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Severe mental disorders that affect the mind and cause abnormal thinking are referred to as psychotic disorders. These disorders make it hard for a person to communicate with others, make good judgements, understand the difference between reality and imagination and behave appropriately. There are many different types of psychotic disorders. Some of the more common psychotic disorders are:
This is the most common psychotic disorder. People suffering from this disease suffer from delusions and hallucinations that last for longer than 6 months at a time. There are three types of symptoms associated with this disease:
- Psychotic symptoms that affect the person’s thinking such as hallucinations, trouble organizing thoughts and ideas, delusions and strange movements
- Negative symptoms that make the person seem depressed and do not allow him or her to function normally and show emotions.
- Cognitive symptoms that affect how the person thinks.
- Schizophrenia cannot be cured, but can be treated and managed with a combination of medication and psychotherapy.
Brief Psychotic Disorder
People who suddenly show psychotic symptoms that last for a maximum of a month and then resolve themselves are said to be suffering from a Brief Psychotic Disorder. Some of its symptoms are:
- Chaotic thinking
- Inappropriate behaviour and dressing
- Senseless babbling
- Memory loss
- Change in eating and sleeping habits
- Weight loss
Treatment for this condition may involve hospitalisation if the symptoms are severe or if the person is a threat to himself or herself. Usually medication, psychotherapy or a combination of the two are used to treat this condition. In extremely rare cases, this condition may recur.
This disorder refers to a condition where the person has a delusion or false belief involving a real life situation such as being followed, deceived, poisoned, sick etc. In order to be diagnosed as delusional, the person must show no other symptoms of schizophrenia. These delusions should also not be the result of any type of medication or intoxicant. Treatment for this disorder is challenging and needs to be tailored to the patient’s needs. In most cases, medication and cognitive therapy are used to improve the patient’s quality of life and social functioning.
Shared psychotic disorder
Sometimes, if one person in a long term relationship suffers from a psychotic disorder, his or her partner may also start believing in the same hallucinations or delusions. In most cases, apart from this, they show no other symptoms of psychotic disorders. This condition is rare and usually treated with psychotherapy.
Bipolar disorder, which is also known as maniac depression, which and is related to extream and unusal mood shifts, frequent changes in brain activity level along with energy. It is commonly of 4 types, namely Bipolar I disorder, Bipolar II disporder, Cyclothymic disorder and other unspecified disorders. People suffering from bipolar disorder often suffer from 'mood episodes', which is further of two types one is manic episode and depressive episode.
I am on 10 mg escitalopram for severe anxiety and 150 mg pregabalin. The escitalopram has worked very well on my depression but not on my anxiety. Can the dose of escitalopram be increased to 20 mg? Will that decrease my anxiety or is that only for severe depression? Also if increased to 20 mg, what is the minimum amount of time I have to hold at that dose for?
I'm 18 years old. I took almost 35 tablets of thyronorm 100 mcg out of depression .I didn't have thyroid before. Will I get thyroid in future? What will be its side effects?
We all have mood swings but not all mood swings have the same intensity. People who have extreme mood swings ranging from depression to manic highs are said to be suffering from bipolar disorder. These extreme moods are known as episodes and usually, last for a few days or even a few weeks. A person suffering from bipolar disorder could have an episode several times a year. This is a very common psychological problem and can affect both children and adults. Though it cannot be cured, this disease can be managed with medication.
There are no known causes for bipolar disorder but genetics may play an important role in triggering Bipolar Disorder. Hence, if a parent or sibling suffers from this condition, you have a risk of developing it as well. An imbalance in the neurotransmitters in the brain may also play a part in the development of this condition. Stress or traumatic events like the loss of a loved one can also increase your risk of suffering from this condition. Given that mood swings affect almost each one of us, bipolar disorder can be difficult to diagnose. Some of the things to look out for are:
- Change in self-esteem
- Unusual talkativeness or quietness
- Being increasingly prone to distractions
- Decreased need for sleep
- Recklessness in terms of spending decisions, relationships etc
It must be kept in mind that a person must display at least 4 of the above symptoms simultaneously to be diagnosed as bipolar. Also, none of these symptoms should be a result or side effect of any kind of medication, drugs, alcohol or other intoxicants.
There are four main types of bipolar disorder:
- Bipolar I: In such cases, the person has at least one episode of elevated moods and associated abnormal behaviour in his or her life. This may be preceded or followed by depressive episodes.
- Bipolar II: In these cases, the person must have suffered from at least one depressive episode. It is very similar to bipolar I except that in bipolar II the highs never reach the manic stage.
- Rapid Cycling: Some people can have 4 or more manic and depressive episodes a year. In such cases, they are said to be rapid cycling. This condition affects 10-20% of bipolar cases.
- Mixed Bipolar: Usually, bipolar patients show mood swings that alternate between manic and depressive moods. However, sometimes a person may experience both elation and depression simultaneously or in rapid succession of each other. These cases are known as mixed bipolar.
Once diagnosed, bipolar disorder can be managed with a combination of medication and psychotherapy. In some cases, electroconvulsive therapy may also be needed. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a psychiatrist and ask a free question.