What is needed for pregnancy?
In the male partner, sperms are produced in the testes and are then carried through the sperm conducting ducts (epididymis, vas, seminal vesicle and prostate gland). Finally the sperms are deposited inside the vagina.
In female partner, the deposited sperms travel from vagina into the uterus and then reach the Fallopian tubes (the tubes that are attached to the both sides of the uterus) where the sperms must meet the egg (ovum). The ovum released from the ovary (“ovulation”) enters the tube and thus inside the tube an embryo (earliest form of the baby) is formed, by meeting of the egg and the sperm.
Therefore, 4 things are needed and these are tested-
1) Semen Analysis of the husband- to see if the sperms are OK or not.
2) Uterus and the Ovaries of the wife- by TVS
3) Tube of the wife- by HSG
4) Condition of the ovaries of the wife- by AMH.
It must be done from an authentic laboratory after 3 days of abstinence (no intercourse and no masturbation for 3 days). If it’s OK, no further tests for the male partner is usually required.
Although, the usual ultrasound scan, done over the abdomen, gives some information, TVS gives better information about the ovaries and the uterus. It is done by inserting the ultrasound probe inside the vagina. It may cause little discomfort but is not usually painful.
It is a type of X Ray done after inserting saline water through the vagina. It’s usually done between day 8 and day 12 of the period.
Blood is tested for this hormone to see if the ovaries are functioning well or not.
Additionally, some tests are needed to ensure that both the mother and baby remain healthy during and after pregnancy. This is called “Preconceptional care”. This includes some routine tests like blood group, thalassaemia screening and tests for Rubella virus (this virus can cause birth defect in the baby).
One of the best news what a couple can have is to expect the arrival of a baby. With changing lifestyles, most people have chosen to have a baby much later in life, with education and career taking priority. However, when the couple is ready and it does not happen, there can be a lot of anxiety and stress.
It is normal for couples to take about 4 to 6 months to conceive, and there are various factors which can affect this. It is important to consider that the issue could be with either partner and so both need to be involved in testing to find out the underlying reasons.
When you have decided to check with a doctor, the following will be considered.
Some of the most common tests that would be done are listed below, separately for women and men.
Women: A physical exam will also include checking the pelvic area for any obvious signs of fibroids, cysts, PID, or endometriosis. This is followed by one or more of the following tests as required for the diagnosis of the underlying cause.
Involving both the partners is very important to solve this problem. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.
Cervical Cancer is most treatable when it is diagnosed and treated early. Problems found can usually be treated, depending on their severity and on the woman's age, past medical history, and other test results. Most women who get routine cervical cancer screening and follow up as told by their provider can find problems before cancer even develops. Prevention is always better than treatment.
Other HPV cancers are also more treatable when diagnosed and treated early. Although there is no routine screening test for these cancers, you should visit your doctor regularly for checkups.
Your doctor might recommend the HPV test if:
Your Pap test was abnormal, showing atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS)
You're age 30 or older
The HPV test is available only for women; no HPV test yet exists to detect the virus in men. However, men can be infected with HPV and pass the virus along to their sex partners.
What is a HPV Test?
The HPV test is a screening test for cervical cancer, but the test doesn't tell you whether you have cancer. Instead, the test detects the presence of HPV, the virus that causes cervical cancer, in your system. Certain types of HPV - including types 16 and 18 - increase your cervical cancer risk.
Knowing whether you have a type of HPV that puts you at high risk of cervical cancer means that you and your doctor can better decide on the next steps in your health care. Those steps might include follow-up monitoring, further testing, or treatment of abnormal or precancerous cells.
Pap- HPV Test:
HPV spreads through sexual contact and is very common in young women, so, frequently, the test results will be positive. However, HPV infections often clear on their own within a year or two. Cervical changes that lead to cancer take several years - often 10 years or more - to develop. For these reasons, you might follow a course of watchful waiting instead of undergoing treatment for cervical changes resulting from an HPV infection.
A combination Pap-HPV test is performed in your doctor's office and takes only a few minutes. You'll lie on your back on an exam table with your knees bent, your doctor will gently insert an instrument called a speculum into your vagina. The speculum holds the walls of the vagina apart and a flat scraping device called a spatula or a soft brush is used to take samples of your cervical cells. This doesn't hurt, and you may not even feel the sample being taken.
Results of your HPV test are given as positive or negative
Positive HPV test:A positive test result means that you have a type of high-risk HPV that's linked to cervical cancer. It doesn't mean that you have cervical cancer now, but it's a warning sign that cervical cancer could develop in the future. Your doctor will probably recommend a follow-up test in a year to see if the infection has cleared or to check for signs of cervical cancer.
Negative HPV test: A negative test result means that you don't have any of the types of HPV that cause cervical cancer.
Depending on your test results, your doctor may recommend one of the following as a next step:
Normal monitoring:If you're over age 30, your HPV test is negative and your Pap test normal, you'll follow the generally recommended schedule for repeating both tests in five years.
Colposcopy: In this follow-up procedure, your doctor uses a special magnifying lens (colposcope) to more closely examine your cervix.
Biopsy:In this procedure, sometimes done in conjunction with colposcopy, your doctor takes a sample of cervical cells (biopsy) to be examined more closely under a microscope.
Removal of abnormal cervical cells:To prevent abnormal cells from developing into cancerous cells, your doctor may suggest a procedure to remove the areas of tissue that contain the abnormal cells.
Seeing a specialist: If your Pap test or HPV test results are abnormal, your healthcare provider will probably refer you to a gynecologist for a colposcopic exam. If test results show that you might have cancer, you may be referred to a doctor who specializes in treating cancers of the female genital tract (gynecologic oncologist) for treatment.
If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult the doctor and ask a free question.
Routine diagnosis and tests are important to perform if you are diagnosed unexplained infertility. These diagnostic tests include assessment for Ovarian Reserve and other hormonal factors are involved which has to be assessed in order to treat infertility.
There are different tests for men and women, which helps the Fertility specialists to diagnose about the causes or reasons for the infertility. Some of them are briefly explained here:
Valuation of Male Infertility
In the infertile couple, the assessment of male factors like previous medical history, age, lifestyle of male and semen analysis has to be done. The evaluation of medical history includes prior paternity, surgical history, use of any medicines and sexual dysfunction. Physical assessment includes: abnormalities in testes i.e., Varicocele and absence of vas deferens could be detected.
Assessment of Female Infertile
Evaluation of female infertility included the assessment of ovulation or ovarian defects. A patient with menstrual abnormalities should be investigated for underlying causes such as polycystic ovarian syndrome, thyroid disease, and hypothalamic causes secondary to weight changes. Another test for the infertility in couples included the assessment of Ovarian reserve. the testing includes the Day 2 or day 3 serum AMH (Anti-Mullerian Hormone) or Serum FSH (Follicle stimulating hormone).
Sexual Health: Is a Taste of Mint Good or Bad?
Men who are concerned about appropriate penis care - and every man should be - want to make sure they do all they can to ensure premium sexual health. But the world of sexual health matters is littered with all sorts of misinformation, old wives tales and myths. One of the recurring ones concerns the use of mint as it relates to the penis. According to some sources, mint can be a fine sexual aid, but other sources insist there are dangers to sexual health in the overuse of mint. So what is a guy to believe?
It seems as if mint is everywhere around us. Spearmint is a popular flavor of chewing gum. Peppermint candies are a treat for kids and adults alike. The range of mint teas seems to have grown exponentially. As menthol, mint is found in several brands of cigarettes and cough drops. And "minty fresh" has become synonymous with toothpastes and other oral hygiene products. It's even used in some environmentally friendly pesticides in place of toxic chemicals.
There are well over a dozen different kinds of mint plants, and they grow across most of the inhabited continents (although not so often in South America). This popular herb can grow all year long in the appropriate conditions.
The penis connection
So why should this mint have any connection with the penis? Certainly, anything that is ingested has the potential to affect parts of the body, including the penis.
One of the more common theories associated with mint is that it has the effect of numbing the penis naturally. According to this theory, performing oral sex on an erect penis after sucking on a mint cough drop will temporarily de-sensitize the member so that it can stay harder for a longer period of time during sex. A variant on this theory recommends using mint oil on an erect penis for the same purpose.
There is a little scientific reasoning to back up this claim. Parts of the body contain a protein with a long scientific name which is more generally known as TRPM8. When mint comes into contact with TRPM8, it sends a signal to the brain that says "Experience this sensation as cold." So although mint itself is not cold, it makes the body think it is. And so the theory is that getting mint on an erect penis will numb it sufficiently that it acts as a kind of "delay spray." However, there are no studies to prove that mint applied to the penis will indeed result in longer-lasting sex.
And in fact, some people believe that mint could have a negative effect on sexual health and function. Some men have claimed that mint depresses their sex drive. A 2004 study involving mint tea given to male rats seemed to back this up. The intake of mint tea was associated with both an increase in female hormones and a decrease in testosterone.
A study in women with high testosterone levels later found the same thing - that mint caused their testosterone levels to drop and their female hormone levels to rise.
Since testosterone in men is associated with an increased sex drive, the studies suggest that too much mint could indeed cause an effect. But more studies would be needed to definitively prove this.