A rising number of teenage girls in the country are getting affected with Poly Cystic Ovarian Disease or PCOD. Though an advanced menarche has become very rampant these days, there are many young women who are suffering from a delay in menarche, which in turn is leading to PCOD as opined by gynaecologists. Obesity and sedentary lifestyle among young people have caused a rapid doubling of PCOD cases in the past five to eight years.read more
Endometriosis is an often painful Strokeul disorder in which tissue that normally lines the inside of your uterus the endometrium grows outside your uterus. Endometriosis most commonly involves your ovaries, fallopian tubes and the tissue lining your pelvis. Rarely, endometrial tissue may spread beyond pelvic organs.read more
Doctor in Dr Neelima Mantri's OPD- Sunridges Specialty Hospital
Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
Well Woman Healthcheck
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
Urinary Incontinence (Ui) Treatment
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Most women attain menopause between the ages of late 40s and early 60s, the average age being about 51. This is an important milestone in a women's gynecological history. One major change is altered female hormone levels, and this leads to a lot of physiological changes. From hot flashes to mood swings, there is also increased predisposition to osteoporosis and uterine cancer.
If you have not had your menstrual cycles for close to 12 months, chances are you are into menopause. So, that means absolutely no vaginal bleeding anymore whatsoever. However, if you experience bleeding, even spotting, be on the alert. It is not normal and needs to be examined, and if required, diagnosed and treated.
Postmenopausal bleeding or PMB, as it is popularly called, can be due to a variety of reasons. While it could be something as trivial as inflammation of the uterine or vaginal lining, it could also be an indication of more severe issues like cancer.
- Atrophic vaginitis: Decreasing hormonal levels lead to increased dryness and therefore inflammation of the vaginal and uterine tissue. This is one of the common causes of bleeding after menopause.
- Endometrial atrophy: Also caused by lower hormone levels, the lining of the body of the uterus gradually thins down and can get inflamed.
- Polyps: Noncancerous growths in the uterus, cervix, vulva, or vagina can also lead to bleeding.
- Infections: General infection of any area along the uterine tract could lead to occasional bleeding.
- Cancers: Though only 1 in 10 PMB cases turn out to be cancers, the prognosis improves with early diagnosis and intervention.
Diagnosis: As repeated above, reach out to your doctor if you notice postmenopausal bleeding. Diagnostic methods could include the following:
- Physical examination
- Transvaginal ultrasound
- Endometrial biopsy
- Dilatation and Curettage
Treatment: Needless to say, this would depend on the diagnosis. For very minor cases with diagnosis like altered hormone levels, no treatment may be required other than modification of the hormone replacement therapy. For endometrial atrophy and atrophic vaginitis, use of estrogen creams and pessaries would be sufficient. Polyps would require removal followed by cauterization (application of slight heat) to stop the bleeding.
Cancer: This would depend on the type and location and require a combination of chemotherapy and surgery. Removal of the uterus also may be required in some cases. So, if you have had bleeding of any sort after a year of menopause, do not ignore it.
A cervical smear test is often known as a Pap test and is done to establish the changes that might have occurred in cells of the cervix. A small sample of cells is taken from the surface of the cervix and is tested for any abnormalities. The sample is spread on a slide or in some cases mixed with a liquid fixative and studied under a microscope. It is one of the most popular methods to test the abnormalities in your cells and can pinpoint point cervical cancers.
The procedure of typical Pap smear:
The test is mostly recommended when you do not have the periods as the blood can interfere with the results. Also, before taking the test discuss with your doctor about the medications you are taking and in case you are under any birth control pills. No other special preparations are needed for the Pap test. Feel free to discuss with your doctor about the impact the test will have on you or on the painlevels, etc.The test is done by inserting a speculum into the vagina, which spreads it further. Later, a swab is inserted to get the samples of cells from your cervix. The cells from the vagina are also collected in some cases and tested accordingly.
The risks involved:
There no chances of risks when you go for such tests. You might feel a bit of pressure in your vaginal region and may experience a small bleeding after the testing. However, this is extremely normal. Also, there is no pain involved. If you experience heavy period and blood loss, you might experience minor discomfort when the test is being done.
The final result:
Once the test is done, the results would be available usually within a week. The results can be categorized into normal and abnormal. If your cells are normal and no abnormality is found then the condition is termed as a normal result. In the case of abnormality in the cell structure, then it requires further evaluation and diagnosis to rule out cancer.
A rising number of teenage girls in the country are getting affected with Poly Cystic Ovarian Disease or PCOD. Though an advanced menarche has become very rampant these days, there are many young women who are suffering from a delay in menarche, which in turn is leading to PCOD as opined by gynaecologists. Obesity and sedentary lifestyle among young people have caused a rapid doubling of PCOD cases in the past five to eight years.
Endometriosis is an often painful Strokeul disorder in which tissue that normally lines the inside of your uterus the endometrium grows outside your uterus. Endometriosis most commonly involves your ovaries, fallopian tubes and the tissue lining your pelvis. Rarely, endometrial tissue may spread beyond pelvic organs.
Polycystic Ovarian Disease results from the disorder more commonly known as PCOS or Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. A syndrome is starkly different from a disease, for the former entails a set of symptoms usually occurring in concurrence, while the latter means a particular biological condition with an identifiable reason behind it.
A syndrome solicits your concern and forethought in order to eliminate or at least control the chances of an underlying disease. Trigger to a syndrome is undetectable and hence, fighting it efficiently is fairly problematic. It is rare to find adolescent girls without hormonal problems.
Hormonal imbalances are just too common to be a novel topic any further. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome is faced due to imbalances in hormone secretions. It refers to the development of multiple cysts in your ovary. This condition usually affects women falling within the age group of 15 to 50. Eight among ten women, at a given point of time, are reported with PCOS. Symptoms of PCOS, when neglected, can lead to Polycystic Ovarian Disease. If you have been facing similar health issues, it is advisable to undergo a check-up and get diagnosed at the earliest possible.
- A receding hairline or increased hair fall can lead to thinning of scalp hair. Such a sign should not be taken lightly as it could be indicative of Polycystic Ovarian Disease.
- Extremely painful menstruation, irregular periods or prolonged periods with heavy bleeding might be reason enough for worrying.
- Development of acne could be another sign. Acne is common to girls attaining puberty, but an unprecedented growth should be a matter of concern.
- Patchy skin, pigmentation and discoloration of the skin are the other symptoms.
- PCOS may also result in continual depression and anxiety.
- Obesity is the most commonly noticed symptom. People suffering from Polycystic Ovarian Disease have lower metabolism and thus, reducing weight is an ordeal.
- Many women tend to grow thick facial hair or chest hair. Such a condition discourages the person to go out in public. It leads to social ostracizing which further bears severe effects on one's mental health.
- PCOS mostly affects women belonging to the childbearing age. As a result of this syndrome, females stop ovulating. Conception becomes extremely difficult as the syndrome may lead to infertility.
Polycystic Ovarian Disease can result in Type 2 diabetes or even cardiovascular problems. If not diagnosed and treated at an early stage, it might lead to ovarian cancer. There is hardly any preventive measure to counter the chances of such a syndrome, but certain alterations in your diet under the guidance of a dietician and regular exercising can improve your health.
How is PCOD diagnosed and treated?
Your gynaecologist would be able to determine whether you have PCOD by checking your symptoms. Then she would recommend you to do a few blood tests along with a pelvic ultrasound scan to confirm whether you have PCOD. Though this disease is not reversible, its symptoms may be reduced or minimised. Most women can lead a trouble-free and healthy life if they take proper precautions at the right time.
It has been pointed in several studies that reduction in weight can help in the improvement of most PCOD symptoms because fat contributes to the production of certain hormones. Your doctor will prepare a treatment plan depending on the aspect from which you are suffering. For instance, if you are suffering from irregular periods, your doctor may prescribe you some contraceptives which can help in restoring normal menstrual cycle. But this treatment is definitely unsuitable for those who are trying to conceive. The infrequent and irregular ovulation can make it difficult to conceive and it can be artificially induced with the aid of medications.
Infertility is a condition where a couple, trying to conceive in a natural way is not able to do so even after one year of trying. It is also a matter of worry for patients who are over the age of 35 years and those who are not able to conceive naturally even after 12 months of trying constantly. So here are the causes, risks and treatment for this condition.
There are many causes of infertility. It may be down to a condition present in one or both partners. As per a medical study, 20% of the cases of infertility are due to males, while 40% to 50% cases are due to problems in the female partner. 30% of the cases suffer from infertility due to problems in both males and females.
Ovulation and fertilisation are the main elements of the conception process and any condition in the female or male can upset either function, which can make it difficult to conceive. While abnormal sperm production and transport may be a common condition that leads to infertility in males, other factors like side effects of cancer treatments and too much exposure to toxins and chemicals can also play an important role in this regard.
For females, the causes of infertility may range from ovulation disorders, uterine and fibroid tumours, uterine and cervical anomalies, damage to or blockage of the fallopian tubes, endometriosis, primary ovarian insufficiency and pelvic adhesions. Also, factors like thyroid, cancer and medication leading to temporary infertility may be at play.
There are a number of factors that put a male or a female at risk of infertility. Being in your mid-30s usually has an adverse effect on the ovulation and production of well-functioning sperm. Further, smoking and tobacco are among the main causes of infertility in either partner. Excessive alcohol consumption may also lead to this problem. Being overweight or underweight can also make a person infertile. Further, not getting enough exercise and routine activities out of your day, can lead to this condition as well.
Male patients can go through treatment for any existing infections, hormonal injections and medication, surgical options like vasectomy reversal and ART or assistive reproductive technology. Female patients can turn to medication that will stimulate ovulation, Intrauterine Insemination, and surgical processes to correct a uterine septum and remove endometrial polyps, or even a hysteroscopy surgery.
If these methods fail, the patient or the couple can always turn to methods like In Vitro Fertilisation. For other mild reasons, lifestyle changes along with a stress-free environment can help in increasing the chances of conception.
Recurrent miscarriage is a condition when there have been three or more successive pregnancy losses. It is different from infertility as infertility is the inability to conceive. For many cases, the cause of a recurrent miscarriage has not always been found. A number of factors can cause recurrent miscarriages of which some are treatable.
It may not always be possible to identify a cause for recurrent miscarriage in a couple, even after extensive research and treatment procedures. Some of the common causes of recurrent miscarriage are described below:
- Chromosomal abnormalities: Incompatible chromosomes can result in pregnancy losses. When an egg and a sperm meet, of which one of them is faulty, they can't line up properly resulting in chromosomal abnormality. Such conditions lead to miscarriages.
- Uterine abnormalities or Incompetent cervixes: Miscarriages occur if the uterus is abnormally shaped since the embryo is not properly implanted or even if it gets implanted, it may not get sufficient nourishment to survive. If the woman has a weak cervix, it cannot hold the developing embryo, leading to miscarriage.
- Immunologic disorders: Under rare cases, the embryo itself is not accepted by the body. Antiphospholipid antibodies are those, which attack self-tissues, such as embryos and prevent them from building up. This leads to recurrent miscarriage.
- Untreated thyroid problems: Conditions such as thyroid or uncontrolled diabetes result in uterine conditions which make it tough for the embryos to survive.
- Polycystic ovary syndrome: Women with polycystic ovary syndrome tend to have high levels of male hormones which, result in irregular menstruation and ovulation. This can prevent the lining of the endometrium from maturing that is required for holding the embryo.
- Bacterial infections: There may be the presence of a number of microorganisms inside the reproductive tract that may be harmless for the person. But there may be certain bacteria lined up in the reproductive tract, which can prevent the development of the embryo, thus leading to miscarriages.
- Lifestyle: Smoking and drinking are harmful lifestyle habits, which may increase the chance of miscarriage to a great extent. It is always advised to avoid smoking or drinking when you wish to conceive. Other lifestyle conditions, such as working in certain environments like hospital environments, farms, laboratories, etc, may lead to miscarriages; however, the exact reason has not been identified yet.