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HE4 with Roma Index (Epithelial Ovarian Cancer) Health Feed

4 Major Signs That Indicate Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

MD - Obstetrtics & Gynaecology, MBBS
Gynaecologist, Delhi
4 Major Signs That Indicate Epithelial Ovarian Cancer
Epithelial Ovarian Cancer is a condition in which malignant tumor emerges from the tissue lining in the outer surface of the ovary. Epithelial tumors are usually benign, but this form of malignancy has been found to be the most common type of ovarian cancer. Moreover, it cannot be diagnosed until in its advanced stage. Medical research shows that factors such as multiple pregnancies, delayed childbirth and early menarche seem to raise the risk of ovarian cancer, while dietary and environmental factors also play a significant role in it.

Symptoms
1. A majority of the patients have been observed to have extensive intra-abdominal growth.
2. They may experience discomfort or swelling of the abdominal region.
3. The feeling of being bloated, lack of appetite, unnatural weight alteration, dyspepsia, malaise, and urinary problems are frequently reported symptoms.
4. Patients also experience constipation and other gastrointestinal problems.

Treatment
The first step towards treatment of ovarian cancer is to diagnose the condition. A thorough pelvic examination (consisting of an examination of the vagina, uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, and cervix) will help to pin point any abnormality of the ovary. If the doctor notes nodularity, firmness or lack of tenderness during the examination, these can be taken as symptoms of malignancy of epithelial ovarian tumors. Ultrasound examination of the abdominal region will also help to locate abnormality in the tissues on the outer surface of the ovary. The next logical step towards treatment is getting a biopsy. During this procedure potentially malignant cells are removed and then diagnosed by a pathologist to conclude if the cells are cancerous or not. The process of removal is known as laparotomy.

Apart from a handful of stage one patients, most women with epithelial ovarian cancer receive chemotherapy. The standard treatment for this type of ovarian cancer is the surgical elimination of tumor. This includes total abdominal hysterectomy, a surgery in which the uterus and cervix is removed through an incision in the abdomen. Post surgical treatment consists of taxane-platinum chemotherapy. Patients with minimal residual cancer undergo external radiation therapy or intraperitoneal chemotherapy (radioactive liquid is channelled into the abdomen with the help of a catheter).

A lot of research has been done in this field and a variety of clinical trials are available for a patient, if he/she wishes to be a part of it. Leading methods are immunotherapy and targeted therapy are also available. Immunotherapy uses the immune system of the patient to battle cancer. Bodily substances or substances created in the lab are used to restore and boost the body s natural defence mechanisms against cancer. Targeted therapy, on the other hand, uses substances to identify the cancer and attack the malignant cells without jeopardizing non-cancerous cells.
1 person found this helpful

Ovarian Cancer - Are You At Risk?

MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgerygmc patiala, MD - Obstetrtics & Gynaecology
Gynaecologist, Mohali
Ovarian Cancer - Are You At Risk?
The cancer of the ovaries is known as ovarian cancer. In women there are two ovaries present on each side of the uterus. These ovaries are as big as an almondin size and produce egg also known as ova. They also secrete the hormonesprogesterone and estrogen.

Ovarian cancer goes undetected until it spreads to the abdomen and pelvis. When detected at this stage then it might be fatal and the treatment gets difficult. An early stage ovarian cancer where the cancer is restricted in the ovaries is much easier to treat with high success rates.

Risk Factors of Ovarian Cancer :



Age - With increasing age the risk of ovarian cancer is higher and is more common in women who are 60 and above. It is less common in women below 40 years of age and develops often after menopause.Obesity Women who have a body mass index of 30 are at a risk of developing ovarian cancer.
History of Reproduction - It is believed that women who conceive before 26 and carry the full term have a lower risk of ovarian cancer. However, the risk is higher in those women who get pregnant after 35 or who do not have a full term pregnancy. Also, breastfeeding the baby lowers the risk.
Gene Mutation - Inherited gene mutation causes some percentage of ovarian cancer. These genes are called breast cancer genes 1 and 2 (BRCA1 and BRCA2). These were initially found in cases with breast cancer but also pose great risk for ovarian cancer. Also, gene mutation leading to Lynch syndrome plays an important role in increasing the risk of ovarian cancer.
Family History - If a woman's mother, sister or daughter is suffering from ovarian cancer then she is at a higher risk of developing the same. The risk also increases if someone from the father’s side also has ovarian cancer.
Fertility Drugs - Drugs like clomiphene citrate, if used for more than a year can increase the risk of the cancer. The risk is even higher if a woman taking the drug does not get pregnant.
Hormone Therapy and Estrogen Therapy - Long term use and large doses of estrogen can cause an increased risk. However, if estrogen is used in combination with progesterone then the risk is less.
Age of menstruation and menopause - If menstruation starts before 12 and menopause occurs before 52 then there is a higher risk of getting the cancer.
Diet - A low fat vegetarian diet has less risk of the disease. Fresh fruit and vegetables should be included in diet along with pulses, rice, pasta, beans, cereals and breads.
2307 people found this helpful

3 Surefire Ways To Prevent Ovarian Cancer!

MBBS, DNB (Surgical Oncology), MS - General Surgery
Oncologist, Delhi
3 Surefire Ways To Prevent Ovarian Cancer!
If it runs in your family, you are at risk to get it too. Yes, we are talking about cancer and the debilitating effect that cancer has, on not only the victim but also his/her immediate relatives. However, the idea that this malady is passed on to progeny unquestioningly and runs from generation to generation like a curse is but a myth.

Ovarian Cancer is one of the cancers that affect a woman s ovaries whereby abnormal cell growth takes place in one of these places: on the tissue within the ovary, on the surface of the ovary, in egg-forming germ cells within the ovary. Studies show that 85% of the patients who had developed Ovarian Cancer had no family record of the disease. Thus it can be attested that one is not compelled to follow the footsteps of the forefathers. Bifurcation is possible and prevention can be accomplished if these guidelines can be followed.

Exercise well and eat better: This is a fool-proof tip that works behind the cure of almost all severe ailments, whether it is about prevention or post-treatment care. In this case, exercise and healthy eating habits reduce the risk of developing Ovarian Cancer. Fatty fish, orange juice, milk, nuts, beans, eggs, fortified cereals, carrots, sweet potato, broccoli, leafy vegetables, flax, whole grains are some of the food products that prevent cancer. For better results, you can seek advice from a physician. Intake of food rich in Vitamin D is another measure. Regular exercise and maintaining a sound BMI are keys to staying healthy and cancer-free.
Birth Control Pills: According to research conducted by the American Cancer Research Institute women who have consumed birth control pills are less likely to develop ovarian cancer so much so that the risk reduces by 30% to 50%. However, one who wishes to opt for this as a preventive measure must consult a physician beforehand.
Surgery: Post-menopausal women can undergo surgeries that remove ovaries & tubes alongwith uterus. These surgeries reduce the risk of ovarian cancer by 90% in post-menstruating women and by 60% in pre-menstruating women. However, a person opting for such surgeries as preventive measures of ovarian cancer owing to a genetic disorder must consult a specialist before undergoing surgery.
These methods are not fool-proof and do not warrant the elimination of one s possibility of developing cancer. But like they say it s better to be safe than sorry. Therefore, maintain a healthy lifestyle and who knows, maybe you will succeed in becoming one of those who eliminate that possibility!
2940 people found this helpful
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Ovarian Cysts - Top 3 Treatment Options!

MBBS
IVF Specialist, Raipur
Ovarian Cysts - Top 3 Treatment Options!
Ovarian cysts are a common development in many women. Cysts are sacs filled with fluid which are formed in the female ovaries. Most cysts are harmless and do not even show any symptoms. However, some cysts do show outward symptoms like heavy bleeding, clotting, nausea, vomiting, stomach pain during the menstrual cycle, and pain during sex.

If you feel any of the above-mentioned discomforts, it will be in your best interest to book an appointment with your gynaecologist and get a check-up done. Most cysts are manageable unless they are very severe. In fact, it is best that cysts come to light at the right time and are efficiently managed, unless they develop into severe issues in the future.

Management of cysts

Oftentimes, medical practitioners resort to what is called watchful waiting .
At times, ovarian cysts disappear in a few months.
It is recommended to take a blood test and an ultrasound to see the progress of the cyst.
If you have already experienced menopause, then these tests are carried out every four months. This is because in such cases the risk of an ovarian cancer is at its highest and regular monitoring of the cyst is necessary.
Treatment of cysts
Ovarian cysts can be treated in their earlier stages. Here are some of the most popular treatments.

Laparoscopy is one of the most popular treatments. It is a surgery carried out under general anaesthesia. The tummy is cut to a radius of a key hole and a laparoscope is inserted. This helps the doctor to see the internal organs, which is then used to remove the cyst. This method is less painful and has a quick recovery time.
Laparotomy is the other method used for removing a cyst. In case the cyst is large, then one single large hole is made in the body to access the cyst. At times, the cyst and the ovaries are removed and sent for further laboratory inspection. This inspection is done to detect whether the samples are cancerous or not. This procedure is more complex than the previous one and might need the patient to stay in the hospital for a few days.
In case you have a cancerous cyst, then your reproductive part itself would have to be removed rendering you barren for your life.
Ovarian cyst is very much treatable and is best to be detected at an earlier stage for better and faster treatment. Thus, it is best to go for regular check-ups and report in case of any disturbing symptoms.
4328 people found this helpful

Ovarian Cancer - Are You Are Risk Of It?

MBBS, Md - Obstetrics & Gynaecology, FMAS
Gynaecologist, Ghaziabad
Ovarian Cancer - Are You Are Risk Of It?
The cancer of the ovaries is known as ovarian cancer. In women there are two ovaries present on each side of the uterus. These ovaries are as big as an almondin size and produce egg also known as ova. They also secrete the hormones progesterone and estrogen.

Ovarian cancer goes undetected until it spreads to the abdomen and pelvis. When detected at this stage then it might be fatal and the treatment gets difficult. An early stage ovarian cancer where the cancer is restricted in the ovaries is much easier to treat with high success rates.

Risk Factors of Ovarian Cancer :



Age - With increasing age the risk of ovarian cancer is higher and is more common in women who are 60 and above. It is less common in women below 40 years of age and develops often after menopause.Obesity Women who have a body mass index of 30 are at a risk of developing ovarian cancer.
History of Reproduction - It is believed that women who conceive before 26 and carry the full term have a lower risk of ovarian cancer. However, the risk is higher in those women who get pregnant after 35 or who do not have a full term pregnancy. Also, breastfeeding the baby lowers the risk.
Gene Mutation - Inherited gene mutation causes some percentage of ovarian cancer. These genes are called breast cancer genes 1 and 2 (BRCA1 and BRCA2). These were initially found in cases with breast cancer but also pose great risk for ovarian cancer. Also, gene mutation leading to Lynch syndrome plays an important role in increasing the risk of ovarian cancer.
Family History - If a woman's mother, sister or daughter is suffering from ovarian cancer then she is at a higher risk of developing the same. The risk also increases if someone from the father’s side also has ovarian cancer.
Fertility Drugs - Drugs like clomiphene citrate, if used for more than a year can increase the risk of the cancer. The risk is even higher if a woman taking the drug does not get pregnant.
Hormone Therapy and Estrogen Therapy - Long term use and large doses of estrogen can cause an increased risk. However, if estrogen is used in combination with progesterone then the risk is less.
Age of menstruation and menopause - If menstruation starts before 12 and menopause occurs before 52 then there is a higher risk of getting the cancer.
Diet - A low fat vegetarian diet has less risk of the disease. Fresh fruit and vegetables should be included in diet along with pulses, rice, pasta, beans, cereals and breads.
2402 people found this helpful

Ovarian Cancer - How To Treat It?

DM - Oncology
Oncologist, Guwahati
Ovarian Cancer - How To Treat It?
Ovarian cancer is referred to as the cancer of the ovaries. The ovaries are a component of the female reproductive system. There are two ovaries located on either side of the uterus in a woman's body. Ovaries which are the organs responsible for producing egg cells also produce the hormones estrogen and progesterone. Ovarian cancer is a type of cancer which often goes undetected until it has spread all the way to the pelvis and the abdomen. However, it is also very difficult to treat the condition in its later stages which is why diagnosing ovarian cancer quickly is quintessential.

Here is everything you need to know about ovarian cancer:

Symptoms

1. No symptoms at first
Usually, in its early stages ovarian cancer does not cause any symptoms.
2. Abnormal bloating
Bloating is when your abdomen swells due to excess fluid or gas inside. Abnormal bloating is more frequently associated with irritable bowel syndrome or even constipation is a common symptom of ovarian cancer.
3. Feeling full quickly
This is also an associated symptom which has often been mistaken for constipation or irritable bowel syndrome.
4. Weight loss
This is one of the more common signs of ovarian cancer.
5. Discomfort in the pelvis area
This symptom occurs towards the later stages of ovarian cancer after it has already spread.
6. Constipation
Constipation is a symptom of ovarian cancer as well.
7. Frequent urination
This is yet another symptom which is a sign of ovarian cancer.
The symptoms of ovarian cancer are often mistaken with that of irritable bowel syndrome and constipation.

Causes

As with other forms of cancer, it is still very unclear what exactly causes ovarian cancer.

Treatment

1. Surgery
Surgery most commonly involves removing large parts of the female reproductive system which includes the ovaries, the fallopian tubes, the uterus as well as the lymph nodes. The surgeon will also try and remove as many cancer cells as possible from the abdomen and pelvic areas.

2. Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy is usually done after surgery. It is usually performed so that the rest of the cancer cells are killed off. Chemotherapy drugs can be injected directly into the vein, abdominal cavity or sometimes even both.
2659 people found this helpful

Gynaecological Cancer - Know The Types!

MD - Obstetrtics & Gynaecology, MBBS
Gynaecologist, Warangal
Gynaecological Cancer - Know The Types!
Gynecological cancer is any tumor that begins in a woman s reproductive organs. Cancer is usually named after the part of the body where it begins. Gynecologic cancer starts in different areas within a woman s pelvis, which is the territory beneath the stomach and in the middle of the hipbones. There are different types of gynecological cancers and these are as follows:

Cervical cancer starts in the cervix, which is the lower, narrower end of the uterus. The uterus is also called the womb.
Ovarian cancer starts in the ovaries, which are situated on each side of the uterus.
Uterine cancer starts in the uterus, the pear-shaped organ in a woman's pelvis where the child develops when a lady is pregnant.
Vaginal cancer starts in the vagina, which is the empty, tube-like channel between the base of the uterus and ends as the vaginal opening.
Vulvar cancer starts in the vulva, the external part of the female genital organs.
Signs and symptoms of the above-mentioned gynecologic cancers can be very vague; however, there are a few issues each lady needs to know about and look for. The following are some of the common symptoms of different gynecological cancer:



Swollen leg (ordinarily happens in one leg and comes with pain or discharge)
Irregular vaginal bleeding (particularly in a lady who has experienced menopause)
Unexplained weight loss
Consistent bladder weight or increased urination
Loss of appetite, while always feeling full
Pelvic or stomach pain
Bloated stomach
Consistent weakness
Compelling, sudden onset bloating
Trouble eating or feeling full rapidly
Urinary indications (urge or recurrence)
Vaginal draining or spotting after menopause
New onset of heavy flow during periods or bleeding between two-period cycles
A watery pink or white discharge from the vagina
Two or more weeks of steady pain in the lower abdomen or pelvic region
Pain during sex
A red, pink or white bump that has a crude or wart-like surface
A white area that feels unpleasant and rough
Continuous itching
Pain or a smoldering feeling while urinating
Bleeding and discharge not connected with monthly cycle
An open sore or ulcer that lasts over a month
A large portion of the symptoms connected with gynecologic cancers may occur due to other reasons every once in a while, which may make us ignore them. It is vital to be tuned into your body and pay consideration on any progressions. In case you see new side effects that are happening every day for more than a couple of weeks, this can be an indication of gynecological cancer. Try not to worry. Make sure to go for regular check-ups at your gynecologist.
3701 people found this helpful

3 Ways To Treat Ovarian Cysts

MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, DNB - Obstetrics & Gynecology, DGO
IVF Specialist, Delhi
3 Ways To Treat Ovarian Cysts
Ovarian cysts are a common development in many women. Cysts are sacs filled with fluid which are formed in the female ovaries. Most cysts are harmless and do not even show any symptoms. However, some cysts do show outward symptoms like heavy bleeding, clotting, nausea, vomiting, stomach pain during the menstrual cycle, and pain during sex.

If you feel any of the above-mentioned discomforts, it will be in your best interest to book an appointment with your gynaecologist and get a check-up done. Most cysts are manageable unless they are very severe. In fact, it is best that cysts come to light at the right time and are efficiently managed, unless they develop into severe issues in the future.

Management of cysts

Oftentimes, medical practitioners resort to what is called watchful waiting .
At times, ovarian cysts disappear in a few months.
It is recommended to take a blood test and an ultrasound to see the progress of the cyst.
If you have already experienced menopause, then these tests are carried out every four months. This is because in such cases the risk of an ovarian cancer is at its highest and regular monitoring of the cyst is necessary.
Treatment of cysts
Ovarian cysts can be treated in their earlier stages. Here are some of the most popular treatments.

Laparoscopy is one of the most popular treatments. It is a surgery carried out under general anaesthesia. The tummy is cut to a radius of a key hole and a laparoscope is inserted. This helps the doctor to see the internal organs, which is then used to remove the cyst. This method is less painful and has a quick recovery time.
Laparotomy is the other method used for removing a cyst. In case the cyst is large, then one single large hole is made in the body to access the cyst. At times, the cyst and the ovaries are removed and sent for further laboratory inspection. This inspection is done to detect whether the samples are cancerous or not. This procedure is more complex than the previous one and might need the patient to stay in the hospital for a few days.
In case you have a cancerous cyst, then your reproductive part itself would have to be removed rendering you barren for your life.
Ovarian cyst is very much treatable and is best to be detected at an earlier stage for better and faster treatment. Thus, it is best to go for regular check-ups and report in case of any disturbing symptoms.
3688 people found this helpful