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Kidney Stones Treatment
Removal Of Stitches Procedure
Corn Removal Procedure
Dressings Of Wounds Procedure
Varicose Vein Laser Treatment
Hernia Repair Surgery
Urinary Incontinence (Ui) Treatment
Stitching Of Wounds Procedure
Treatment Of Deep Vein Thrombosis - Dvt
Male Breast Reduction Treatment
Prostate Laser Surgery
Gastric Bypass Surgery
Treatment of Bone Marrow Transplantation
Vascular Surgery Treatment
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I have pigmentation on my face like jhaiya. What is the best treatment for this? I do everything bt jhaiya still not gone suggest me plzz.
Hello Doctor While I take fast food after few time begin scratch on all body and raised small bump. So advise me what is cure for it.
Good Morning I just want to ask you that today when I am doing toilet I haven seen little amount of blood in my porty.
Hi, My Age 30 suffering from Granulomatous inflammation in right breast I had done mammography and sonography the report say-Finding in the right breast are Probably benign (BIRADS-3. And now I had done a FNAC the report say-Features consistent with Granulomatous inflammation. Excisional Biopsy will be conclusive. But my doctor say me Excisional biopsy is not needed as I don't have pain or fever. She prescribed me clarithromycin 500mg and defzacort now. Pls suggest me as I wanted a opinions from yours Thankingyou.
I am 17 years old, I have a oily skin and there are too many pimple on my face which leave black spot out there. Please help me.
I am 30 years old female and my skin is so oily and blemish on face please to suggest me some tube. My baby (one year old)'s skin also become rough and black due to play in dust. Please suggest me what should do.
I am having redness on my face and red spots like pimple. I tried many thing but no luck. Can you suggest something better.
I have dark circles upside on cheeks. I go for sleep on 1am at midnight. also I am too weak I want to upgrade my muscle. None gym in my town. I want to use protein. which is safe.
I am 36 years old women working in an educational institution as Vice Principal. I have more black spots on my face and cracks on my foots too. Could you suggest something for immediate remedy and also to stops its arrival.
Hello sir my father is paralyzed and prostate problem. He is on catheter. Now he is not able to pass urine. What can I do this time. I can change the catheter or doing something else. Reply me fast. Thanks.
I have two arteries blocked by 70%, very large Prostate but no urination problem, my S. creatinine id 1.3, blood urea 36 and PSA 4. Pls guide me how to control my RFT levels. Urologist told that I can wait, got Prostate operation till I hv prob in urination. My Lipid profile is also within limits. Pls remove my anxiety. Suggest me medicine if reqd.
I am a male of 21 yrs. I had many pimples on my face during teenage. Now they are gone. But they left many pores on my cheeks. Suggest me something that will make these pimple pores go off my cheeks.
I am 24 years old. I have blackheads and whiteheads on my nose and chin I feel very irritated. please suggest how to get rid of these and I cannot put on makeup my skin becomes oily and pimples outbreak.
I have dark circles . I even sleep well I have no stress . What cream of treatment should I take for it to reduce dark circle.
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Skin whitening is the practice of using substances, mixtures, or physical treatments to lighten skin color. Skin whitening treatments work by reducing the content of melanin of the skin. Many agents have been shown to be effective in skin whitening.
Specific zones of abnormally high pigmentation such as lentigo spots, moles and birthmarks may be de-pigmented to match to the surrounding skin. In cases of vitiligo, unaffected skin may be lightened to achieve a more uniform appearance.
Discovery and design
Melanogenesis inhibitors have been discovered and developed through several methods, including: screening of synthetic chemical libraries (high-throughput screening is occasionally used), screening of plant extracts, computational (in silico) search, found as a side effect of previously known drugs and exploration of structural analogues of previously known tyrosinase inhibitors based on knowledge (in varying degrees) of their structure-activity relationship. Thus, the development and discovery of melanogenesis inhibitors illustrates many of the methods used in drug design. Some of the most potent competitive reversible tyrosinase inhibitors are synthetic compounds with a potency hundreds of times that of kojic acid.
Mechanisms of action
Melanin is the main substance responsible for the color of the skin. Melanin is class of dark polymers generated by the body through the process of melanogenesis. Among the melanin pigmenting the skin and hair, 2 types can be distinguished based on its chemical composition and biological route of synthesis: the black/brown eumelanin and the red/yellow pheomelanin. The variation of skin color among individuals is mostly because of variation of the content of melanin in the skin. Skin with little or no melanin is almost white. Other factors influence skin color in a lesser degree, including the amount of blood in blood vessels (because of the color of blood), skin thickness and content of carotenoids in skin.
Melanin in synthesized in melanosomes which are organelles produced in melanocytes. Melanocytes are cells dedicated to this function that are present in the skin, hair follicles, and other structures of the body. The synthesis of melanin (also called" melanogenesis" and" melanization") involves a chain of enzyme-catalyzed chemical reactions and non-enzyme-catalyzed reactions. The main precursor to melanin is l-tyrosine. The first step of melanogenesis is the conversion of l-tyrosine to l-dopa; this is the first and rate-limiting step and is catalized by the enzyme tyrosinase. Other enzymes involved in the synthesis include tyrosinase-related protein 1 (trp1) and tyrosinase-related protein 2 (trp2); trp2 is also known as" dopachorome tautomerase" (dct). L-tyrosine is taken by the melanocytes from the intercellular medium, then transported to the melanosomes. L-tyrosine is also synthesized within the melanocytes from l-phenylalanine by the enzyme phenylalanine-hydroxylas (pah)
Melanosomes are transferred to keratinocytes (the most abundant cell type in the skin). Most of the melanin of skin is found in keratinocytes. Additionally, melanocytes interact with keratinocytes through chemical signaling.