to form properly leading to cleft lip and palate.
Repair through surgery
- Plastic surgery is the only way to repair a cleft lip and/or palate. Both of these impair vital functions like speaking, eating, breathing, and hearing properly.
- Surgery is done to restore function and to make the affected child look more normal.
- Most cleft lip and palate surgeries are done on very young children usually 3 months to a year old.
- Before the actual surgery, a team of specialist define a course of treatment, including repair of the cleft using surgery, which means plugging the hole in the lip or the palate; speech rehabilitation and dental restoration, as the child usually has no teeth in the affected parts of the upper palate.
The specialists required are:
- Plastic surgeon
- Pediatric dentist
- Ear, nose, and throat specialist
- Auditory or hearing specialist
What happens during surgery?
Usually, cleft lip surgery happens in children as young as 3-6 months old. It has to be carried out under general anaesthesia. If the condition is severe, and the cleft lip is wide, special procedures like lip adhesion or a moulding plate are used to bring the two parts of the lip closer and it is fully repaired.
Cleft palate repair surgery is done at the age of 9-12 months only.
What happens here is that plastic surgeons bring together the muscles of the upper soft palate and rearrange them to cover the gaping hole in the roof of the mouth. The surgery is usually done under general anaesthesia and requires a short hospital stay.
- Without a normal palate, the child can’t speak properly. So, surgery helps to improve and normalise speech.
- And that’s not all. The child may require more surgeries as he grows older to treat these two problems.
- This is because the child’s facial structure changes and he or she may require advanced surgeries like pharyngoplasty, which helps improve speech, or alveolar bone grafts to provide stability for permanent teeth.
- A bone graft is usually done when the child is 6-10 years old and it closes gaps in the bone or gums near the front teeth. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a pediatrician.
My son is 3 years in age. He is playing all time. But last two days when he eats heavy meal like rice, cerelac, he says pain in belli and doing latrine. Like mangohope. Please sir help me what can I do and what is the food chart of my kids. My son weight is 16 kg (approx) and he take crime medicine one week ago. So now what is suitable for him and how the problem is solve. Thank you.
I have two sons, elder is 13 years old and younger is 2 years 8 months. One thing we are noticing that both of our sons are not interested with food. Both are thin comparison to other children. Both of them takes a very little amount of food. My questions that how to get they taste to take any food up to the need? Is there anything food items / fruits / plants which will give them hungry to take food adequately. We parents are in very anxious. Please advise.
1. Avoid eating cold foods: According to Dr. Pradip shah, consultant physician, fortis hospital, mulund, a common cold and cough triggered by cold food items like ice-cream and cold drinks is a common complain of people visiting local health clinics. Although there is no scientific evidence as to how cold food items trigger and worsen coughs, patients are normally advised to avoid them altogether until they recover completely. One sensible explanation for this would be that cold beverages and foods cause a drying out of the respiratory lining making it susceptible to infections and triggering coughing due to irritation.
2. Avoid overeating at night: Having a heavy dinner at night or overeating can be a cough trigger for people suffering from gastroesophageal reflux disease (gerd). People with gerd may have poor coordination between contraction and relaxation of the sphincter muscle that prevents reflux of food to the esophagus. As a result, the stomach acid can flow back to the food pipe, causing irritation of the lining to trigger cough. So, it’s better to have an early dinner and maintain a gap of at least 2 hours between dinner and sleeping time.
3. Avoid sleeping flat on the back: Sleeping posture plays an important role in triggering coughing at night, especially if you have a productive cough. All the mucus and phlegm that gets collected throughout the day, flows up to irritate the throat when you lie down on your back. Instead, sleeping in an inclined posture, or sleeping on the sides will keep the phlegm settled and avoid bouts of coughing at night.
4. Avoid eating fried foods: Fried foods are oily in nature and oil is a well-known cough trigger. Deep-frying foods in hot oil generates a compound called acrolein, which acts as an allergen that aggravates coughing and causes throat itching. So, it’s best to avoid oily, fried foods while you have a cough.
5. Avoid smoking: Smoking is one of the causes of a cough due to bronchitis. Not only does it irritate the throat lining, but it also delays recovery and increases your risk of cancer. If you don't smoke, remember second-hand smoke is equally dangerous.
6. Avoid caffeinated beverages: Caffeine should be avoided by those who cough due to acidity and gerd. While it may provide temporary relief from a coughing bout, it actually causes the esophageal sphincter to become loose, allowing more acid to get flushed into the esophagus.
7. Avoid over-exertion: Nobody takes an off from work because of a cough, but that doesn’t mean you should exert yourself by overworking. Coughing is an indication that something is wrong with your body, so make it a point to get adequate rest to give your immune system enough time to recover.
It is the first vaccine that the doctor will ask your child to get if he/she gets wound. Tetanus is a rare but severe condition which occurs when bacteria enter into an open wound. It can turn fatal if left untreated, so you need to follow the vaccination schedule in order to control the infection. Indulging in substance abuse (especially the ones that require injecting with syringes) increases the risk of tetanus.
This disorder is caused by the bacteria called ‘Clostridium tetani’. The bacterium is known to survive for an extended period outside the body, and is found in places such as soil and the manure of cows and horses. The bacteria enter the body through a wound, multiply rapidly and then release a toxin. This toxin causes muscle spasms and stiffness, thus affecting your nerves. The bacteria can enter the body through cuts, burns, animal bites, body piercings and eye injuries. However, this disorder is not contagious.
The symptoms of this disease can take 5-20 days to develop fully in the body. Your child may experience symptoms such as a rise in the body temperature, sweating, rapid heartbeats, muscle spasms and stiffening of the jaw muscles. These symptoms will worsen if left untreated, eventually leading to cardiac arrest or suffocation in some cases.
If your child has a wound, the first step is to administer an injection of tetanus immunoglobulin. Tetanus immunoglobulin contains antibodies that effectively kill the tetanus bacteria. In case the symptoms start, then the child might need to be admitted to a hospital. Here, antibiotics and muscle relaxants are administered and breathing support may also be provided if required.
The preventive measure of this disorder is to be vaccinated against the ‘tetanus’ bacteria. The vaccine consists of five injections that are administered in a specific order. Once the entire course has been completed, it usually provides lifelong protection against the tetanus bacteria. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a pediatrician.
My son is too active not sitting in one place. I wanted to identify whether he is a hyper active child his age is 2 years & 3 months old. How to identify whether he is a normal child or hyper active child.
My 13 months old baby has running nose and congestion (i feel as she is making sounds in sleep, waking up disturbed and breathing with mouth). She had similar problem thrice before in her lifetime (every time she was treated with azithromycin and levosalbutamol). This time my mother has suggested to let her heal on her own as she fears that baby will get addicted to medicines for every small health problem and her immune system may not fight at own. Shall I visit doctor? Or just give levosalbutamol and azithromycin like last time prescribed by her doctor or shall I wait and let her heal on her own.
Hi doctor, my 13 month old baby becomes very lean nowadays. What are the main reason for weight loss? How to gain weight. Note:we are frequent telling from Chennai to Bangalore is that also a reason for her poor growth?
Growth is the most important aspect of childhood, one that distinguishes children from adults. Growth is affected by a number of diseases and growth failure is often the first sign of a serious disease. Unfortunately children with growth failure present very late when no help is possible.
Why to worry?
Growth is the best marker of health and growth failure may be caused by a seious disease. Moreover children with short stature have lower self esteem.
When to worry?
Plot the height of your child in the growth chart and if it is below the lower limit visit a doctor. Alternatively if your child's height is less than the formula (Height = Age in years x 6 + 77 cm) it may be a cause of concern. Growth stops at the age of 14 years in girls and 16 years in boys. Hence the child should be reviewed latest by 10 years for girls and 12 years for boys.
What causes growth failure?
Growth failure can be due to a number of causes including poor nutrition, lack of physical activities and low genetic potential with parents being short. Short stature can also be caused by a number of diseases like thyroid problems, growth hormone deifiency and celiac disease (wheat allergy).
How can I improve my child's growth?
Please encourage your child to play for atleast 1 hour a day. It is important to restrict screen time including television, computer, tablets and mobiles to less than an hour. Increased protein and calcium intake with more milk, pulses and vegetables also helps in improving growth. Growth hormone is produced during sleep. Sleeping for at least eight hours a day is therefore essential for a child to achieve good growth.
What can be done if my child is very short?
Please consut a doctor to identify the cause of short stature. Most conditions are readily treatable. Children with growth hormone deficiency respond dramatically to growth hormone. Growth hormone is also being used now in children with turner syndrome, familial short staure, small size at birth and kidney disease.
If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Endocrinologist.
My baby has completed six month. Please advice diet plan for him. N also how much quantity should be given initially.
My newborn baby girl 25 days. From tonight she is continuously crying. Whenever we lay her on bed for sleep. But keep silent and sleep when placed in mother lap. Is she is suffering from any problem. We are in tense condition due to such behaviour of her. Please advise.
My Son is 9 years old he is a bright and happy kid. He was very hyperactive and defiant. He was having trouble making friends and trouble at school and while playing, because he was fighting with kids. He was not listen to us not follow our instructions, he was too much hyperactive and aggressive. Things got changed from last 2 years after consulting with Neurologist, he has suggested to take (2Ml of Sizodon night) along with this we have giving him behavior therapy he has improved a lot nobody can believe me he was diagnosed with ADHD But from last 3 months he suffering ill every alternate week he is getting fever, headache, stomach pain, gastric I'm not sure because of this medicine side effect or some other reason. Kindly request you suggest what shall we do now. Please let me know whom should I contact.
Is makhani fox but good for infants from 1 to 2 years of age Is it advisable for children below 2 years.
My niece who takes normal diet and is of 9 years of age is really very weak physically. Kindly suggest some solution for improving her health.
My baby is 26 days old. He wakes at night everyday about 2.00 am and cries even after feeding till 5.00 am grib water and other home treatments already checked please help.
I am 28 my veins in my hand I can move them so freely and independently few say you are week few say complicated vien system its since from my age 13.
However, in today’s demanding academic structure, it is not easy for a child to maintain a good confidence level, from competing nursery admission to weekly school tests, today’s child goes through numerous examinations, almost every day in his/her life and he/she is being judged both at home and outside. According to child psychologist Shivani Misri Sadhoo, oral communication alone by parents is not enough to build confidence in kids, she shares some important parenting tips that will help parents in this area:
1. Allow your child to make decisions:
When your child gets the chance to make choices from a young age, he/she will build confidence in their own judgement. Just consider the age of your child and set their decision-making parameters accordingly. Like, you may ask your 4 years old son or daughter what he /she would like to have in breakfast, an omelette or fruits or chapattis, instead of asking a broad question like “what you will have in your breakfast”, which they will likely to give you an answer either from their imagination or from their list of yummy foods (generally cake, chocolates or junk food).
2. Avoid always rescuing your child
For parents, the desire to prevent their child from getting hurt, feeling discouraged, feeling upset or making mistakes is natural, but when parents intervene, say if the parents go to their child’s school and pressure the cultural teacher to take their child in dance team (which he/she was not selected) then parents are doing something which is not right.