Lupus erythematosus (LE) is a non-specific immune disorder. It is caused by antibodies which are defense proteins that attack the own tissue of the bodies instead of foreign invaders. LE affects a wide range of tissues including skin, kidney, heart, brain, lungs, and joints. An LE cells are either a macrophage or neutrophil which has engulfed degraded nuclear material from another cell. LE cell detection is made through microscopic examination. Flow cytometric analysis is a specialized testing which also helps in detecting LE cell in an automated manner. Le cell blood test is a screening test for lupus which detects lupus cells. Adults are most commonly affected by lupus.
Preparation: As such no special preparation is required before LE cell test. You do not need to fast or restrict the consumption of food and drinks before the test. You need to inform the doctor regarding the underlying medication or allergies before undergoing the test. You also need to inform the doctor regarding your medical history. You need to carry a prescription from your doctor who has ordered for the test. You will be provided with specific instruction by the doctor depending on your condition.
Uses: As mentioned above, LE cell phenomenon test is helpful in detecting lupus. A positive value for the LE cell blood test is interpreted as the detection of lupus cells. The LE cell test is usually performed when severe symptoms of fever, rash, fatigue, light sensitivity or joint pain are experienced by the patient. In the past, the test was most commonly used to diagnose systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) but now SLE is diagnosed by more specific and sensitive test such as anti-nuclear antibody blood test.
The LE cell blood test is conducted by collecting a blood sample from the patient. The technician or the nurse will wrap an elastic band around the upper arm. The area from where the blood will be collected is cleaned with an alcohol pad. The technician or the nurse will then inject a needle into the vein of the arm. The required amount of blood sample is collected in a tube which is attached to the needle. The needle and the band are removed after collecting an ample amount of sample. The collected sample is sealed and is sent to the laboratory for examination. A small pressure is applied to the needle site to stop the bleeding.
LE Cell Phenomenon
All age groups
The presence of LE cell is reported by the pathologist
Cervical spondylosis is fast becoming the bane of modern life. An age-related wear and tear problem affecting the spinal discs in your neck, cervical spondylosis is increasingly affecting the young because of the use of cell phones, laptops and the like.
Cervical spondylosis is a general term used to define shrinkage of discs in between vertebrae in the neck region. Along with disc degeneration, bony projections also form in the area and are called bone spurs.
Other causes of cervical spondylosis are dehydrated discs. Discs are thick, pad-like cushions in between vertebrae that act as shock absorbers. They are made of a gel- like material that can dry over time. This causes the spinal vertebrae to rub together causing pain. The discs also crack which allows the internal gel-like material to spill out and impinge on spinal nerves causing symptoms.
There is a narrowing of the space required by the spinal cord and nerves that emanate in the upper spine to go to various parts of the body. Pinching of these nerves can cause alarming symptoms like:
Treatment and management
Usually, cervical spondylosis doesn’t cause any symptoms. But when you start experiencing pain, stiffness and weakness of muscles, it’s best to go to a doctor who will diagnose the problem and then treat it.
Treatment for cervical spondylosis depends on the severity of your symptoms. Its goal is to get rid of pain, allow you to carry on your daily activities and prevent any permanent damage to your spinal cord and nerves.
Cervical spondylosis surgery typically involves removing:
If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Physiotherapist.
No matter how much information there is available about AIDS and HIV, the thought of it makes a person shudder. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus or HIV is the virus responsible for AIDS or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. This virus attacks the immune system and over time leaves the body defenseless against other infections and types of cancer. Till date, there is no cure for HIV or AIDS. However, what we do know is how the disease can be transmitted from one person to another. Knowing this enables us to control the transmission of the disease.
Unlike other viruses, HIV cannot be transmitted through air, water etc. This virus can only be transmitted through:
Receiving blood transfusions from an HIV positive person is sure to put you at risk of suffering from the disease as well. For this reason, it is essential to only take blood from registered blood banks that run HIV screening tests. This holds true for organ and tissue transplants as well. Being stuck with an HIV infected needle can also put you at risk of coming in contact the virus. In some cases, direct contact between broken skin, wounds and mucus membranes can also lead to the transferring of HIV cells from one person to another. HIV does not spread through saliva, however, if while kissing, both partners suffer from bleeding gums and one partner is HIV positive, there is a risk of the transference of HIV from one person to the other.
Bodily fluids such as semen and vaginal fluids-
The only way to prevent the transmission of the HIV virus from one partner to another while having intercourse is by using a condom. This creates a barrier between the bodily fluids of both partners and keeps them safe. A condom is needed even if the couple is engaging in anal sex. In fact when comparing anal and vaginal intercourse; anal sex puts HIV negative partners at a higher risk of getting in contact the virus than vaginal sex. Theoretically, this virus can be transmitted even through oral sex is a HIV positive man ejaculates into the woman's mouth. However, this is a rare occurrence.
From a mother to an unborn child-
A HIV positive mother can transmit the virus to her child when pregnant, at birth or while breastfeeding. However, if the mother follows HIV treatment, the chances of her passing on this virus to her child are significantly lowered.
The above are the only three ways HIV can be transferred from one person to another. HIV cannot be transmitted by sharing utensils, drinking the same water, through mosquito bites or by shaking hands etc. Thus, there is no reason to ostracize an HIV infected person. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can ask a free question.
Growth of hair may occur either on its own or after a particular treatment, inducing hair growth. There are various treatments as well as solutions for preventing and treating hair fall. Loss of hair occurs due to various reasons, including fungal infection on the scalp, genetic reasons, head injury and extreme fever. Homeopathic treatment is one of the finest branches of medical treatments that have been proved to be highly effective in curing hair fall and in promoting growth of hair.
• Homeopathy is a stream of medications that has been there for a long time and prepared with herbal and mineral sources.
• Many practitioners recommend homeopathic treatment for a long-term solution of hair loss.
Some of the most effective homeopathic medications for hair loss include:
• It is extracted from sandstones and human tissues.
• This medicine is very useful for strengthening the roots of hair and eliminating the dryness by offering total nourishment to the scalp and hair.
• Silicea is a growth enhancer and is one of the 12 tissue cell salts found in human beings.
• Kalium Carbonicum is a homeopathic medication that has been extracted from compounds that Egyptians used for preparation of glass.
• It is prescribed by homeopath practitioners all over the world to stop thinning and brittleness of hair, thereby promoting good hair growth.
• Homeopathic experts recommend lycopodium for the prevention of premature balding.
• It is particularly suitable for pregnant women and those who have recently given birth, as hair fall is a common symptom at this stage.
• It is generally prepared by distilling the spores of some evergreen plants like club moss, which is popularly referred to as staghorn moss.
• The preparation of Natrum muriaticum is executed from sodium chloride, which is commonly known as table salt.
• This medication has been proven to be very effective, where hair loss is caused from dryness of scalp, dandruff problems, skin diseases and menstrual disorders.
• It can also treat hair loss caused from hormonal imbalances and is a great solution for people who react emotionally to loss of hair.
Though the homeopathic treatment regime is filled with hoards of medicines, it is crucial to consult an expert to know which treatment would work for you and refrain from administering medicines on your own. This will help you to reap the benefits of homeopathic treatments and have desired growth of hair.
1) Diabetes is curable :
Diabetes is mainly due deficiency of Insulin (hormone produced by Beta cells of pancreas), plus resistance to action of insulin, overweightor obesity and inactivity. Therefore, to treat diabetes we need drugs that initiate insulin secretion, reduce insulin resistance. In some cases insulin itself. Plus dietary control and regular exercise to maintain normal weight or reduce excess weight. Hence it can only be effectively controlled. Cure is not possible.
2) Eating Sugar or Sweets causes Diabetes :
It is incorrect to say that eating sweets and / or sugar causes diabetes. Basically excess food intake will lead to excess production of glucose. That puts excess load on insulin producing cells in pancreas due glucotoxicity. Also due to central obesity the fat around internal organs causes lipotoxicity affecting the beta cells. Therefore, excess food intake in general and weight gain are the reasons for diabetes.
3) Jaggery is better or safe in diabetes :
Jaggery and sugar both are essentially same. Both contain sucrose, as they are prepared from sugar cane juice. Hence eating either of these will increase blood glucose considerably. In jaggery there are some vitamins and a few antioxidants. But both are bad for a diabetic person.
4) Rice should not be eaten in diabetes :
Not really true. Because in south India this is the major or at times only main food. Rice has a high glycemic index so gets converted to glucose rapidly. So polished rice is not good. Brown rice is better. Quantity should be regulated. All other cereals also are converted glucose after digestion.
5)Allopathic Medications Damage Kidneys, so go for either Ayurvedic or Homeopathic Drugs :
In fact diabetes itself affects kidney, particularly the filtering membrane of glomerulurous (a filtering unit in the kidney). Even when diabetes fairly well controlled, kidney does get affected. The drugs used to treat diabetes help in overcoming kidney damage. Therefore it is wrong to think that modern drugs cause kidney damage. In fact some of the other drugs contain heavy metals (Bhasmas), which can be harmful to the kidney.
6) Sugar intake is essential for body :
Some people keep asking that eating sugar is very necessary for getting energy for the body tissues. This is not at all true. Because all the cereals like rice, jowar, wheat, ragi, bajra and other millets, contain starch as the main ingredient. Hence intake of each of these foods provides glucose after digestion. So there is no separate need for taking sugar.
Few things to be remembered and practiced are :
A tumor is formed due to the uncontrolled proliferation of living cells. Generally, the cells in the human body continuously die and are replaced by new cells. Some cells are replaced frequently, like intestinal lining and skin, while some like nerve cells live longer and may not be replaced once they die. Natural cell death is mediated by genetic information and the body’s bio-chemical signals. In the case of a tumor, some cells develop genetic mutations, and stop responding to the ‘cell-death’ signals. They do not die and continue to grow to form a mass, stealing nutrients and oxygen from surrounding tissue. Brain tumor can arise from any of the many types of cells in the brain or its covering. These can be benign (less harmful), or malignant (rapidly growing). These tumours cause harm by following methods:
Symptoms of Brain Tumour:
Diagnosing a brain tumour may include one or more of many tests, including CT scan, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), PET scan and biopsy. One should never ignore the symptoms discussed above and should visit a doctor, preferably a Neurosurgeon as early as possible. Brain tumors are easier to treat if diagnosed early. Certain small tumors can be treated with radiation alone. If surgery is required, smaller tumors diagnosed early have greater chance of cure. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Neurosurgeon.