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Histopathology Health Feed

Stomach Cancer - Know The Symptoms & Causes Of It!

Stomach Cancer - Know The Symptoms & Causes Of It!
Cancer is one of the most fatal diseases in the world. Stomach cancer is also known as 'Gastric cancer'. Like other diseases, it is crucial that it gets identified in the early stages and gets treated before it reaches the incurable stage. Like other forms of cancer, the exact cause of stomach cancer is still not yet known. However, certain things make stomach cancer more likely to happen.

The possible causes of stomach cancer are given below:

Some of these causes apply to nearly all forms of cancer. However, some of them only apply to stomach cancer.

Smoking
Obesity
Bad diet
Stomach surgery for an ulcer
Type-A blood
Epstein-Barr virus infection
Genetics
Asbestos
Exposure to certain materials in certain industries
Helicobacter pylori bacteria
Gastritis
Anemia
Polyps
Some of the symptoms of stomach cancer are:

Stomach cancer like all other forms of cancer has various stages and it is crucial that it is diagnosed in the early stages so that the progression of it is stymied. At first, the symptoms of stomach cancer include indigestion, loss of appetite, slight nausea, heartburn and the feeling of being bloated after a meal.

However, indigestion and heartburn, doesn't always mean that you have stomach cancer, but if these conditions persist, you should visit a doctor to rule out the possibility of stomach cancer.

The growth of the tumor in your stomach can lead to various serious symptoms too, such as:

Stomach pain
Heartburn
Blood in your stool
Weakness or exhaustion
Vomiting
Diarrhea and constipation
Weight loss for no apparent reason
Swelling in your stomach
Trouble in swallowing
Eyes and skin turn yellowish
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Oral Cancer - Risks & Symptoms Of It!

Oral Cancer - Risks & Symptoms Of It!
Oral cancer is the uncontrollable growth of cells called tumors that invade and damage the tissues surrounding it is in or around the mouth. Oral cancer, like all other types of cancer, is life threatening if not diagnosed and treated in the early stages. There are eight types of oral cancer namely cancer in the throat, sinuses, hard and soft palate, floor of the mouth, gums, cheeks, tongue and lips. Dentists are usually the first ones to notice and detect the signs and symptoms of oral cancer. This condition is also known as oral cavity cancer. The risk factors and symptoms of oral cancer are mentioned below.

Symptoms:

The symptoms of oral cancer, especially in the first stages, seem non-threatening and similar to common oral problems. However, visiting the doctor is mandatory to rule out cancer as an option. If you suffer from one or more of the following symptoms, visit your dentist immediately.



Thickenings and swellings, lumps or bumps, crusts, eroded areas or rough spots on the lips, gums or surrounding regions inside or around the mouth.
Bleeding in the mouth that is unexplainable.
Persistent sores near and around the mouth or throat that bleed easily and may take more than two weeks to heal.
Unexplained numbness or pain and tenderness in the mouth, throat or face.
Development of patches, which are usually speckled, red or white in the mouth.
Sudden weight loss.
Excruciating pain in your ear.
Loose teeth.
Difficulty in swallowing.
Lumps in your neck.
Stiffness or pain in your jaw.
Pain in your tongue.
Dentures that fit poorly.
Risk factor:

Men above 50 years of age face the greatest risk of developing oral cancer. Women are at a much lower risk of developing oral cancer than men. The following factors increase your risk of developing oral cancer:

Smoking cigarettes, cigars or pipes
Snuff, dips or chewing tobacco
Excessive consumption of alcohol
History of oral or other types of cancer in the family
Chronic sun exposure, especially facial exposure
Sexually transmitted virus such as HPV
Diagnosed of oral cancer previously.
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Hi there, I am a home maker and 5 months before I got married, I have an problem in my left breast nipple has pus swelling. Is this some kinda cancer, I'm afraid, please advice.

Hi there, I am a home maker and 5 months before I got married, I have an problem in my left breast nipple has pus swe...
No, it may be due to infection, you should check it up by a gynaecologist, by proper homoeopathic treatment it is very much curable.
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My mother have a tumor in her uterus and now she is having a pain in her back. I want to know small remedies to remove her pain.

My mother have a tumor in her uterus and now she is having a pain in her back. I want to know small remedies to remov...
You mother may have secondary tumours on the neck and painkillers like tramadol and calpol can be taken.
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Gynaecological Cancer - Ways How Laparoscopy Can Help!

Gynaecological Cancer - Ways How Laparoscopy Can Help!
Minimally invasive surgery or laparoscopic surgery is increasingly becoming popular in all fields of surgery including gynecological oncology. Given its many advantages, it is easy to see why people prefer this form of surgery. The use of laparoscopy in the field of gynecological oncology began in the late 1980s. The first laparoscopic-assisted hysterectomy was performed in 1989.

Laparoscopy and Endometrial Cancer-
The endometrium refers to the lining of the uterus. Endometrial cancer is rare are usually affect women over the age of 55 years. A hysterectomy is one of the forms of treatment for this condition. If detected in its early stages, this hysterectomy may be performed laparoscopically. As compared to traditional surgery, this reduces the hospital stay required and is associated with fewer postoperative complications. Laparoscopy may also be used to restage patients who have already undergone a hysterectomy.

Laparoscopy and Cervical Cancer-
The lowermost part of the uterus is known as the cervix. A pap smear can help in the early detection of cervical cancer. This can be treated surgically in the form of a lymphadenectomy or a radical hysterectomy. One of the factors crucial to the management of this type of cancer is an evaluation of the lymph nodes. This is where laparoscopy is very useful. As in the case of endometrial cancer, laparoscopy may also be used for a hysterectomy procedure. A laparoscopic lymphadenectomy may also be performed to investigate the extent to which the cancer has spread. Advanced stages of cervical cancer can be treated with chemotherapy and radiation. In such cases, the role of laparoscopy may be limited to staging the patient before treatment.

Laparoscopy and Adnexal Masses-
Adnexal masses refer to ovarian abnormalities and development of masses in the fallopian tubes, uterus and other organs in the pelvic cavity. Laparoscopy is routinely used to treat benign Adnexal masses. It can also be used in the management of malignant adnexal masses. However, its role is less clearly defined in such cases. When using laparoscopic procedures to address adnexal masses, it is important to identify benign masses beforehand.

Laparoscopy and Uterine Cancer-
Laparoscopy can be used in a number of ways when it comes to the management and treatment of uterine cancer. These include staging apparent early-stage cancer, determining the extent of the disease and resectability potential and to reassess a patient in cases of recurrent cancer. A hand assisted laparoscopy may also be used to resect the disease in some cases.
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Breast Cancer - Can It Be Predicted?

Breast Cancer - Can It Be Predicted?
Medical science constantly challenges the boundaries by finding not only the cures to the most dangerous diseases but finds a way to prevent them even before they occur. With years of research, practice and data available for analysis, scientists are using advanced technology in combination with years of research to create a predicting mechanism for often fatal diseases like cancer.

Breast cancer screening has always been done with mammography. The fact is that this method is only 75% accurate, laden with false positives and misses a whole set of women totally- and that too when cancer has already developed. Part of the problem comes from the dense breast tissue which one in three women have. This tissue masks the lumps, which makes it difficult for mammograms to accurately screen cancer.

Some breakthrough scientific methods are changing this by drawing on years of research to predict this deadly disease, years before it can manifest itself.

A genetic test to predict cancer 10-11 years ahead of time

This test was performed to see how environmental factors could influence cancer, along with habits like smoking, abusing alcohol or hormones, genetic changes that occur and are put a large percentage of the women at high risk of developing this disease.

A simple blood test is used for the genetic analysis of hereditary cancer. Researchers found a biological marker, methylation of the ATM gene, which has a very high ability to predict the risk of developing cancer, several years before diagnosis. 'Methylation' concluded that when one biological indicator is exposed to carcinogenic substances or other abusive substances like tobacco and alcohol, it may trigger the development of cancer. On the flip side, this test will take time to reach the commercial market and even then cannot give an exact timeline as to when someone may develop the disease.

A simple blood test to predict breast cancer 5 years before it develops

This is the kind of medical miracle the world is looking for. Last year in April, researches in Denmark identified a simple blood test that can predict breast cancer five years before it actually develops with an accuracy of a whopping 80%.

It works by "measuring all of the compounds in the blood to build a 'metabolic profile' of an individual, in order to detect changes in the way chemicals are processed, during a pre-cancerous stage," says Laura Donnelly, health editor at The Telegraph, which covered this development. Danish researchers observed 57,000 participants over 20 years, gathering blood samples along the way, specifically comparing a set of 800 women who remained healthy or developed breast cancer within 7 years of their first blood sample. The researchers found they were able to predict, with 80 percent accuracy, which patients would be affected by the disease, just by looking at the metabolic profiles they built from the participants' blood samples. The results have been published in Metabolomics.

Are you living with the uncertainty of a lump in your breast? It's time you take the first step and consult a specialist here.

How Can You Reduce The Risk Of Breast Cancer?

How Can You Reduce The Risk Of Breast Cancer?
Of all cancer types that affect the female population, breast cancer is the most common one. Statistics show that above 1 in 8 women in the USA are likely to develop breast cancer (invasive type, which is often severe). Changing lifestyles including prolonged use of birth control, smoking, alcohol abuse, lack of physical activity, dietary changes, etc., have led to an increased incidence. As these are here to stay, the only way is to prevent.

The likelihood of developing breast cancer is determined by risk factors. Some of these risk factors cannot be changed. For instance, age, ethnicity, and history of familial breast cancer. However, there are others, which can be acted upon or modified to reduce the chances of developing breast cancer.

Some of the preventable risk factors are as follows:

Nicotine abuse: Quitting smoking has multiple benefits for a woman, and one major benefit is the reduced risk of developing breast cancer. Other benefits include reduced incidence of diabetes, heart disease, and other cancers.
Hormone replacement therapy: To the extent possible, avoid prolonged use of birth control pills or hormones for other treatment purposes. In addition to using non-hormonal methods, if not avoidable, constantly monitoring hormone levels is very important. Birth control pills should especially be avoided by women over 35 years of age who smoke. The risk associated with developing cancer reduces as soon as the hormone supplement is stopped.
Weight Management: One of the major risk factors is obesity, and in people with other non-alterable risk factors, it is best to work on weight management from an early age. Talk to your doctor about your ideal BMI and ensure this is maintained.
Physical Activity: Regular physical activity, at least 30 minutes per day, in addition to strength training will help in keeping the body agile and managing weight. It also reduces the risk of breast cancer.
Breastfeeding: Studies have shown that breastfeeding has protective effect against breast cancer; longer a baby is breast fed, greater is the protective benefit.
Screening: Even if not completely preventable, early detection of breast cancer is very important. This will help in less severe treatment and better prognosis. Recommended ages for mammography are as follows:
In the age of 40 to 44, an annual mammogram is advised along with a discussion with the doctor on the risks.
An annual mammogram for all women in the age of 45 54 is important as most women enter menopause by this time. This needs to be continued annually, as self-breast exams alone cannot detect cancer, thus it is a good practice and anything abnormal will not go undetected.
These will help reduce the risk of developing breast cancer, help in early detection, and improve prognosis.

Head & Neck Cancer - Facts You Might Not Know!

Head & Neck Cancer - Facts You Might Not Know!
Head & Neck Cancer refers to a term used for defining cancer that develops in the mouth, throat, salivary glands, nose or in other areas of the head and neck. This cancer begins in the lining of the mouth, nose and throat. The following are some facts that would help us understand other details related to Head Neck Cancer:

Fact 1 - Lump in the throat, Sores in the mouth or the jaw getting swollen and changes in voice are some symptoms of Cancer in Head & Neck.

People suffering from Head Neck Cancer might manage to discover tumors in the pharynx as a lump inside the throat. Then, cancer in the mouth might cause sores in the mouth or lead to the swelling of the jaw. These tumors can even result in voice change among affected people.

Fact 2 - Laryngeal Cancer, Nasopharyngeal Cancer and Oral Cancer are the different types of Head Neck Cancer.

There are different types of Head Neck Cancer. They include the likes of Laryngeal Cancer, which is found in the larynx that is located at the top of the windpipe. It is one of the most common types of head neck cancer. Another type is the Nasopharyngeal Cancer. It develops when cancer cells tend to grow in the nasopharynx. Oral Cancer develops in the mouth, which can develop from poor oral hygiene.

Fact 3 - Consumption of alcohol and smoking tobacco leads to the occurrence of Head Neck Cancer.
This is because alcohol consumption and use of tobacco happen to be a couple of high-risk factors that result in people suffering from different types of Head Neck Cancer.

Fact 4 - Endoscopy & Panendoscopy are ways to diagnose the types of Head Neck Cancer?
Doctors would usually conduct different procedures to diagnose Head Neck Cancer. They include the likes of Endoscopy and panendoscopy. Apart from these, there are other procedures as well. They are Biopsy, Barium Swallow, X-rays and Imaging Tests.

Fact 5 - Different options to treat Head & Neck cancer are -

Immunotherapy
Targeted Therapies
Chemotherapy
Immunotherapy is one option where drugs like checkpoint inhibitors help the body s immune system to identify and kill tumour cells. Then there are targeted therapies, which help to prevent the growth and spread of cancer by attacking particular proteins and hence prevent the cancer cells from getting spread. Chemotherapy treatments are mainly reserved for those, whose cancer has spread on to their bones and other parts of
the body.
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