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Paget's Disease Of Bones - Know How To Treat It!

Paget's Disease Of Bones - Know How To Treat It!
The bones in our body are constantly renewing themselves. The old bone tissue is broken down and absorbed by the body while new tissue takes its place. This process is known as 'remodelling'. Paget's disease is a condition that interferes with this process. Over time it can lead to the disfiguring of bones and a loss of bone density. The bones most affected by this condition are the bones of the legs, spine, pelvis and skull.

Diagnosis
Many patients suffering from this condition do not exhibit any characteristic symptoms. One of the most common complaints that can lead to a diagnosis of Paget s disease is bone pain. Other symptoms, if any, depends on the part of the body that is affected. A physical examination and imaging tests help determine a diagnosis in such cases. This includes X-rays, bone scans and blood tests. X-rays are used to look for abnormalities in the bone structure. These can be seen in the form of enlarged bones, bowing of the bones or other deformities. Similarly, a bone scan provides a clear picture of the affected bones and allows the doctor to determine the severity of the case. Blood tests are used to look for elevated alkaline phosphatase levels that are also symptomatic of this condition.

Treatment
There are two aspects to the treatment of this condition; medication and surgery.

Medication can take the form of oral or injectable osteoporosis drugs. These are usually well tolerated but in some cases, it may irritate the digestive system. In rare cases, it may also be connected to joint pain and muscle pain. It may also increase the risk of suffering from deterioration of the jaw bone. In such cases, the medication is usually withdrawn and calcitonin may be prescribed as an alternative. This can be administered as a nasal spray or as an injection.

Surgery is advised only in rare cases. This is aimed at healing fractures, replacing damaged joints, realigning deformed bones and reducing pressure on surrounding nerves. Before the patient undergoes surgery for Paget s disease, he or she may be advised to take a certain medication that helps reduce the severity of the disease. This, in turn, helps control blood loss during the surgery.

In addition to this, patients are also advised to be careful and use a cane or walker. This can help reduce the risk of fracturing a bone. A diet rich in vitamin D and calcium is also recommended.

Bone Fracture - What Causes It?

Bone Fracture - What Causes It?
The human body allows for movement through the complex system of bones, muscles and joints. A break in the bone is medically known as a fracture and can be caused by constant stress, pressure or impact. It is common knowledge that with age, the bone strength decreases and incidence of fractures (osteoporotic fracture) increases. Based on the affected bone and impact, different types of fractures are commonly identified as:

Complete: When the breakage of the bone is complete, producing two or more pieces, it is referred to as a complete fracture.
Incomplete: When the breakage is incomplete, where the bone has cracked, but does not break into pieces, it is known as an incomplete fracture.
Another type would be the open or closed fracture:
Open fracture: When the skin is exposed and the bone breaks through this exposed skin, it is known as compound or open fracture.
Simple or closed fracture: The bone breaks, but the skin continuity is maintained. Again, here are different types including hairline, greenstick, oblique, etc.
What is the reason behind a fracture?
A bone will fracture when force is applied to it that is stronger than the bone itself. A key factor in a bone s susceptibility to fracturing is age. Both children and older people are prone to bone fractures. Children s bones are constantly growing and have not reached their full strength. Elderly people have brittle bones with old age and are prone to develop bone diseases, making them susceptible to fractures.

How they are treated?
Splint and pain medications are commonly used. Closed reduction where the fracture is reduced without opening up the tissues and open reduction, where the tissues are opened up are common approaches to managing fractures.

Can they be prevented?
Especially with children and in the elderly, extra precaution should be taken to avoid any kind of injury and fracture.

Develop an exercise routine to strengthen the muscles
Manage weight
Use the right footwear and exercise gear
Watch your medications (avoid sleep inducing ones)
Increase lighting in the room/home to improve clarity of vision for elderly
Make the home/living area fall-proof by reducing clutter, using railing in the bathroom and bedroom, using rubber mat, etc.
While a fall may seem inevitable, taking the above steps can help reduce the incidence and severity of a fall, thereby minimizing damage.
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Shoulder bone got fractured a month ago. Taken ayurvedic treatment and in the recent x-ray it has seen that the bone rejoined. What are the physiotherapy exercises to regain flexibility (while moving hand some pain on the shoulder otherwise not). Suggest some beginning ways to normal life.

Shoulder bone got fractured a month ago. Taken ayurvedic treatment and in the recent x-ray it has seen that the bone ...
If you suspect a dislocated shoulder, seek prompt medical attention. Most people regain full shoulder function within a few weeks. However, once you've had a dislocated shoulder, your joint may become unstable and be prone to repeat dislocations shoulder dislocation may also cause numbness, weakness or tingling near the injury. To avoid a recurrence, follow the specific strength and stability exercises with a proper consultation.
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I am 17 years old. My left handed scaphoid bone was fracture and I done operation from last 15 days .i m vegetarian and pleas suggest to me what should be taken in my meal.

Everyone who experiences a fractured bone will heal differently. The healing process will depend on the nature and extent of the injury, the stability of fracture fixation, and biological processes, so a proper healing process is crucial. No matter how severe a bone fracture is, a person should always look for right medical treatment to avoid future complications, such as abnormal healing, loss of function, or bone weaknesses.
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Old Age Fractures - How To Avoid Them?

Old Age Fractures - How To Avoid Them?
As you get older, you are more prone to old-age fractures. This is because of the weakening of your bones and enhanced likeliness towards falling. In case you have osteoporosis, you need to be even more careful to avoid fractures of any kind. Here are some must-read tips for prevention of fractures, which are likely because of old age.

Exercise for improving balance and strength: Exercise directly impacts the strength of the bones. Keeping fit physically helps the reflexes to stay sharp and the muscles to stay strong. This will, in turn, result in lowering the risk of falling. When you are fit, you are less prone to falls. Bones do not stay fit unless you regularly work out. You should undertake exercises such as walking, weight lifting and also practice flexibility and balance exercises such as yoga and tai chi.
Tread carefully: The selection of shoes is very important for preventing old-age fractures. You should wear shoes, which are low heeled, have rubber soles and provide proper support. Avoid leather soles. You should avoid sneakers having deep treads, which increase your risk of tripping and falling. Shoes must be worn inside the house as well. You also need to take several precautions while walking outside. In case you have arthritis, you require an assistive device to aid you with walking such as a walker or a cane.
Certain medicines to be avoided, if possible: There are several medicines which increase your risk of falling by causing dizziness and lack of coordination. These medicines must be avoided. They include the following:
Sleeping pills or sedatives
Medicines which lower your blood pressure, thereby resulting in hypotension or extreme low pressure
Antidepressant medicines
Anticonvulsants which are used for treating epilepsy
Muscle relaxants used for back pain and other issues
Lighten up your surroundings: Because of old age, your vision is likely to degrade, making you prone to cataracts and other disorders. The lack of proper vision can make you fall and cause fractures. For solving this problem, you should install several lights all over your residence or workplace. Use overhead lamps, night lights for bathrooms and for your bedroom and always keep the staircases lit. It is also good to keep a flashlight beside you when you sleep.
Fall proof your home: You should make your home safe and fall-proof. The rooms should be clutter-free without piles of clothes and boxes. A carpet should be put over polished floors and rugs. Electric cords and phone lines should be away from the floor.
As you get older, you are likely to develop several health conditions, which may increase the chances of falls and fractures. Hence, all health conditions you experience should be properly treated to prevent falls and fractures.

Fractures - Know More About Them!

Fractures - Know More About Them!
A broken bone is medically known as a fracture. Age plays a major role in determining the risk and extent of your fracture. In children, broken bones are common place. Children s fractures are generally less complicated and easier to treat than those in adults. Brittle bones due to calcium weaning away is more pronounced in adults. Bones, in general, become weaker as you age as decalcification occurs as the bones start undergoing resorption.

Till the time a child turns 18, the bone density keeps increasing if sufficient calcium intake continues. On the other hand, when you turn into an adult, the density can t increase despite sufficient calcium intake. On the other hand, calcium ions get slowly released into the blood stream if there is inadequate consumption of calcium-containing foods.

The main categories of fractures based on damage to the surrounding tissues are non-displaced, displaced, open and closed. Non-displaced and displaced fractures refer to the manner in which the bone has broken. The bone breaks into more than one component in displaced fractures and both ends move in such a way that they are not in proper alignment. In a comminuted fracture, the bone breaks into many pieces.

Non-displaced fractures involve the cracking of a bone in its entirety or a part of it, but there isn t much movement and it maintains proper alignment. A bone breaks in a closed fracture but there isn t any open wound relating to the skin. The bone breaks past the skin in an open fracture. It might then recede back into the trauma and not be seen through the skin. There is a risk of a deep bone infection in an open fracture and this is an important difference from a closed fracture.

Some fractures based on how and the extent of the breakage include:

Greenstick: It is a partial or incomplete fracture in which the bone bends. This is most often seen in children.
Transverse fracture: It is a fracture in which the broken piece of bone is at right angles to the bone's axis.
Oblique fracture: Such a fracture involves a curved or sloped pattern in the breaking point.
Comminuted fracture: The bone gets broken into several pieces.
Buckled fracture: It is also known as an impacted fracture. The ends are driven into each other. This is very common in arm fractures in children.
Pathologic fracture: It is caused by any disease that can weaken the bones.
Hairline Fracture: Also known as stress fracture, it is seen on an x ray as a thin line.
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Pelvic Acetabulum Fracture Fixation - Know About It!

Pelvic Acetabulum Fracture Fixation - Know About It!
Fractures in the pelvis or acetabulum are serious issues, especially when the patient has met with an accident. It is the most complex type of orthopedic surgery and requires immediate medical attention. The fractures are more common in old ages as older patients have a weak hip bone. Although, all ages are prone to pelvic or acetabulum fractures. To understand the fractures and treatment, you must understand the anatomy of the pelvis. The acetabulum is the part of the pelvis and the hip joint is the largest joint in the body. These parts are connected with a ball and socket method. Acetabulum forms the socket in the structure, and the ball is the femoral head which connects the thigh bone and acetabulum. The pelvis supports most of the lower part of the body, including major blood vessels, nerves, abdominal system, bladder, and reproductive organs. A pelvic or acetabulum fracture may happen due to vehicle accident or fall. But the severity of the fracture is determined by the number of fractures, fracture in the socket or ball of the joint.

Causes

Acetabulum fractures are caused due to the force in the hip joints, femur head, or the sockets on the joints. The force can be from the knee or sides. The direction of the force can result in the dislocation of the hips. This force can dislocate the femur balls from the sockets, which can be very painful. Severe acetabulum fracture can be due to a high impact force like high fall or vehicle accidents. These cases are taken immediately to the surgery and need immediate medical attention. Apart from this, weak bones or joint in the old age is the most common reason for acetabulum fractures. Hip joints take the weight of the entire body and hence gets weak with age. Even a simple fall from walking or standing can result in a pelvic fracture.

Symptoms

A fractured pelvis or acetabulum causes severe pain for the patient. If the injury is caused due to a high impact force, it can also result in bleeding. The numbness in the legs and nerve damage can leave tingling sensation which can be part of the fracture. The patient is required to be operated at soonest and needs complete rest for months. Treatment Doctors suggest various treatment to the patient with acetabulum fracture. Sometimes nonsurgical treatment is offered to the patient whose fractures are stable and may heal naturally. In such cases, the doctor recommends walking aids like crutches to help them walk. However, most acetabulum fracture needs surgery. If the damage is in the joint and it is impossible for the patient to move, then doctors recommend surgery.

Take Away

Pelvis fracture is an extremely painful damage to the most essential joint in the body. Though there are surgery available for correcting the fracture, it is always advisable to consult a doctor before going for any treatment option.
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Nonunion Fractures - What Should You Know?

Nonunion Fractures - What Should You Know?
Both young and old are vulnerable to fractures. While the former gets them during intense physical activities, the latter experience fractures due to less bone density. Thus, quite common, they are, however, if you experience a persistent pain in the fracture spot even after undergoing treatment, you must visit your doctor without delay as it might be a case of nonunion.

Despite modern treatment methods that heal most fractures, sometimes new bone tissue doesn't begin to form and repair the broken pieces. This hindrance to the healing of bones is known as nonunion.' Patients suffering from nonunion of fractures usually feel pain in the fractured area even after the fracture disappears and can last for months or years. In some cases, these pains may get triggered, if pressure is applied to the fractured area.

Why does nonunion occur?
The three most important aspects of bone healing include stability, blood supply, and nutrition. If the broken bones that have been put together are moved out of place before they fully heal, it can lead to complications. Cases, where surgical fixation is involved, can be disrupted due to various reasons, including ineffective surgery which can happen due to unforeseen complications and can cause nonunion.

Limited blood supply to the fracture site can be caused due to a lack of or disruption of the body's healing cells. Blood supply to the injured area usually returns to normal during the healing period, but there might be medical complications that prevent fractured bones from healing.
Nutrition is the third biggest factor that can cause nonunion of fractures if the patient does not have a well-balanced diet and lacks essential vitamins, calcium, and proteins in the body. Dietary guidelines need to be followed to allow proper healing.
Other situational risk factors that may contribute to nonunion include age, diabetes, infections, anemia or use of tobacco and other forms of nicotine.
Treatment of A Nonunion

Depending on the situation, treatment is possible using both surgical and non-surgical methods. A bone stimulator may be used to treat a nonunion non-surgically. This small device helps send ultrasonic waves to stimulate healing, and through repeated usage of the device, it can help patients start healing.
Surgical treatment involves the usage of a bone graft that can help new bone (or bones) to grow in the affected area. Bone grafts are surgically planted, and they provide fresh bone cells and necessary chemicals that the body needs for healing. Surgeons make an incision and remove pieces of bone from different areas of the patient and transplant them into the affected area. Bone harvesting can be a painful process, but it does not affect bodily functions or cause any cosmetic problems in any way to the patient.
In many cases, bone harvesting can be avoided by using allografts (bone grafts from cadavers) or other substitutes (known as osteobiologics) made of chemicals that can be fixated both internally and externally.
These methods kickstart the healing process and allow the fractured bones to heal and return the area to its normal and undamaged state.