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A Comprehensive Guide To The Management Of Insulin

Dr. Ravindra Chhajed 94% (335 ratings)
MBBS, FCPS - Medicine, DNB - General Medicine (I)
Diabetologist, Pune
A Comprehensive Guide To The Management Of Insulin

Close to 400 million people across the world are affected by diabetes, and this chronic condition drastically reduces the quality of life if not managed properly. Though several treatment options are available to manage the condition, lack of awareness hinders many from seeking treatment.

Insulin therapy is provided for type II diabetes patients to achieve and maintain a steady blood sugar level. A few may think that injecting insulin is a complicated therapy, but there is no reason to be afraid of insulin treatment.

Insulin treatment is often regarded as the last resort when it comes to managing type II diabetes, but experts suggest that this should not be the case. Insulin is a type of hormone that the pancreas produces naturally and in case there is any deficiency of it, a person may have to take insulin. However, you cannot purchase insulin in pill form, and thus, insulin injections are the only way that can stabilize the insulin requirement in your body.

When is insulin given to a person?
Insulin treatment is required when a person who has type II diabetes is not able to produce adequate levels of the hormone, and other techniques and medications fail to treat the condition. Initially, basal insulin, commonly referred to as background insulin is given to a person owing to its low and consistent level in the blood for a long stretch of time. Also, there are different types of medications available for controlling diabetes, and therefore, some people may need one basal injection along with pills while others may require mixed insulin treatment.

The different types of insulin available for treating diabetes-
Every individual has a different set of variables that make his or her health condition unique. There are also various approaches to controlling blood sugar, and this includes the insulin type prescribed as well.
According to the reports of the American Diabetes Association, there are several forms of insulin with their unique benefits and properties such as speed and span of efficacy, and peak points. Here are some of the most commonly prescribed types of insulin:

  1. Regular insulin: Also referred to as short-acting insulin, this kind of insulin is consumed during mealtime, and it reaches the bloodstream within half an hour after injecting. It peaks in about 2 to 3 hours and remains effective for up to 6 hours.
  2. Long-acting insulin: It is given once a day, and it can stabilize blood sugar levels for the whole day.
  3. Rapid-acting insulin: As the name suggests, this insulin works fast and lasts for about 2 to 4 hours.
  4. Intermediate-acting insulin: It works slower than its rapid-acting counterpart, but faster than long-acting insulin. It reaches the bloodstream in about 2 hours after injection and remains effective for about 18 hours.

It is crucial to discuss one’s preferences and medical history with a professional endocrinologist for an effective insulin treatment plan. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

4698 people found this helpful

Comprehensive Fertility Assessment - Bring Home Love, Life and Happiness

Dr. Vinod Raina 89% (5866 ratings)
MD - General Medicine
Sexologist, Delhi
Comprehensive Fertility Assessment - Bring Home Love, Life and Happiness

Getting married, having children, living the family life is an age-old phenomenon dating back to the mythological era. It's almost every married couple's dream to complete the picture with offspring of their own. It has also become a social status of sorts especially in a country like ours where the people are united by cast, color, creed and religion. The religious beliefs have often led to some couples facing the wrath of the society for no fault of their own simply because they had no offspring. There are many stories in Indian mythology that point to surrogacy, artificial insemination in ways that are a little difficult to believe. A man stood validated as, upon siring a male child. Such was the thinking in the mythological times.

  • The problem of no offspring lay in the fact that sometimes nature had other plans in store, sometimes destiny dictated otherwise. Sometimes health issues prevented the couple from being able to conceive. In the olden days, they would have faced a lot of acrimony from friends, relatives and generally people at large, the lady in question would be branded all sorts of names simply because she is unable to have a child, the men too would face dissent. In the late 19th and for quite a while in the 20th century, society had formed some peculiarities which almost penalized the couples unable to have children in many ways, some under the guise of advice and others on their face. It was a social issue.
  • But as with all things scientific and technological, Medicine too was one field which saw giant strides in the study and cure of the human body. Naturally babies, birth and conception too came under its purview. When the first test tube baby was born, the world knew they had found a solution to this problem too. Now couples could consider a Test Tube Baby Center and an Infertility Specialist to help them fulfill their dream.
  • Specialists offer couples a comprehensive fertility assessment session wherein they analysis the reasons and the medical issues behind their inability to conceive. The assessment involves learning about the medical history, conducting tests and procedures that help identify and isolate the problem. Sometimes a small surgery is all that is needed to resolve the problem. With some, it may be just a matter of getting the system to work the way it should and conception can happen naturally. It's case dependent.
  • As with all things new, this concept too saw its own share of doubts and misconceptions, its own share of biased opinions, some even threw it under the scanner for "tampering with nature". Many uneducated elders thought that this was the work of evil forces and children born of this method were the "devils incarnate". People's religious beliefs created a lot of fear among couples who felt that this was the best option for them. It was with trepidation that they would think of approaching a Test tube baby Center to help them have a family.
  • This is a place where all the facilities are under one roof. They conduct their own tests and procedures which gives the Infertility Specialist a clear and unhampered result. Now along with a urology specialist, they can narrow down the problem areas and start treatment accordingly.


Dr. Azad 88% (724 ratings)
Sexologist, Mathura




We have treated the root cause of infertility by herbal medicine according to american fertility association report the number of couples affected by sub fertility is currently estimated as 15% of all couples attempting to have children in the world 

Types of infertility

1 Primary infertility

2 Secondary infertility

3 Recurrent miscarriage (in female)

Here is the detail estimation of low sperm count in male when ejaculate

1 Mild oligospermia 10 million to 20 million sperm 

2 Moderate oligospermia 5 million to 10 million sperm 

3 Severe oligospermia 0 million to 5 million sperm 

4 Azoospermia 0 million sperm 

Most common causes of infertility 

  • Nature and duration of infertility childhood testicular disorders
  • Childhood and puberty development disorder 
  • Blockage 
  • Hormonal disorder
2 people found this helpful


Dr. Shrideep Parab 91% (2340 ratings)
Gynaecologist, Pimpri-Chinchwad
It's been 35 years since the world's first test-tube baby was born and since then, around 5 million births have taken place through assisted reproductive procedure such as in vitro fertilisation (ivf).

Still there are many misconceptions related to infertility and ivf. Here are some myths and facts.

Myth: infertility is primarily a female problem
Fact: both men and women may have infertility problems: about 15 percent of such cases are related to men, 40 percent to women and 30 percent to problems in both partners. Unidentified causes account for 15 percent of the cases.

Myth: alternative medicines can improve fertility
Fact: there is no scientific evidence to support this belief and using such types of medicines is a waste of time.

Myth: age is not a big factor in infertility
Fact: age has a direct correlation to women's egg quality and quantity. By the age of 35, the risk of infertility rises significantly as the woman's egg reserve starts declining after that age. Age 18 to 29 are the most fertile years of a woman's life.

Myth: ivf has a 100 percent success rate
Fact: success rate for ivf depends on a number of factors such as the woman's age, cause of infertility, the institution where the procedure is done and other biological and hormonal conditions. The process results in successful pregnancies in 40 to 50 percent cases. In three consecutive cycles, success rate goes up to 80 to 90 percent.

Myth: it is a painful procedure
Fact: multiple injections used in the treatment can cause discomfort but it isn't painful. The process of egg collection is done under general anaesthesia and the embryo transfer is a painless process.

Myth: babies born via ivf are at risk of birth defects and abnormalities
Fact: the chance of abnormality is slightly higher as compared to the babies conceived through sexual intercourse. Babies born via ivf are 1.3 times more likely to be born with birth defect.

Myth: ivf always results in" multiple pregnancy"; the woman will have twins or triplets
Fact: the chances of" multiple pregnancy" may be lessened by reducing the number of embryos transferred, especially in young women.

Myth: if the ivf process is unsuccessful, it is the end of the road for the couple trying to have a baby
Fact: there are many couples who have conceived naturally or with intrauterine insemination (iui) even after going through an unsuccessful ivf procedure.

Myth: ivf is too expensive
Fact: most ivf cycles cost from rs 1 to rs 1.3 lakh (including medicines) but the positive outcome of the process is more precious.
6 people found this helpful

Various Causes Of Infertility!

Dr. Sharmila Majumdar 93% (1660 ratings)
MS Human Sexuality, M.Phil Clinical Psychology, PhD (Behaviour Modification), Certified In Treatment of Resistant Depression, Certificate course to be Sexuality Educator
Sexologist, Hyderabad
Various Causes Of Infertility!

A problem in any one of a number of key processes can result in infertility. Male and female factors can exist in isolation or combination and fertility investigations, diagnoses and treatment should always be considered in the context of the couple.

Male factor
Sperm problems will contribute to about 40% of infertility cases. The normal working of the male reproductive system involves first the production of sufficient numbers of functional sperm cells and then the delivery of these sperm to the ejaculate. Key to the diagnosis of male infertility is a semen analysis, which assesses primarily sperm numbers, sperm movement and sperm form.

Female factor
Dysfunction of the female reproductive organs is also apparent in around 40% of infertile couples. The most common identifiable causes of female fertility problems are outlined below:

1. Ovulatory dysfunction, (or anovulation) where an egg is not released from the ovary every month, is the single most common cause of female infertility. Predominantly anovulation is caused by hormonal imbalances such as Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) but ovarian scarring and premature menopause can also result in failure to ovulate.
2. Tubal disease, comprising anything from mild adhesions to complete blockage of the fallopian tubes, prevents fertilised eggs from travelling from the site of fertilisation to the uterus. It may also prevent the sperm from reaching the egg. Normal uterine implantation can therefore not occur. The main causes of tubal infertility are pelvic infections caused by bacteria such as chlamydia, previous abdominal disease or surgery and ectopic pregnancy.

3. Endometriosis is characterised by excessive growth of the lining of the uterus. These endometrial cells can extend as far as the outside of the fallopian tubes, the ovaries and the bladder. As they respond to hormones the same way as they would do in the uterus, that is by growing and shedding cyclically, endometriosis can cause both fallopian tube and ovarian scarring.
4. Repeated pregnancy loss - Some people may not have difficulty conceiving, but have suffered from miscarriages. This is obviously extremely distressing for the couples involved. Our miscarriage clinic can help investigate these issues and attempt to help couples with any future pregnancy.

Less common factors
The following other factors may also be responsible for infertility in a smaller proportion of cases:

1. Genetic abnormalities within eggs, sperm or both
2. An abnormal uterine cavity, including the presence of fibroids or polyps
3. Immunological infertility, whereby either the male or female partner produces anti-bodies against sperm cells or implantation of an embryo
4. Abnormal cervical mucus which hinders the passage of sperm to the uterus and fallopian tubes
5. Unexplained infertility - Even when investigations have been extensive, some couples will have no reason with which to explain their infertility. This can often be a frustrating diagnosis. In these cases the duration of the infertility is the best parameter by which to judge the chances of future natural conception; the longer the time of infertility then the sooner intervention should be considered.

Please do consult a competent sexologist for unexplained infertility problems.

13 people found this helpful


Dr. Vipin Kumar Singhal 90% (618 ratings)
Bachelor of science, Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)
Ayurveda, Meerut
Infertility primarily refers to the biological inability of a person to contribute to conception. In women, it may also refer to the state when she is not able to carry a pregnancy to its full term.
According to ayurveda, preparing for conception can be easily compared to the process of farming. Just like the health of a crops depends on the quality of soil, seed, timing of sowing, and amount of watering it, gets the health of baby depends on the health of its parents, for a pregnancy to be healthy and successful, a couple needs to take care of the following four essential factor-:
1. Sperm/ovum (seeds)
2. Uterus (soil)
3. Nourishment (water)
4. Time for conception (timing of sowing)

Reproductive health, in both men and women, depends on the health of the reproductive tissue or shukra dhatu. In women, shukra creates the ovum as part of the monthly cycle, and in men the semen is formed due to sexual stimulation. The shukra is created as part of a long chain of metabolic transformations. It starts with the digestion of food, then goes on to transformation of food to nutrient fluid, blood, muscle, fat, bone marrow, and finally, to shukra tissue. Healthy shukra tissue, then according to ayurveda, depends on the health of all the other tissue in the body.
1 person found this helpful

Know More About Infertility!

Dr. Ajaypal Singh 88% (3515 ratings)
Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)
Sexologist, Delhi
Know More About Infertility!

Infertility is a cause for concern. Nevertheless, for a substantial percentage of men and women with reproductive disorders, adopting changes in lifestyle, healthy exercise and dietary habits, reducing stress levels along with appropriate herbal supplementation can help overcome infertility.

Libido Boosting:-
It is pretty tough to try and conceive when you do not even desire to make love. If you find that you sex life is lacking spark, you may need to consider herbs that have been found to increase sexual desire. These herbs promote healthy circulation to the reproductive organs.

1. Damiana dried leaves and stems (Turnera diffusa):- 
A female aphrodesiac, damiana has been used for centuries to help increase circulation to the reproductive system as well as increase sexual pleasure.

2. Epimedium also known as Horny goat weed or Yin Yang Huo (Epimedium grandiflorum):-
A wonderful all-natural substitute for Viagra, horny goat weed has been known to increase male virility and give men longer and harder erections.

3. Maca root (Lepidium meyenii):-
Increase sexual desire in both men and women by increasing blood flow to the pelvic region; increasing vaginal secretions in women and enhancing testosterone levels in men.

4. Muira Puama bark and root (Ptychopetalum olacoides):-

Shown to support healthy erection and male fertility. Increases libido in men.

5. Saffron stigma and styles (Crocus sativus):-
Used by the ancient Egyptians to increase their sex drive, Saffron is a powerful herb that works to increase blood flow to the pelvic area, which ultimately boosts sexual feelings in both sexes. Very expensive, yet said to be very effective.

6. Tribulus, aerial parts and fruit (Tribulus terrestris):-
A great uro-genital tonic, Tribulus works in both men and women. How? It helps to raise sexual energy and supports a larger, harder erection of the penis by enhancing circulation and blow flow to the area. Overall fertility tonic for male and female reproductive system.

7. Vitex, Chaste tree berry, (Vitex agnus-castus):-
Known as an all-around female reproductive enhancer, Vitex has been used to treat many female issues, including lethargic libido. Able to increase circulation to the genitals, Vitex will also increase vaginal mucus to enhance sexual sensation and improve a woman’s energy levels.

8. Yohimbe bark (Pausinystalia yohimbe):-
Supports healthy circulation to the male reproductive organs. Yohimbe has been shown to help sustain erection and may help to make erection firmer. This herb also supports healthy libido.

Know More About Infertility!

Dr. Gopika Rajesh 90% (10 ratings)
MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, DNB - Obstetrics & Gynecology
Gynaecologist, Bangalore
Know More About Infertility!

The term infertility in females explains a wide range of disorders but in order to simplify things, lets’ just say, infertility in women is a condition in which women are unable to conceive. There are numerous reasons that can be responsible for this situation and although some are preventable or curable, most others have no specific cure or treatment.

Ovulatory Disorders

One of the most common reasons for infertility is an ovulatory disorder. Almost 30 percent of female infertility is caused due to this reason. 70 percent of such infertility is treatable with drugs such as Reprones/Menogan and Clomiphene. Here is a list of causes of failed ovulation-

  1. Disruption in the complex hormonal balance.

  2. Ovaries fail to produce mature eggs. Polycystic ovarian syndrome is the most common disorder causing this problem. This syndrome has reduced FSH production and increased production of LH, Oestrogen and Testosterone. Suppressed FSH production may cause the partial development of ovarian follicles.

  3. Hypothalamus may malfunction thereby causing the pituitary to malfunction, thus losing control over the process or FSH and LH production.

  4. Physical damage to the ovaries by multiple surgeries or due to the formation of cysts.

  5. A rare case of premature menopause.

  6. Problems of the follicle.

  7. Poor functioning of fallopian tubes

Diseases or disorders in the tube have been another major reason of infertility in women. Almost 25 percent of women infertility occurs due to this reason. Although treatments exist, success rates of the treatments are as high as 30 percent. The causes of tube damage may be as follows-

  1. Infection caused by bacteria or viruses

  2. Abdominal diseases like colitis and appendicitis

  3. Previous pelvic or abdominal surgeries.

  4. A condition called ectopic pregnancy which occurs in the tube, and even if very carefully but successfully overcome, may leave permanent damage.

  5. Rare congenital defects in which women may be born with tube anomalies.


This is the condition where the endometrium expands excessively thereby preventing individuals from getting pregnant. This affects almost 10 percent of the population of infertile women. Almost 40 percent of women with endometriosis are infertile.

Other Factors

Other additional factors may include:

  1. Abnormal uterus

  2. Congenital diseases

  3. Behavioural factors like personal habits, lifestyle and health factors.

  4. Exercise and diet- extremely overweight or underweight women may have problems in conceiving.

  5. Cigarette smoking reduces the chances of conceiving by one-third.

  6. Alcohol increases the chances of birth defects.

Hence, pregnancy is tougher than it might really seem.

2570 people found this helpful


Dr. Rahman 91% (820 ratings)
Bachelor of Unani Medicine and Surgery (B.U.M.S)
Sexologist, Chennai
What Is Infertility?

Infertility is defined as not being able to become pregnant after a year of trying—or after six months, if you are 35 or older . And it’s not just a woman’s problem. One-third of infertility cases are due to male-only problems, one-third to female-only problems, and the final one-third to a mix of male and female problems or unknown problems

What Causes Infertility?

To become pregnant, many steps in the reproductive process have to be precisely aligned:

A woman’s ovary must release an egg (ovulation).
The egg must then travel through the fallopian tube toward the uterus, which is also called the womb.
A man’s sperm must be in the woman’s body during this specific time. It must also meet and join with (fertilize) the egg as it is traveling through the fallopian tubes.
The fertilized egg must then reach the uterus.
At the uterus, it must push its way inside and implant itself (implantation).

If there is a problem with any of these steps, infertility can occur.

Infertility in Women

Female infertility is most often caused by problems in ovulation—marked by irregular or absent periods. These problems may be related to hormonal disorders, such as polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), or primary ovarian insufficiency (POI), when a woman’s ovaries stop working before age 40.

Other causes include:

uterine fibroids, benign growths that can keep fertilized eggs from implanting properly in the uterine lining
scar tissue after surgery
early menopause
blocked or scarred fallopian tubes, due to infection or endometriosis

Endometriosis is an often painful condition in which the uterine tissue that is supposed to line the inside of your uterus begins to grow outside the uterus, causing it to become trapped as it has no place to go (uterine tissue inside the uterus is shed each month during the menstrual cycle). The surrounding body tissues become inflamed, and scar tissue may form—sometimes inside the fallopian tubes.

Infertility in Men

Problems with sperm production and delivery, low sperm count, and low motility (the ability of sperm to swim and fertilize the egg) can all affect male fertility.

Varicocele is a disorder where the veins servicing a man’s testicles have incompetent or leaky valves. The backflow of blood can enlarge the blood vessels and can raise the temperature of the testicles causing a low sperm count or abnormal sperm. Testicles are generally slightly below the core body temperature.

Lifestyle Factors

Other lifestyle choices can impair healthy egg and sperm production, including:

heavy alcohol use
drug use
being overweight or underweight
an excessive amount of exercise
In men, environmental toxins, such as pesticides, and high temperatures (for example, in hot tubs) have also been shown to affect sperm count.
21 people found this helpful

Unexplained Infertility- All You Need To Know About!

Dr. Abhishek S Parihar 90% (57 ratings)
Fellowship in Reproductive Medicine, MS - Obstetrics and Gynaecology, MBBS
IVF Specialist, Ghaziabad
Unexplained Infertility- All You Need To Know About!

It is a real misfortune to witness several couples going from pillar to post as the mother cannot conceive. Unexplained infertility also called the Idiopathic Infertility continues to be a common problem in spite of all the latest advancements in the field of technology and medical science. As it is a known fact that infertility reports to the inability of a woman to conceive after one year of regular unprotected intercourse.

A Few Causes for Unexplained Infertility:
White sugar- This is extremely acidic and highly toxic to the body. Too much sugar in your body and your diet can cause Candida and lead to infertility. Stop drinking beverages like coke and avoid things such as cookies, candy, donuts, cake and more.

  1. Candidiasis- Candida is caused by an abundance of the fungus Candida Albicans in the human body. It can create severe difficulties in the human body including infertility and is most usually known for causing thrush and vaginal yeast infections in women.
  2. Cervical Mucus- Cervical mucus can be another reason for unexplained infertility. Low cervical mucus is one of the simplest yet most powerful factors to growing pregnant. If the cervical mucus is nonexistent, scant, or very acidic, then the sperm loses its ability to reach the cervix and hence is a cause for infertility.

Diagnosis of unexplained infertility- This kind of infertility is determined by an assessment of ovulation, a semen analysis, and a hysterosalpingogram (HSG).If symptoms are observed, laparoscopy and tests for ovarian reserve are done as well. When the outcome of a standard infertility evaluation is average, doctors specify a diagnosis of unexplained infertility. Although assessments differ, the possibility that all such test sequences for an infertile couple are usual.

Treatment options for unexplained infertility- By definition, the treatment for unexplained infertility is, therefore, empiric as it does not greet a distinct functional impairment or defect. The primary treatment for unexplained infertility comprises of 3-6 months of treatment with Clomid Pills along with regular and timed sexual intercourse and lifestyle changes.

Other treatments include Intra Uterine Insemination (IUI), controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) with IUI, and IVF. Medical clinics or the specialized doctors present the diverse treatment choices and explain the benefits and limitations of several treatment strategies. The most expensive, but also the most powerful treatment for this condition consists of the spectrum of supported reproductive technology including IVF, with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection(ICSI).

IVF is the method of choice for unexplained infertility when the less expensive, but also less favorable treatment modalities have abandoned. The optimal treatment strategy needs to be based on specific characteristics of the patient such as treatment efficacy, age, side-effect profile such as multiple pregnancies, and cost considerations.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3125 people found this helpful