Asked for female, 24 years old from Chandigarh
Exercise/yoga during pregnancy
exercise 1: walking is a safe exercise but wear non-slippery shoes with padded soles.
1. Exercise 2: do some'light' exercises as that will help your body and mind. Avoid postures that involve heavy use of abdominal muscles and backward bend. Exercise strengthens your abdominal and pelvic muscles which promotes an easy delivery.
2. While exercising, change your position slowly to avoid sudden jerks. Do not exercise if you are not feeling well or feel any pain.
3. Light yoga, meditation and breathing exercises like pranayam help immensely
4. Consult your doctor before you start exercising and especially if you have diabetes, heart disease or asthma.
Folic acid during pregnancy
1. Folic acid vitamin is highly recommended as it reduces risk of brain/spinal cord defects.
2. Also helps in blood and protein production. It also helps in development of nervous system.
3. Extremely beneficial during early weeks of pregnancy- especially first three months.
4. Green leafy vegetables, peas, beans, nuts, orange juice, strawberry, banana, nuts, pulses.
5. Recommended dose of folic acid is about 0.4 mg (400 microgram) every day until you are 12 weeks pregnant.
Essential vitamins during pregnancy:
1. Vitamin a: essential during 2nd trimester (4th to 6th months of pregnancy). Do not take supplements containing more than 3000 iu of vitamin a.
Sources of vitamin a:
(a) vegetables: carrot (gajar), potato (aaloo), tomato (tamaatar), cabbage (patta gobhi).
(b) fruits: mango (aam), banana (kela), guava (amrood), papaya (papita).
(c) food: whole wheat products, peanuts, yogurt (dahi), milk, butter and cheese. 2. Vitamin b6: especially essential during 2nd trimester (4th to 6th months of pregnancy).
(a) vegetables: carrot (gajar), peas (matar), potato (aaloo), spinach (palak), cabbage (patta gobhi), green leafy vegetables.
(b) fruits: banana (kela), dry fruits/nuts, apricot (khubani), apple.
(c) food: eggs, fish, beans, whole grains, milk, whole wheat bread and pulses (daal).
3. Vitamin c: especially essential during 2nd trimester (4th to 6th months of pregnancy).
Sources of vitamin c:
(a) vegetables: broccoli (hari phoolgobhi), cucumber, tomato, spinach (palak), lemon (nimbu), onion (pyaaz), peas (matar), green vegetables.
(b) fruits: orange (santra), pineapple, mango, apple, grapes, banana, kiwi, lychee, papaya (papita), peach (adau), pear, plum (aloo bukhara), strawberry, lime juice.
4. Vitamin d:). Especially essential during 2nd trimester (4th to 6th months of pregnancy).
Sources of vitamin d:
(a) vegetables: sweet potato (shakkar kandi). One may take'cod liver oil' capsules or vit-d supplements.
(b) food: fish, milk, soyabean powder, yogurt (dahi), butter, egg yolk (yellow portion of egg) and direct sunlight.
5. Vitamin b12 especially essential during 2nd and 3rd trimesters (4th to 9th months of pregnancy
sources of vitamin b12:
(a) vegetables: none.
(b) fruits: none.
(c) food: eggs, brown rice, fish, yogurt (dahi), milk and milk products like cheese, cow and soy milk
food and essential minerals during pregnancy
1. Many woman feel that they need to eat for two as they are carrying a baby inside. This should not be the case and usually leads to weight gain after baby is delivered. You only need to increase your intake of iron, calcium, folic acid and essential vitamins. Avoid spicy and deep fried food.
2. Pregnancy is not the time for dieting as the pregnant mother and the baby may not get enough nutrients.
3. Emphasis should not be on over-feeding, but on having nutritious food. A normal woman needs about 1600-2200 calories a day and experts recommend not more than 300 calories extra for pregnant women.
Special precautions from 4th month of pregnancy:
1. Proteins: especially essential during 3rd trimester (7th to 9th months of pregnancy). For growth, repair of muscle, skin, hair and body tissues. Protein deficiency leads to low immunity, hairfall, feeling of tiredness. Proteins are not stored in our body as any excess protein is converted to energy or fat.
(a) major protein sources: egg white (white portion), milk, soybeans/soymilk, fish, cheese, tofu.
(b) other protein sources: beans with wheat, nuts, curd, yogurt (dahi)
2. Carbohydrates our main source of energy. Stored in liver and muscles. Carbohydrates are used the most by our body duringexercise. Hence, it is important during pregnancy to consume a diet rich in carbohydrates.
(a) instant/rapid carbohydrates energy sources: banana, milk, sweets, sugarcane juice. (b) slow carbohydrates energy sources: beans, bread, cereals, potato, pulses, rice.
3. Iron: especially essential during 2nd trimester (4th to 6th months of pregnancy).
Helps in production of haemoglobin and transportation of oxygen to blood cells.
1. Largest mineral found in our blood which also helps in producing energy.
2. If taking iron and vitamin c supplements, do not take them at the same time but after a gap of about 3 hours. Taking vitamin c tablet helps in absorbing iron.
Sources of iron:
1. Vegetables: spinach, dark green leafy vegetables, lentils (daal).
2. Fruits: avocados (makhanphal), peach (adau), pear (nashpati), pumpkin (kaddu), raisin (kishmish), pomegranate (anaar).
3. Food: eggs, fish, meat, cereals, almonds (badam), whole wheat bread, soybean.
1. Helps form strong bones, teeth, healthy gums, muscle growth and prevents muscle cramps.
2. Taking a small dose an hour before bedtime helps achieve sound sleep.
Sources of calcium:
1. Vegetables: cabbage, dark green leafy vegetables, broccoli, figs (anjeer), flax seeds (san beej).
Food: eggs, milk, dairy products, yogurt (dahi), almonds (badam), soybeans/soymilk.
1. Stay hydrated: dehydration increases risk of miscarriage. So drink at least 2 litres of fluids every day. Water, fresh fruit juices, soups that are low in salt, milk (low or no fat) and soy milk are best fluid options.
2. Do not have excessive papaya as it sometimes may trigger a miscarriage.
3. Must wash all fruits and vegetables before eating to reduce chances of infection.
4. Avoid more than 2 cups of non-herbal tea/coffee in a day as caffeine may lead to miscarriage.
5. Avoid excess spices, frozen or high mercury sea food like oysters.
Non dietary rissks
1. Avoid viral vaccines (measles, mumps, mmr), explosure to x-rays or close contact with microwave.
2. Visit your doctor at least thrice and prefer not to have more than 2 sonographies done over 9 months.
3. Avoid cigarette, junk food, alcohol till delivery as they may result in low birth weight or restrict development.
4. Gradually decrease your intake of caffeine/coffee. Avoid having too much oil or ghee.
5. Don't take very hot water baths or hot tub/sauna baths as they may alter your body temperature.