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Cancer can affect even small glands like the adrenal glands. Adrenal glands are responsible for the production of hormones like cortisol and aldosterone. These glands are located above the kidneys and have two parts; the cortex and the medulla. Adrenal cancer generally affects the cortex of the adrenal glands. This type of cancerous tumour is rare and can be difficult to diagnose.
Most adrenal cancer symptoms are triggered by an excessive production of estrogen and androgen. Symptoms can also be caused by the pressure put on other organs by the tumour. Adrenal cancer symptoms are most easily noticeable in children as this is the stage where the body is changing and developing. Some of these symptoms are:
- Facial hair growth
- Excessive pubic and underarm hair
- An enlarged penis or clitoris
- Early onset of puberty in girls
- Development of enlarged breasts in boys
Symptoms of adrenal cancer in adults includes:
- Excessive weight gain in the abdomen and above the collar bone
- High blood pressure
- Irregular menstruation
- Easy bruising
- Frequent urge to urinate
- Muscle cramps
Additionally, men with adrenal cancer that causes excessive estrogen production may notice an enlargement of breast tissue and tenderness in the area. Women suffering from excessive androgen production triggered by adrenal cancer may notice their voice deepening and facial hair growth. In most cases, adrenal cancer symptoms in women do not appear until the tumour presses on other organs. This includes symptoms like pain around the tumor, a feeling of fullness in the abdomen and difficulty eating because of this feeling.
The cause of adrenal cancer has not yet been determined, but conditions such as Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, Li-Fraumeni syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis and multiple endocrine neoplasia can increase a person’s risk of suffering from this disease. A thorough physical examination and a detailed medical history is required to diagnose this disease. The doctor will also need a blood test and urine test. Additional tests that may be required include:
- Biopsy of the tumor
- CT scan
- MRI scan
- PET scan
- Adrenal angiography
Adrenal cancer can be cured if diagnosed in its early stages. There are three types of treatment for adrenal cancer; surgery to remove the adrenal gland, chemotherapy and radiation. However, adrenal cancer can recur and hence it is important to schedule and maintain regular check-ups with a doctor.
The term bone marrow transplant is actually a misnomer in the present context as a vast majority of transplants are now conducted by harvesting stem cells from the blood of the donor.
So the correct and logical term now is peripheral blood stem cell transplant. This is just like a blood donation for the donor and poses no risk at all to the donor. The term blood cancer is generally used for leukemias, these can be of two types - acute and chronic.
For the chronic leukemias, especially chronic myeloid leukemia, stem cell transplant is now generally not required as drugs like imatinib, dasatinib and nilotinib are extremely effective. For chronic lymphocytic leukemia transplant is rarely done these days and is generally reserved for relatively younger patients. Even in the imatinib era transplant is an effective procedure and can cure patients with CML (chronic myeloid leukemia) who do not respond to imatinib and other tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
For acute myeloid leukemias stem cell transplant is recommended for all cases except the low risk cases, after completion of chemotherapy. Risk is defined based on kind of genetic mutations in the leukemic cells for acute lymphoblastic leukemia transplant is generally done at relapse, but certain genetic mutations necessitate an earlier transplant, so does presence of or increase in minimal residual disease, which signifies cancer cells not visible to the human eye under the microscope.
Procedure of stem cell transplant HLA matching is done between patient and siblings. Best match is selected as a donor. Matched sibling is the most commonly used donor in blood cancers. In many cases a match is not available, for such cases matched unrelated donor, cord blood, or a partially matched donor (haploidentical donor) is sometimes selected. Donor is given growth factor injection subcutaneously to bring out the stem cells from the bone marrow to bloodstream, twice daily for 5 days. After that the stem cells are collected and stored. Patient is given high dose chemotherapy to kill cancer cells as well as his normal marrow. After chemotherapy, donor stem cells are injected into the body of patient from a vein. After approximately 11-14 days the donor cells get engrafted in the patient's marrow and start producing normal blood cells. The donor cells also kill the cancer cells and prevent cancer from coming back.
Overall depending on whether the patients cancer is controlled or not before transplant the cure rate after transplant can vary from 60 % for patients who have a good control and less aggressive disease biology, to less then 20 % in patients with uncontrolled disease before transplant. Overall, approximately 40 % patients get cured with a transplant. Upto 40 % patients can develop complications, and half of these may be very severe and life threatening. This figure is more in mismatched transplants. Apart from complications, there is still a risk of relapse and these patients need close monitoring in the first few years after transplant.
I am 30 years old male. I have got small swelling or limp on my arms and legs, this looks like small round ball. Could you please let me know if I got lipoma decease or cancer is it harm to body? Because I feel awkward when I wear any half sleeve shirt. Thanks,
My age is 24. Height 6 ft. Weight 76 kg. My question is that what should be the normal prostrate size according to my age?
My mother is 74 years old. Has been recently diagnosed breast cancer. What are good options for cure in Mumbai and at what cost. Though she is also diabetic but it is under control and in normal health condition. Shall I prefer surgery or else. What are latest technology applicable in my case .Please Answer.
Causes and symptoms of enlarged prostate
The problem of an enlarged prostate or benign prostate hyperplasia is a very common occurrence as you grow older. It's known to strike men above the age of 50, with more than 50% of men after the age of 60, having this complaint.
Causes of enlarged prostate
A non-cancerous condition, enlarged prostate makes the passing of urine from the bladder through the urethra difficult. The multiplication of the prostate cells causes an enlargement of the gland, leading to a buildup of pressure on the urethra, affecting the discharge of urine from the body. The narrowing of the urethra, due to this benign condition, forces the bladder to contract more vigorously so as to push urine out of the body.
As time passes, the muscles of the bladder get significantly affected, causing them to become extremely sensitive, thicker and stronger. As a consequence, the bladder begins to contract, even if the amount of urine in the organ is negligible, causing episodes of frequent urination. Gradually, the bladder fails to completely empty itself of urine due to the constriction of the urethra. This can give rise to a number of health problems including the formation of bladder stones, urinary tract infections, blood in the urine and so on.
How can you identify the signs of the condition?
Signs of enlarged prostate are very easy to identify and include:
- A slow or weak urine flow
- Difficulty in initiating urination
- Instances of frequent urination
- A feeling of not completely emptying one's bladder
- Frequent urination during the night
- Exerting a lot to urinate
- Instances of dribbling
- Urgency to pass urine
- A feeling of urinating again minutes after doing so
- Urination that starts and stops