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I 24 year old suffering from prostatis. Doctor done my urine routine show 2-3 puscell in urine. He gave me ofloxion 400mg for 3 months. After done the cource. 50%symptom are gone but not fully. I go to another uroglist. He done my semen anaylsis show 10-12 puss cell in sperm. No growth in culture. Doctor give me levofloxion 500mg for 4 week. Why ofloxion 400mg is not working in my sperm infection. Is levofloxion500mg work on my sperm infection please reply me sir.?
Cancer is an uncontrolled proliferation of transformed cells in any part of the body. Neoplasm or tumor are used variably to describe any swelling or new growth. Benign growths don't have the potential to spread to other organs or parts of the body while malignancy or malignant growths have uncontrolled proliferation and metastatic potential. Transformation is a multistep process with genetic alterations by which normal cells acquire malignant potential, uncontrolled proliferation capacity and capacity to spread to other parts of the body (metastasis) worldwide cancer is responsible for 1 in 8 deaths. Most common cancers are:
Men: oral cancer (in India), prostate, lung
Women: breast, cervix and endometrium, colorectal, lung
What causes cancer? cancer is usually multifactorial
1. Age- more in age group greater than 60 yrs compared to younger age group
2. Obesity- body mass index greater than 30
3. Tobacco - cigarette, cigar, bidi, hookah, smokeless tobacco like gutka, zarda etc. There is no safe form of tobacco.
4. Pan masala and supari
6. Ultraviolet rays exposure
7. Radiation exposure
8. Genetic factors
9. Others- pollution, certain chemicals, infections
Prevention of cancer:
1. Stay away from tobacco products
2. Eat healthy and daily physical activity- fresh fruits and vegetable are good, maintain optimal body weight
3. Be safe in sun
4. Cancer awareness and early detection: alarming signs are (caution)-
- Change in bowel or bladder habits
- A sore that will not heal
- Unusual discharge or bleeding
- Thickening or lump in the breast, testicles or elsewhere
- Indigestion or difficulty swallowing
- Obvious change in a wart or mole
- A nagging cough or hoarseness
5. Cancer screening: screening is for healthy individuals with education. Rather than going for unnecessary blind tests, a programme for screening should be planned in consultation with your oncologist as requirements are different for different cancers and differ as per age groups and gender. Also, screening is not effective in all cancers. Cancer education and awareness have due importance. Some cancers in which screening has been shown to be effective includes breast, colon, rectum, cervix, prostate, lung in high-risk groups but as mentioned earlier it is planned with participation of both individual and oncologist.
Types of cancer treatment:
Cancer treatment is now a multidisciplinary management in which different surgical, medical and radiation oncologist plan treatment protocol for best possible chances of cure. Advancement in all these fields and their contribution in comprehensive management results in 25-30% improvement in cure rate over previous decades.
- Surgery: involves surgical principles to remove the tumor with adequate margins and possible draining lymph nodes regions. Improvements and understanding of surgical principles even make resection of distant disease or cure of stage iv disease in some selected cases.
- Chemotherapy: cytotoxic drugs are given either in injectable or oral forms which acts on uncontrolled cancer cells. Advances in this fields result in drugs with better efficacy and less side effect profile and at the same time resulting in better cancer control. Targetted therapy acts on specific pathways of cancer growth. Hormone therapy targets specific hormone receptors for controlling cancer.
- Radiation therapy: is the delivery of radiation generated by radioactive source over the region of cancer. More and more advances in radiation technologists are emerging like imrt, sbrt to focus radiation over the specific location so as to avoid toxic effect over surrounding area.
79 years has been diagnosed with Lung cancer (NSCLC) Adenocarcinoma & Metastatic Spinal Compression too for D9 & D10 vertebrae. Please advise whether Chemotherapy is to be given to him first or Surgery for Spinal Compression is to be done first? He is bedridden currently due to severe pain in the spine. His Spinal MRI & Lung scans are attached for your ready reference in this app under X-ray. Kindly advise asap.
Cancer can affect even small glands like the adrenal glands. Adrenal glands are responsible for the production of hormones like cortisol and aldosterone. These glands are located above the kidneys and have two parts; the cortex and the medulla. Adrenal cancer generally affects the cortex of the adrenal glands. This type of cancerous tumour is rare and can be difficult to diagnose.
Most adrenal cancer symptoms are triggered by an excessive production of estrogen and androgen. Symptoms can also be caused by the pressure put on other organs by the tumour. Adrenal cancer symptoms are most easily noticeable in children as this is the stage where the body is changing and developing. Some of these symptoms are:
- Facial hair growth
- Excessive pubic and underarm hair
- An enlarged penis or clitoris
- Early onset of puberty in girls
- Development of enlarged breasts in boys
Symptoms of adrenal cancer in adults includes:
- Excessive weight gain in the abdomen and above the collar bone
- High blood pressure
- Irregular menstruation
- Easy bruising
- Frequent urge to urinate
- Muscle cramps
Additionally, men with adrenal cancer that causes excessive estrogen production may notice an enlargement of breast tissue and tenderness in the area. Women suffering from excessive androgen production triggered by adrenal cancer may notice their voice deepening and facial hair growth. In most cases, adrenal cancer symptoms in women do not appear until the tumour presses on other organs. This includes symptoms like pain around the tumor, a feeling of fullness in the abdomen and difficulty eating because of this feeling.
The cause of adrenal cancer has not yet been determined, but conditions such as Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, Li-Fraumeni syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis and multiple endocrine neoplasia can increase a person’s risk of suffering from this disease. A thorough physical examination and a detailed medical history is required to diagnose this disease. The doctor will also need a blood test and urine test. Additional tests that may be required include:
- Biopsy of the tumor
- CT scan
- MRI scan
- PET scan
- Adrenal angiography
Adrenal cancer can be cured if diagnosed in its early stages. There are three types of treatment for adrenal cancer; surgery to remove the adrenal gland, chemotherapy and radiation. However, adrenal cancer can recur and hence it is important to schedule and maintain regular check-ups with a doctor.