Hi, I am Dr Jayanti Kamath. I am an IVF consultant, practising at Srishti Fertility Care Center and Women's Clinic, Mumbai. So today, I will be talking about the physiology of conception or how babies are made. Before we begin I will tell you about few things about the female reproductive system.
So as you can see in this picture this is a picture of the uterus and these are the tubes, the fallopian tubes and this whitish structure over here it is called as ovary. Now this part is the vagina and this is the mouth of the uterus it is also called as the cervix so once again this is the uterus these are the fallopian tubes on either side this is the ovary this is the mouth of the uterus called as the cervix and this is the Vagina. so how babies are made first of all babies are made by the fertilization of an ovum or the female egg by a sperm from the male. So the female eggs are produced in a structure called as the ovary. So what happens every month, the egg is released from the ovary into the fallopian tube and the egg grows throughout his journey through the fallopian tube and after sexual intercourse, the sperms enter through the vagina and they meet the egg in the tube and the egg gets fertilized. It keeps on growing and then the embryo or the baby gets implanted inside the uterus and this baby grows up till nine months till the woman delivers. So this is the physiology of conception now why is this important cause when a woman cannot conceive there can be problems in this entire process. For example where the egg is manufactured that is the ovary.
There can be a problem in the ovary, the woman can have a hormonal imbalance such as polycystic ovarian disease where many eggs are produced but they do not grow or they do not become mature then there can be cysts in the ovary such as endometriotic cyst or any other cyst so these are the problems with the ovary. Then coming to the tubes. If there is any blockage in the tubes the oocyte or the XL will not be able to reach the sperm.
Why the blockage occurs?
Blockage can occur due to any infection called as pelvic inflammatory disease or tuberculosis which is a very common disease in our country. So because of that, the tubes can get blocked. So once the tubes are blocked the oocyte has a problem in meeting the sperm, then the main region that is the inside of the uterus, so there can be problems there also. There Can be fibroids, there can be a septum, there can be polyps or there can be the uterus itself can become a tumour called as adenomyosis. So these are the uterine problems which interfere with conception. Now coming lower down there is a mouth of the uterus which is very important. Suppose the mouth of the uterus is closed or there is a very narrow space over there then again the sperms will have difficulty in entering the uterus.
So these are the various problems in the female reproductive system which interfere with conception.
For more information about this or if you have a problem in conceiving please consult me at lybrate.com.
Thank you.read more
Causes, symptoms and treatment of Infertility
Hi, I am Dr. Jayanti Kamany. I am an IVF Consultant practicing at Srishti Fertility Centre and Women's Clinic in Mumbai. So, today i'll be talking about Infertility. The problem of infertility is on a steep rise. Some of the causes for the rise in inferility are increased age at the time of marriage for women, postponement of child bearing. Even if a women gets married earlier she postpones her child bearing for various purposes like her career.
Increased stress levels today, increased levels of sexually transmitted diseases and of course Tuberculosis, which is a very common disease in our country. So, who is to be blamed for the infertility. We have found that 3 out of 10 couples are battling with this problem of infertility. 30% of the faults is found in the female, another 30% is found in the male partner, again 30% is found in both partners and about 10-15% cannot be explained because inspite of all the tests being normal, there is no problem which can be found and we call it unexplained infertility.
There are two types of infertility:
1. Primary infertility- Primary infertility is when the couple has never conceived
2. Secondary infertility- Secondary infertility is when the couple had a child but cannot conceive again, or the couple has conceived, has had an abortion but there is no conception again.
When should a couple consult or take treatment for infertility?
Usually if the ovum is young, if she is below 28 years she can wait for one year after trying to consult an Infertility Specialist. Even after one year if the couple doesn't conceive inspite of having regular sexual intercourse without having birth control measures they should see an Infertility specialist.
Now there are certain conditions where a couple irrespective of the duration of marriage or age should see a doctor immediately. So, what are those conditions? In the female, if she is having any problems regarding her menstrual cycle, suppose her menstrual cycles are irregular or she is getting very scanty bleeding or scantimensis or she has very severe pain during mensis or otherwise if she had a surgery where her one ovary is removed or a problem of polycystic ovarian disease which is very common today the she needs to see a Gynaec immediately. If she has recurrent abortions, that is, she can conceive but cannot carry the pregnancy to 9 months then definitely there is something wrong with her so she has to consult an Infertility specialist.
What are the causes in a male?
A male, if he has had a surgery in the testes or if he has a history of a disease called mumps in his childhood, or if he has a low sperm count or he cannot feel his testis in his scrotum then he needs to see a Fertility specialist.
For further information on this topic of Infertility or if you are planning to conceive, you can consult me on Lybrate.com.read more
Doctor in Shrishti Fertility Care Center & Women's clinic
Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
Well Woman Healthcheck
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
Urinary Incontinence (Ui) Treatment
Family Planning Procedure
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Patient Review Highlights
She is very patient with all herpatients. The best thing about Jayanti Kamat is that she prescribes limited no. of medicines. The delay periods issue was increasing day by day. Even in case of long queues, the staff was managing people in a very positive manner. It was so quite pleasant in the Shrishti Fertility Care Center & Women's clinic. The complete process of delay periods treatment was so painless and quick, and i am so relieved that I chose to consult her. I consulted a number of specialists but the way she treated me was the best
Dr. Jayanti Kamat provides answers that are very helpful, knowledgeable and inspiring. Thank you so much mam.. definitely I will follow advice
Dr. Jayanti Kamat provides answers that are knowledgeable. its goid thx mam
Dr. Jayanti Kamat provides answers that are very helpful. So helpful answer
Dr. Jayanti Kamat provides answers that are very helpful. Thanku ma'am.
Dr. Jayanti Kamat provides answers that are very helpful. Thanku
Dr. Jayanti Kamat provides answers that are very helpful. Thanks
In a normal pregnancy, the baby develops with its head pointed down, and the head is usually the part which comes out first during normal delivery. However, in many cases, the baby could have its legs, feet, or buttocks pointing to the cervix. In a majority of cases, the baby may have this position, but rotates to have its head pointing down before the third trimester. However, this may not happen, and this is referred to as breech.
In a lot of cases, the doctor would try to move the baby’s head downwards usually around the 37th week, and this is referred to as external cephalic version (ECV) or even as version. The process is done externally by manipulation and hence the name external. It is done before labor and may allow for a vaginal birth. In very rare cases, it may be done during labor, but before the amniotic sac has ruptured. As a backup, there should be a provision for the patient to undergo C-section, if ECV is not successful.
- Single pregnancy, into 36 weeks of pregnancy, with no complications, and preferably not the first pregnancy
- No engagement of the fetus (any part) in the uterus
- Adequate amniotic fluid, which will provide a good environment to move the baby with minimal injury
- Suspected/known birth defects
- Multiple pregnancies (twins/triplets)
- Ruptured amniotic sac
- Fetus with a hyperextended neck
- Mother’s health is not optimal and is on cardiac medications
- Condition that mandates a cesarean section (placental separation from the uterus, placenta covering the cervix, etc.)
The fetal position is first estimated using an ultrasound. The position of the placenta and the amount of amniotic fluid are also closely monitored. Under constant monitoring, the uterus is relaxed through medications. With one hand on the fetal head and another on the buttocks, the doctor tries to rotate the fetus. Depending on how much pressure the mother is able to tolerate and how flexible the uterus is, version may be successful (success rate is about 60%).
A second attempt under epidural anesthesia may be done, if the first one did not succeed. However, the chances of success with subsequent attempts is very doubtful. The fetus is constantly monitored through ultrasound and fetal heart rate monitoring. A fetus is considered healthy if the heart rate moves up during this procedure. However, if the heart rate seems abnormally high, the procedure would be abandoned.
After the procedure, the mother and the fetus would be monitored for a while before being sent home. As the fetus is constantly monitored throughout pregnancy, the doctor would be able to tell if this procedure is required.