Doctor in Mpct Hospital
Nuclear Medicine Physician
Dr. Mahesh Ghogare provides answers that are very helpful, knowledgeable, thorough, well-reasoned and caring. testing text
This was the first visit. It was nice. Some test has been given by the doctor. Will visit with reports.
Dr Jyoti Chhallani
i visited for mother's cataract problem.very satisfied with treatment
Very professional and a good chest physician.best doctor
In recent years, there has been the emerging trend of resorting to customized treatment for different types of cancer. These treatments vary from individual to individual, depending on the severity of their condition. PSMA PET scan and DOTA scan are two such procedures used in the treatment of prostate cancer.
Before identifying the benefits of these scans, let us have a look at the risks of prostate cancer.
Prostate Cancer- What is it?
Prostate cancer shows up in the prostate gland of men, which produces the fluid that transfers and nourishes the sperm. It is a very commonly occurring condition in men and early treatment can cure it completely.
Prostate cancer starts showing its symptoms from the middle stages. One should seek medical help if he observes the following warning signs-
With increasing age and obesity, there remains a high chance of developing prostate cancer.
What is PSMA PET scan?
It is an effective and reliable mode of diagnosis to identify the extent of prostate cancer. It is also known as Prostascint scan. This scan is recommended for patients in the early stage of cancer and to determine whether the disease has spread to the pelvic lymph nodes.
In this process, the patient is injected with an antibody and a radioactive material that can be detected by cameras. The doctor then sees a three-dimensional picture of the affected area on the monitor. The complete process takes three days to finish.
Benefits of PSMA PET scan:
• Helps to determine the position and range of a tumour
• Helps the doctor to plan effective methods of treatment to eradicate a tumour completely
• Helps to predict the result of treatment up to a certain extent, unlike other imaging tests
What is DOTA scan?
It is a highly advanced scan used to detect the spread and sensitivity of tumours concerning prostate cancer. The molecules injected during the scan attaches itself to the neuroendocrine tumours known as carcinoids.
Benefits of DOTA scan:
• Helps to detect the exact location of a tumour
• Helps the doctor to plan for effective radioactive therapies
• Helps to identify the exact stage of a cancerous tumour
Both PSMA and DOTA scans are the fruits of modern scientific research and go a long way in eradicating cancerous cells from the body. Early detection of the disease with these scans increases the chance of being cured of the disease.
A lower limb ulcer or a leg ulcer is characterized by the formation of a chronic sore. These sores take more than a month to heal, and tend to develop on the insides of the leg. It is characterized by symptoms of pain, swelling in the affected area and itching. The skin around the ulcer tends to harden and get discolored. A foul smelling discharge is also common.
These sores tend to form if there is a minor injury in the leg. This tends to develop when the blood circulation inside the veins of the leg is hampered, that results in an increase in blood pressure. The high blood pressure can damage the vessels under the skin, making them fragile. The skin tends to break and form ulcers easily after a cut or a wound has been sustained.
There are certain factors that increase the risks of lower limb ulcer; them being:
Obesity: Being overweight can lead to an increase in blood pressure in the leg, augmenting the risk of lower leg ulcer.
Varicose Veins: This disorder is characterized by swollen veins resulting from malfunctioning valves. This disorder of the veins increases the risks of lower limb ulcers.
Age: Ageing increases the chances of lower leg ulcer. This is because old age and its related disorders tend to limit your movement.
The symptoms of lower limb include discoloration of the skin, swollen ankles, a heavy feeling in the lower limbs, flaky and itchy skin and enlarged veins in the legs. A foul smelling discharge from the wound and high fever are common symptoms as well.
The treatment begins with cleaning the affected area. Medicines are applied on the area, following which the dressing is applied on the wound. In order to treat the swelling and improve the circulation in the legs, a compression bandage is also wrapped around the area. These bandages help in easing the blood circulation and relieving pain.
In order to facilitate quicker healing of the ulcer, it is recommended to remain active and ditch a sedentary lifestyle completely. It is advised to keep your leg elevated while you are sitting or lying down; this helps better the blood circulation. Avoid smoking and consuming alcohol as they inevitably slow down the healing process.
Thalassemia is a genetic (i.e., passed from parents to children through genes) blood disorder. People with Thalassemia disease are not able to make enough hemoglobin, which causes severe anemia. Hemoglobin is found in red blood cells and carries oxygen to all parts of the body. When there is not enough hemoglobin in the red blood cells, oxygen cannot get to all parts of the body. Organs then become starved for oxygen and are unable to function properly.
- Alpha Thalassemia disease: There are two main types of Alpha Thalassemia disease. Alpha Thalassemia Major is a very serious disease in which severe anemia begins even before birth. Pregnant women carrying affected fetuses are themselves at risk for serious pregnancy and delivery complications. Another type of Alpha Thalassemia is Hemoglobin H disease. There are varying degrees of Hemoglobin H disease.
- Beta Thalassemia disease: Beta Thalassemia Major (also called Cooley's Anemia) is a serious illness. Symptoms appear in the first two years of life and include paleness of the skin, poor appetite, irritability, and failure to grow. Proper treatment includes routine blood transfusions and other therapies.
Causes of Thalassemia-
Thalassemia occurs when there’s an abnormality or mutation in one of the genes involved in hemoglobin production. You inherit this genetic defect from your parents.
If only one of the parents is a carrier for thalassemia, the child may develop a form of the disease known as thalassemia minor. If this occurs, the born child probably won’t have symptoms, but he/she will be a carrier of the disease. Some people with thalassemia minor do develop minor symptoms.
If both of your parents are carriers of thalassemia, you have a greater chance of inheriting a more serious form of the disease.
The symptoms depend on the type of thalassemia:
- Thalassemia Minor: Thalassemia minor usually doesn’t cause any symptoms. If it does, it causes minor anemia.
- Beta-thalassemia: Beta-thalassemia comes in two serious types, which are thalassemia major, or Cooley’s anemia, and thalassemia intermedia. The symptoms of thalassemia major generally appear before a child’s second birthday. The severe anemia related to this condition can be life-threatening. Other signs and symptoms include:
- frequent infections
- a poor appetite
- failure to thrive
- jaundice, which is a yellowing of the skin or the whites of the eyes
- enlarged organs
This form of thalassemia is usually so severe that it requires regular blood transfusions.
- Alpha-thalassemia: Alpha-thalassemia also has two serious types, which are hemoglobin H disease and hydrops fetalis. Hemoglobin H disease can cause bone issues. The cheeks, forehead, and jaw may all overgrow. Hemoglobin H disease can cause:
- jaundice, which is a yellowing of the skin or the whites of the eyes
- an extremely enlarged spleen
Hydrops fetalis is an extremely severe form of thalassemia. It occurs before birth. Most individuals with this condition are either stillborn or die shortly after being born.
How is thalassemia diagnosed?
Thalassaemia is often detected during pregnancy or soon after birth.
- Screening during pregnancy: Screening to check if a baby is at risk of being born with thalassemia is offered to all pregnant women.
- Testing after birth or later in life: Newborn babies aren't routinely tested for thalassemia because the test used isn't always reliable soon after birth and the condition isn't immediately dangerous. However, the main form of the condition – beta thalassemia major – is often picked up as part of the newborn blood spot test (heel prick). A blood test can be carried out at any point to diagnose the condition if a child or adult has symptoms of thalassemia and the condition wasn't picked up earlier on.
- Testing for the Thalassemia Trait- A blood test can be done at any time to find out if you have the thalassemia trait and are at risk of having a child with the condition. This can be particularly useful if you have a family history of the condition or your partner is known to carry thalassemia.
If your child has thalassemia, blood tests may reveal:
- A low level of red blood cells
- Smaller than expected red blood cells
- Pale red blood cells
- Red blood cells that are varied in size and shape
- Red blood cells with uneven hemoglobin distribution, which gives the cells a bull's-eye appearance under the microscope
Blood tests may also be used to:
- Measure the amount of iron in your child's blood
- Evaluate his or her hemoglobin
- Perform DNA analysis to diagnose thalassemia or to determine if a person is carrying mutated hemoglobin genes
Treatment for Thalassemia-
The treatment for thalassemia depends on the type and severity of disease involved. Your doctor will give you a course of treatment that will work best for your particular case.
Some of the utilized treatments include:
- blood transfusions
- a bone marrow transplant (BMT)
- medications and supplements
- possible surgery to remove the spleen or gallbladder
There are different types of heart problems like coronary artery disease, congenital heart failure and cardiomyopathy, but their warning signs are the same i.e. shortness of breath. This is the reason why shortness of breath should never be taken lightly and should always be investigated for heart diseases.
Why does shortness of breath happen?
You may not be able to get in enough air while experiencing shortness of breath. Known medically as dyspnea, shortness of breath is often described as an intense tightening in the chest and a feeling of suffocation. This is one of the most frightening conditions experienced by a patient. You can experience dyspnea without any serious medical problems in these conditions
- After strenuous exercise
- In extreme temperatures
- Due to obesity and
- In high altitudes
But if you are not in any of these conditions, then shortness of breath is a sign of a serious medical problem usually involving your heart or lungs. These two vital organs transport oxygen to the rest of your body and remove carbon dioxide; hence problems with either of these organs can affect your breathing. Shortness of breath that comes on suddenly called acute, can be due to other causes too like:
- Excess fluid around the heart
- Low BP
- Heart failure
- Blood clot in an artery in the lung
- Collapsed lung
If you have had shortness of breath that has lasted for weeks, then we call it chronic and its causes can be various diseases of the heart apart from asthma and COPD. There is no doubt that your heart may be in trouble, if you have chronic shortness of breath. You may be suffering from these heart conditions:
- Cardiomyopathy or problems with the heart muscle cause symptoms like shortness of breath after physical exertion as well as fatigue, and swelling of legs and abdomen. Patients suffering from cardiomyopathy are at risk of sudden death due to cardiac arrest.
- Heart arrhythmias is also called irregular heartbeat, and can cause slow or fast heartbeats. These also have symptoms like shortness of breath. Arrhythmias can cause strokes, heart failure and cardiac arrest.
- Heart failure occurs when the heart is unable to pump blood efficiently to meet the needs of the body. This is a potentially fatal condition. One of the most common symptom is shortness of breath with exercise and while lying down. Fatigue is another common symptom.
- Pericarditis or swelling of membranes around the heart is also characterised by shortness of breath.
Treatment of breathlessness can start after you are referred to a heart specialist for further tests to confirm the likely cause.
Catching a cold once in a while is nothing to worry about, but needing to take sick leave every few weeks is a sign of low immunity. Immunity can be defined as our ability to fight infections. By eating right and making a few lifestyle changes, you can easily strengthen your immune system and lower your risk of catching infections. On that note, here are 10 ways to strengthen your immune system.
- Eat a balanced meal: Along with fruits and vegetables, your body also requires carbohydrates and proteins. Eating a balanced diet helps keep your blood sugar levels stable and allows your body to prioritize building your immune system over generating energy to perform normal tasks.
- Drink plenty of water: When you’re ill, fluids help transport nutrients to the infected area and flush out toxins from the same. Hence, it is important to stay hydrated in order to recover faster from an illness and to build your immune system.
- Probiotics: 80% of your immune system is located in the gut. Probiotics help the body produce more healthy gut bacteria. Thus, probiotics directly boost the immune system.
- A good night’s sleep: Ideally, a person should get 8 to 10 hours of sleep on a daily basis. While we are asleep, the body produces cytokines ad antibodies that are vital to a strong immune system. Depriving the body of this sleep can thus make us more susceptible to infections.
- Get some sun: While we put a lot of effort into protecting ourselves from the harmful UV rays of the sun, sunlight is also a rich source of vitamin D. Vitamin D helps protect us from a number of serious illnesses. Apart from sunlight we can also get vitamin D by adding cod liver oil, egg yolks and fatty fish to our diet.
- Quit sugar: Sugar is an immunosuppressant and hence cutting out added sugar from your diet can have a drastic effect on your immunity. Added sugar refers only to refined sugar in cubed, crystal or powdered form and not the natural sweetners in fruits.
- Exercise: Regular exercise improves blood circulation and boosts the production of antibodies. A healthy circulatory system combined with antibodies enables your body to fight infections in any part of your body.
- Avoid tobacco and alcohol: Alcohol impairs the immune system and tobacco smoke weakens the body’s basic immune system. This holds true for both first hand and second hand smoke.
- Reduce stress: Stress increases the production of a hormone called cortisol. Cortisol suppresses the immune system and thus makes us more susceptible to illnesses.
- Prevent germs from spreading: Lastly, make simple things like washing your hands before eating and after coming home or using the toilet a habit. This prevents germs from spreading and entering our bodies.
Women, who have been thinking that cardiac diseases are something that doesn’t need much attention, then you have tragically mistaken. As a matter of fact, these are the diseases which most women aren’t too aware of. However, it is affecting a lot of women all over the world. The most common issue in cardiology, particularly among women is a heart attack. The first thing that we should know is that Cardiovascular diseases like heart attack are killing as many women as men.
Almost more than 25,000 women are dying all over India every year from a heart attack or other coronary heart diseases. The ratio results show that women are suffering from heart attack three times more than that of breast cancer. The main reason that creates this higher toll is that the disease may be different in women. However, in the case of men, it stays more localised. In the case of women, the disease is diffused and spread out, but it can be treated.
You cannot seek immunity only through pills:
We should be aware of the fact that pills will help you to curb the chance of having a heart attack, but again doctors claim that the risk does hike quite significantly after the menopause in women. The pills in such case can create various side effects and eventually trigger more cardiac diseases. The formation of clots in blood are created by different kinds of hormonal contraception, which is the main reason for a potential heart attack in women.
Heart attack symptoms in women:
We all know that the classic heart attack symptoms include severe pressure on the chest and extreme chest pain. However, these symptoms can be quite subtle in case of women. So, here we are listing down 4 of the most common symptoms of heart attack for women and those are:
If you experience any one of these symptoms even, make sure that you go for a check immediately. Take quicker action as each minute that goes on during a heart attack is creating the death of a heart muscle.
Smoking doubles the risk of a heart attack in women
According to experts in cardiology, the most important fact that triggers a heart attack in women is smoking, which increases the blood pressure and causes the blood to pile up in your blood vessels, reducing the good HDL cholesterol which clots the blood and eventually results in a heart attack.
You must be wondering about the favourable chances of having a heart attack for women. The fifth and final thing to know about a heart attack is that women who are weighing thirty pounds or more have more chances of heart attack.
The rising incidences of cancer have made it important for us to be vigilant about our health. It has been proven medically that if cancer is detected at an early stage -stage I & II , then the chances of cure and treatment along with full recovery are very high. For early cancer detection & for people at greater risk of cancer, PHC-Preventive Health Care plays a major role. Preventive Health Check is particularly important for the people who have a family history of cancer.
Almost all cancers are caused by damage or mutation in their genes, which, may be acquired from environmental exposure, dietary factors, hormones or through normal aging. In 90% of cases, these genes are not passed from parents to children. These are known as sporadic mutations and the cancers that they cause are called as sporadic cancers. But 5-10% of cancers are caused by gene mutations which are inherited from one or both parents & passed on to the children .These are hereditary or germline mutations & these cancers are known as hereditary or familial cancers.
People /children, who carry gene mutations have a higher risk of developing cancer at an earlier age or at some point in their life time.
Some of the common such cancers, which run in families, are:
- Breast cancer
- Ovarian cancer
- Colo-rectal cancer (cancer of large intestine )
- Prostate cancer
Breast, ovary & colo-rectal carcinoma have well established gene mutation studies.Mutation of BRCA 1 & BRCA2 Genes is responsible for 85% of hereditary breast cancers.
Estimated life time risk for developing breast cancer in woman with BRCA1 & BRCA2 mutation is 56-87% & risk for developing-bilateral /contralatral breast cancer is about 20-40%. These statistics make a preventive health check for women with breast cancer history in their family a necessity. Mutation in these genes confers about 20-40% increased life time risk for developing ovarian cancer. Hence the presence of gene mutation for breast cancer can trigger ovarian cancer.
However as stated above, other environmental and lifestyle factors can also cause breast cancer other than genetic BRCA1 & BRCA 2 gene mutations.
- Increasing age
- Early menarche
- Late menopause
- First birth after the age of 30
- Atypical lobular hyperplasia or Atypical ductal hyperplasia
- Prior breast biopsies
- Long term postmenopausal estiogen replacement
- Early exposure to ionizing radiation
Other Familial Cancers:
Familial cancer syndromes associated with colo-rectal cancers are familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP).It is an autosomal dominant inherited syndrome with more than 90% penetrance, manifested by hundreds of polyps developed by late adolescence .The risk of developing invasive cancer is almost 100% .So such patients should start getting colonoscopy at an earlier age- say by 20yr of age & should undergo Total Collectomy on development of significant polyps .
Cancer Assessment & Conclusion:
For breast cancer risk assessment, we have the GAIL model & IBIS model, which take into consideration ,all the risk factors, apart from BRCA1 & BRCA 2 gene mutation. These models calculate the over all life time risk of development of breast cancer for any lady. For this, you have to consult a specialist experienced in area of hereditary cancers, cancer risk assessment, genetic counseling & testing.
To conclude, all people with cancers in their family should undergo genetic testing & counseling, to detect high risk individuals should take adequate measures & treatment.
Many people all over the world often suffer from chronic back pain due to various reasons. Persisting for weeks together, this type of acute pain in the back can even cause severe damage to one's daily work schedule. It is often the neck or the lower back or upper or middle back that cause such pain and forces one to look for medical assistance. And it is this necessity for obtaining a cure or treatment solution that radiology becomes extremely helpful in dealing with chronic back pain. Read further to have a better idea of how radiology can be of great help in getting relief from the annoying and distressing chronic back pain.
What is radiology?
Radiology refers to a branch of medicines which dealing with radiant energy, helps in the proper diagnosis as well as treatment of a disease. This specialty specifically uses medical imaging for diagnosing a disease or the root of illness and treating it. This field is divided into two major areas, one is interventional radiology, and the other is diagnostic radiology.
Radiology and chronic back pain
Radiology is known to be an ideal solution for getting relief from the constant suffering of chronic back pain. Whether it's a pain in the spine or the hip, radiology helps in ensuring accurate treatment while reducing the chances of inappropriate treatments which often is performed due to the lack of knowledge about the root problem. With the image-guided injections and the accurate diagnosis, radiology reaches to the root of the back pain and helps the medical professionals have a better understanding about what's ailing the patient.
How is radiology effective in treating back pain?
While the majority of the back pain can be dealt with proper rest, anti-inflammatory medications and physiotherapy sessions, when it turns out to be a chronic pain, proper diagnosis is the best option for dealing with the pain. Using different radiological imaging services such as CT or computerized tomography, MRI or magnetic resonance imaging and X-ray, the location of the pain can be easily identified and then is treated properly. And treating the back area with different therapeutic injections becomes necessary, such as nerve root injections or facet joints injections or epidural injections, for dealing with the chronic back pain, again it’s radiology that turns out to be an irreplaceable part of successful treatment.
Chronic back pain being one of the most common reasons for visiting a doctor, opting for the right diagnosis procedure becomes crucial for identifying the main underlying reason which is causing the pain. And there's no doubt that it is with the help of the latest imaging facilities of radiology that accurate diagnosis as well as managing the pain can be possible.
Hypertension, which is also known as High Blood Pressure is a prominent factor that is responsible for the development of many serious health issues like cardiac disorder, chronic kidney diseases, vision loss and stroke. The dominant causes of hypertension include troubled lifestyle style, genetics, environmental factors and internal imbalances. You cannot possibly control the chances of suffering from hypertension but you can always prevent and minimize the risk of the problems that are associated with hypertension.
The following are some lifestyle tips that can help you to manage and minimize the risk of developing hypertension:
- Maintain a healthy body weight: Weight plays a crucial role in the prevention of hypertension. People who are obese run the risk of developing hypertension. It is advisable to lose excessive body fat to maintain an ideal body weight. A well maintained body weight minimizes the risk of hypertension.
- Eat a healthy and balanced diet: Unhealthy food intake is a primary factor that causes hypertension. Eating a healthy and balanced diet enables you to manage your blood pressure effectively. Incorporate plenty of fresh fruits and leafy vegetables, especially the ones rich in potassium. Limit excess intake of calories, sugar and fat as they tend to increase the risk of hypertension.
- Reduce consumption of salt: Higher sodium intake increases your blood pressure level. Avoid high-sodium processed and packaged foods as they are high in sodium content. A low-sodium diet enables you to keep your blood pressure normal.
- Exercise regularly: An active lifestyle is known to lower the risk of hypertension. Make sure to indulge yourself into some physical activities on a daily basis.
- Limit the alcohol intake: Excessive intake of alcohol can raise your blood pressure level. Limit your alcohol consumption to minimize the chances of hypertension.
- Monitor your blood pressure: Monitor your blood sugar level on a regular basis. Hypertension usually does not show any symptoms. If your blood pressure ranges between 120-139/80-89 millimeters of mercury it is an indication that you run a higher risk of developing hypertension. A raise in blood pressure demands moderation of lifestyle practices and controlled food intake.
- Manage stress level: Excessive stress and anxiety is not good for your blood pressure. Severe stress is known to shoot up your blood pressure level which leads to development of many other health related complications including improper functioning of crucial organs like heart and kidney.
Hemorrhoids, popularly called ‘piles’, refers to the swollen, inflamed tissue that accumulates in the anal canal. These tissues consist of muscles, elastic fibers, support tissues and blood vessels.
As piles is a disease with conspicuous symptoms (bloody stools, anal rashes and reddening), and extremely common (more than 75% of the population will suffer once in their lifetime), there are numerous myths surrounding the diagnosis and treatment of this disease. If you want to separate your facts from the chaff, this article will help you to do just that.
1) Myth: The probability of getting piles increases with age.
Fact: This isn’t necessarily the case. Piles is caused due to strain and pressure applied on the area of the anus. This strain can come from a variety of sources, including diseases (diarrhea), physiological conditions (constipation) and unrelated processes (pregnancy).
2) Myth: Eating hot, spicy things like green chili will increase your chances of piles or exacerbate its symptoms.
Fact: Piles occurs due to strain on the anus, more specifically on the blood vessels near that area. This happens due to the body’s blood pressure (BP) being unusually high, and not due to digestion/diet specialties.
3) Myth: Your diet has absolutely nothing to do with your piles risk.
Fact: Piles has many factors that are either directly causal or increase the risk of it substantially in a person. Among them, constipation is an ever-present entity. Therefore, a diet rich in food that fights constipation is beneficial in combating/reducing risk for piles. Such a diet comprises high fiber (skins of fruits etc.) content, high levels of hydration and low calorie/fat intake.
4) Myth: You are more likely to have piles if you are exposed to the cold.
Fact: There is no scientific evidence to support this claim, even though it has gained popularity with time. To the contrary, application of cold materials on the surface can help relieve pain and irritation related to piles. You can apply cold compresses on the surface of the buttocks to relieve itch, pain and burning sensations from the piles rashes.
5) Myth: You should not work out when you have been diagnosed with piles.
Fact: This claim is also an unfounded one, and you definitely shouldn’t freak out if you’re a fitness freak. There are only some variants of exercise that can exacerbate your piles – like if you’re lifting too-heavy weights, twisting your body, or are holding your breath while lifting weights. Apart from that, exercise also helps reduce the risk of piles by help you lose weight and facilitating smooth bowel movement.
6) Myth: Piles is a recurrent disease. Recurrence of piles is known to happen but now good painless treatment options are available.
Piles or hemorrhoids are the formation of dense tissue in the anal canal, which causes obvious and painful symptoms. However, you should not lose your sleep over piles – it is treatable and easily diagnosable.