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Pleural Fluid Analysis Health Feed

Tuberculosis - All About The Disease!

Gynaecologist, Faridabad
Tuberculosis - All About The Disease!
Tuberculosis during pregnancy is the third leading cause of maternal mortality. In fact, it is one of the most feared diseases during pregnancy for mothers as well as children. The problem with Tuberculosis during pregnancy is that it is most often not diagnosed until very late in pregnancy or until child birth. This acts as a double-edged sword since it leads to progression of the disease in the mother and transmission of the disease to the child concurrently.

The best way to prevent Tuberculosis during pregnancy is to stay away from causative factors for tuberculosis.

Effects on Pregnancy

Tuberculosis during pregnancy can harm both the mother and the child. It can be grouped in two ways: effect on mother and effect on fetus.

Effect on Mother

Diagnosing Tuberculosis during pregnancy becomes difficult due to various changes in the body, including the immune system. Diagnosis is further vitiated due to no apparent weight loss. In fact, weight loss due to Tuberculosis is disguised by weight gain during pregnancy. However, pregnant women with Tuberculosis may experience less than normal weight gain.

There is an increased risk of miscarriage and abortion and premature labor.

Effect on Fetus

Tuberculosis during pregnancy affects the baby in different ways:

The fetus may contract the disease from the mother through the umbilical cord. This is referred to as congenital tuberculosis. The baby can contract the disease during its passage through the birth canal too. However, the symptoms of congenital Tuberculosis are often non-specific in nature. Since the mother also does not show any specific symptoms, it becomes difficult to diagnose the disease right after birth.

The child may suffer from swelling in the liver or spleen.

It may also suffer from respiratory problems, fever, etc.

How to Stay Away from Contracting Tuberculosis

The danger of contracting Tuberculosis bacteria during pregnancy is multiplied if the pregnant mother has a weak immune system. If a pregnant woman is exposed to bacteria during pregnancy, she may contract the disease. This is why pregnant women need to stay away from the disease by doing the following:

Staying away from TB infected persons around you

Stopping smoking since it enhances the risk of contracting the disease

Avoiding poor living conditions

Fighting Tuberculosis During Pregnancy

Management of Tuberculosis during pregnancy is extremely important since that can help you avoid any harm either to the mother or to the child. Though doctors would in all probability prescribe antibiotics, there are certain medicines that you need to avoid during pregnancy. Gynecologists are well aware of these drugs. Along with taking antibiotics, you also need to make sure that you:

Eat a balanced and healthy diet.

Breathe plenty of fresh air.

Talk to doctors about side effects like headaches, nausea, vision changes, etc.

Conclusion

People might think that taking medicine for Tuberculosis can harm their unborn child. However, the untreated Tuberculosis is even more harmful for the fetus. This is why doctors may recommend some TB drugs that help prevent the child from Tuberculosis. There are many medicines available that won t affect the child.

Eating healthy food, following proper treatment and medication, and some preventing measures will surely help the women to save the child from these conditions.

Open Heart Surgery - What All Should You Know

MCh (CTVS)
Cardiothoracic Vascular Surgery, Patna
Open Heart Surgery - What All Should You Know
Open heart surgery is a complicated heart procedure. Howeevr, it is still an important surgical procedure to fix critical heart ailments.

Here is a quick fact-checker about this procedure:

The Coronary Artery Bypass Graft or CABG is one of the frequently performed procedures in the open-heart surgery space. This is a procedure that is related to fixing the blocked arteries of the heart. A study conducted by the National Institutes of Health revealed that most patients who had undergone CABG become angina-free within a span of five years.
Many hospitals refuse to share any data related to the surgery. It makes sense to run a background check on the surgeon who is scheduled to perform the procedure. Society of Thoracic Surgery lists all doctors and the number of procedures they have performed in this space.
This is one of the few surgeries where a doctor needs to make a deep incision close to 2-2.5 inch through the breastbone to separate muscle and get access to the heart.
The recent trend is that the doctor can achieve the same result with beating heart CABG where heart does not need to be stopped just to avoid the complications of heart lung machine Once the procedure is over, the doctor closes the incision made through the breastbone with sternal wires. Subsequently, the patient is taken off from the heart-lung machine.
The patient might find himself tangled with many tubes as he wakes for the first time after the surgery. These wires take the fluid out of the body. They serve as a temporary pacemaker for the patient.
It is important to get a clarification from the surgeon as to from which location of the body would the veins be taken from to perform CABG. Most doctors prefer the vein from the leg.
The patient is kept in an ICU for a couple of days before he is shifted to the general ward where he spends close to a couple of weeks before he is released. After the patient gets home, the typical recovery time for the patient is approximately 6-8 weeks.
One has to usually deal with heightened emotions after an open-heart surgery.

Multivessel Stenting Vs Bypass Surgery - Which Is Better?

MBBS, MD - Medicine, DNB (Cardiology)
Cardiologist, Pune
Multivessel Stenting Vs Bypass Surgery - Which Is Better?
The results of a study conducted by the Department of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Korea, show that multivessel coronary stenting can be performed with a high success rate along with an acceptable clinical outcome. Coronary stenting has proven itself to be an accepted means for treating of obstructed coronary arteries. The need for multivessel coronary stenting has been inflated because of the larger number of patients with unfavourable cardiac profiles. Conventionally, bypass surgery is regarded as a standard means for relieving angina in cardiac patients with multivessel coronary disease as it could lead to a downright revascularization. Further, it also allows a prolongation of lifespan in a specified subgroup of patients.

How are they performed: Despite the coming of modern generation of stents, patients with multiple stringent arteries in the heart receiving coronary after bypass have recovered better than those whose arteries were grafted with balloon angioplasty or stenting. This report is presented in the 64th Annual Scientific Session in the American College of Cardiology. This report echoes past studies which shows that patients afflicted with multiple narrowed arteries receive better results with coronary artery bypass grafting, which is also known as CABG or bypass heart surgery. In case of multivessel stenting, which is known as angioplasty or percutaneous coronary intervention or PCI, a stent is put within the arteries to hold it wide open and facilitate the flow of blood.

Which one is better: In a new study, it is reported that patients with new stents are susceptible to 47% higher risk of any of the outcomes like death or cardiac arrest as compared to patients who undergo bypass surgery. In CABG, a vein or artery from other parts of the body is grafted on the constricted coronary artery for allowing easy blood flow to and from heart. This study reinforces present regulations that recommend CABG to treat patients with substantial constrictions in various arteries, a condition often termed as multivessel coronary artery ailment.

Renowned cardiologist Seung Jung Park from Asan Medical Centre in Seoul, South Korea opines that CABG is still a much preferred option on the basis of their medical data. Another study known as Bypass Surgery Versus Everolimus - Eluting Stent Implantation for Multivessel Coronary Artery Disease or BEST trial deserves mention. It is one of the two randomly controlled trials for comparing bypass to angioplasty since the introduction of modernised stents that emits medication, which would prevent blood clot.

This study was implemented on 880 patients at 27 healthcare centres in four countries. Each patient had multivessel coronary artery disease and were determined to be equally eligible to go through either of the methods. Half of these patients were randomly chosen to be given angioplasty with everolimus-eluting stents, and the other half received bypass surgery.

All the patients were tracked for about five years and during this prolonged follow up, angioplasty was related to a considerable upsurge in the incidence of myocardial infarction, target vessel revascularization and often death. Because, it is a more invasive process, bypass surgery is normally recommended only for patients afflicted with higher-risk constrictions in more than one artery.

If you are one of these patients and this concern plagues you, it is recommended to talk to your cardiologist without much delay.
5 people found this helpful

Last 21 July my father takes anti TB medicine continue but back two months he is suffering from heavy joints pain and swelling. He was taking 10 mg omnacortil since last two week. But there is no relief. Now he is suffering with new disease, leprosy. Doctor knows this the side effect of medicine. Now Doctor advice the anti TB medicine fore two months more. Please help me.

MD - Pulmonary, DTCD
Pulmonologist, Faridabad
Last 21 July my father takes anti TB medicine continue but back two months he is suffering from heavy joints pain and...
What is his serum uric acid. If normal then less likly due to TB medicine. Also joint pain can b edue to other causes also. Why was he put on omnacortil and how his leprosy diagnosed
1 person found this helpful
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Diagnosis And Treatment Of Valvar Aortic Stenosis In Children

DNB Cardiac surgery, MS General Surgery
Cardiologist, Visakhapatnam
Diagnosis And Treatment Of Valvar Aortic Stenosis In Children
Valvar aortic stenosis, commonly called aortic stenosis, is a disorder which occurs when the aortic valve of the heart becomes narrow. The narrowing of the valve prevents its full opening, and hence, blood flow from the heart to the aorta is restricted. When the aortic valve gets obstructed, the heart has to exert much more effort to pump the blood. The heart muscles get weakened as a result. This condition is more common in children.

Diagnosis of Valvar Aortic Stenosis-
Before diagnosis, we should know about the symptoms of valvar aortic stenosis in children. They include:

Feeling breathless
Angina or chest pain with a feeling of pressure or tightness
Syncope of fainting
Palpitations and enhanced heartbeats
A steady decline in regular activities and energy levels
Fatigue due to little exertion
Not gaining weight
Poor eating patterns
Problems in breathing

The wall of the left ventricle also thickens muscularly, and the thick wall occupies more space in the lower chamber of the heart and hence, the room for adequate blood supply is reduced. This may lead to heart failure.

Echocardiogram-
The initial test that is recommended for patients with symptoms of valvar aortic stenosis is Doppler Echocardiography. This test enables the doctor to estimate the aortic valve region, peak or mean transvalvular gradients and the maximum aortic velocity. These primary measures are required to assess the severity of the disease. Echocardiography provides important information on the valve function, left ventricular filling pressure and disruptions in other valves.

Other major tests which help in the diagnosis of valvar aortic stenosis include:
MRI or magnetic resonance imaging, which provides images of internal body structures with great detail.
CT scan or computed tomography where three-dimensional images are extracted.
Chest X ray
Cardiac catheterization where a dye is used to highlight blockages, if any, in the heart.

Treatment-
Usually, there are no medicines for fixing valvar aortic stenosis as the disease is not reversible. Medicines can be used to treat the problems, which are caused by the condition.

Replacement of the damaged valve by surgery is the best treatment for valvar aortic stenosis. The surgery performed is called valvuloplasty. This is a cardioscopic surgery where a tube with a small balloon is inserted into a vein. The tube is guided into the heart, and the balloon is inflated. The balloon and tube are removed after the valve is opened. The damaged valve is replaced by mechanical valve or the valve of a cow or pig by an open-heart surgery.

Valvar aortic stenosis is a severe heart condition in children, and the only permanent remedy for this disease is a valve replacement surgery.
2 people found this helpful

Sudden Cardiac Arrest - What To Do?

DNB Cardiac surgery, MS General Surgery
Cardiologist, Visakhapatnam
Sudden Cardiac Arrest - What To Do?
Cardiac arrest is reported to be the number one cause of sudden death for people over the age of 40. As it strikes fast and without prior warning, it usually leaves no time for getting help to the patient. Many lives can be saved if the necessary first aid is given immediately by people who know what to do in case of a cardiac arrest.

So first let us know about the signs of a cardiac arrest:

1. Loss of consciousness: A person may feel dizzy, sweat, faint or collapse suddenly. You can tell if someone has just fainted and not had a cardiac arrest if they are still breathing or have a pulse.
2. No breathing
3. No pulse
4. Muscle twitching.

Now that you have recognized the signs; here is what you can do:

1. Call the ambulance and try getting an emergency medical professional to attend to the person.

2. If professional help isn't available, emergency resuscitation measures must begin. An automated external defibrillator (AED) can rapidly determine whether the person has an abnormal heart rhythm that can be treated by an electric shock (called defibrillation). AEDs are available in many public gathering places, such as stadiums and concert halls. An AED is used before calling for help and before attempting cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) because an AED is more likely to save lives. If the AED detects ventricular fibrillation, it provides an electrical shock (defibrillation) that can restore normal heart rhythm and start the heart beating again. Emergency medical care should be obtained even if the heart has started beating again. If a person remains in cardiac arrest after an AED is used, CPR should be done.

3. If a person remains in cardiac arrest after an AED is used, other measures are begun, such as opening the airway and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).

4. CPR combines artificial respiration (mouth-to-mouth resuscitation, or rescue breathing) to supply oxygen to the lungs with chest compressions, which circulate oxygen to the brain and other vital organs by forcing blood out of the heart.

To do CPR (artificial respiration), the rescuer's mouth covers the person's mouth and then rescuer slowly exhales air into the person's lungs (rescue breaths). The person's airway must remain opened during artificial respiration. To prevent air from escaping from the person's nose, the person's nose can be pinched shut as the rescuer exhales into the mouth.

Talk to your doctor to find out if you are at risk of a cardiac arrest.
1 person found this helpful

Sir, I have Extra pulmonary TB, means lympnode at my neck, I am taking the Forecox 150 mg single tablet per day. My weight is 72 kg, is that right dose for me or how much dose should I take of that tablet can you please suggest me?

DM (Pulmonary & Critical care medicine), DNB ( Respiratory Diseases/Pulmonary Medicine), MD (Tuberculosis & Respiratory Diseases), MBBS
Pulmonologist, Delhi
Hi. Forecox contains four drugs in combination with different dosages. I guess it can't be 150 only .considering your weight 72 you require 3 tablets of forecox daily with serial liver function test monitoring. Treatment with TB medicines should not be under dosed. Consult chest physician. Thanks.
1 person found this helpful
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Multivessel Stenting Vs Bypass Surgery - Which Should Be Preferred?

MCh - Cardio Thoracic & Vascular Surgery, MBBS, MS - General Surgery
Cardiologist, Bhopal
Multivessel Stenting Vs Bypass Surgery - Which Should Be Preferred?
The results of a study conducted by the Department of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Korea, show that multivessel coronary stenting can be performed with a high success rate along with an acceptable clinical outcome. Coronary stenting has proven itself to be an accepted means for treating of obstructed coronary arteries. The need for multivessel coronary stenting has been inflated because of the larger number of patients with unfavourable cardiac profiles. Conventionally, bypass surgery is regarded as a standard means for relieving angina in cardiac patients with multivessel coronary disease as it could lead to a downright revascularization. Further, it also allows a prolongation of lifespan in a specified subgroup of patients.

How are they performed: Despite the coming of modern generation of stents, patients with multiple stringent arteries in the heart receiving coronary after bypass have recovered better than those whose arteries were grafted with balloon angioplasty or stenting. This report is presented in the 64th Annual Scientific Session in the American College of Cardiology. This report echoes past studies which shows that patients afflicted with multiple narrowed arteries receive better results with coronary artery bypass grafting, which is also known as CABG or bypass heart surgery. In case of multivessel stenting, which is known as angioplasty or percutaneous coronary intervention or PCI, a stent is put within the arteries to hold it wide open and facilitate the flow of blood.

Which one is better: In a new study, it is reported that patients with new stents are susceptible to 47% higher risk of any of the outcomes like death or cardiac arrest as compared to patients who undergo bypass surgery. In CABG, a vein or artery from other parts of the body is grafted on the constricted coronary artery for allowing easy blood flow to and from heart. This study reinforces present regulations that recommend CABG to treat patients with substantial constrictions in various arteries, a condition often termed as multivessel coronary artery ailment.



Renowned cardiologist Seung Jung Park from Asan Medical Centre in Seoul, South Korea opines that CABG is still a much preferred option on the basis of their medical data. Another study known as Bypass Surgery Versus Everolimus - Eluting Stent Implantation for Multivessel Coronary Artery Disease or BEST trial deserves mention. It is one of the two randomly controlled trials for comparing bypass to angioplasty since the introduction of modernised stents that emits medication, which would prevent blood clot.

This study was implemented on 880 patients at 27 healthcare centres in four countries. Each patient had multivessel coronary artery disease and were determined to be equally eligible to go through either of the methods. Half of these patients were randomly chosen to be given angioplasty with everolimus-eluting stents, and the other half received bypass surgery.

All the patients were tracked for about five years and during this prolonged follow up, angioplasty was related to a considerable upsurge in the incidence of myocardial infarction, target vessel revascularization and often death. Because, it is a more invasive process, bypass surgery is normally recommended only for patients afflicted with higher-risk constrictions in more than one artery.

If you are one of these patients and this concern plagues you, it is recommended to talk to a cardiologist without much delay.
11 people found this helpful

Valvar Aortic Stenosis In Kids - How To Diagnose It?

Cardiologist, Navi Mumbai
Valvar Aortic Stenosis In Kids - How To Diagnose It?
Valvar aortic stenosis, commonly called aortic stenosis, is a disorder which occurs when the aortic valve of the heart becomes narrow. The narrowing of the valve prevents its full opening, and hence, blood flow from the heart to the aorta is restricted. When the aortic valve gets obstructed, the heart has to exert much more effort to pump the blood. The heart muscles get weakened as a result. This condition is more common in children.

Diagnosis of Valvar Aortic Stenosis:
Before diagnosis, we should know about the symptoms of valvar aortic stenosis in children. They include:

Feeling breathless
Angina or chest pain with a feeling of pressure or tightness
Syncope of fainting
Palpitations and enhanced heartbeats
A steady decline in regular activities and energy levels
Fatigue due to little exertion
Not gaining weight
Poor eating patterns
Problems in breathing
The wall of the left ventricle also thickens muscularly, and the thick wall occupies more space in the lower chamber of the heart and hence, the room for adequate blood supply is reduced. This may lead to heart failure.

Echocardiogram: The initial test that is recommended for patients with symptoms of valvar aortic stenosis is Doppler Echocardiography. This test enables the doctor to estimate the aortic valve region, peak or mean transvalvular gradients and the maximum aortic velocity. These primary measures are required to assess the severity of the disease. Echocardiography provides important information on the valve function, left ventricular filling pressure and disruptions in other valves.

Other major tests which help in the diagnosis of valvar aortic stenosis include:

MRI or magnetic resonance imaging, which provides images of internal body structures with great detail.
CT scan or computed tomography where three-dimensional images are extracted.
Chest X ray
Cardiac catheterization where a dye is used to highlight blockages, if any, in the heart.
Treatment:

Usually, there are no medicines for fixing valvar aortic stenosis as the disease is not reversible. Medicines can be used to treat the problems, which are caused by the condition.

Replacement of the damaged valve by surgery is the best treatment for valvar aortic stenosis. The surgery performed is called valvuloplasty. This is a cardioscopic surgery where a tube with a small balloon is inserted into a vein. The tube is guided into the heart, and the balloon is inflated. The balloon and tube are removed after the valve is opened. The damaged valve is replaced by mechanical valve or the valve of a cow or pig by an open-heart surgery.

Valvar aortic stenosis is a severe heart condition in children, and the only permanent remedy for this disease is a valve replacement surgery.
1 person found this helpful