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HE4 with Roma Index (Epithelial Ovarian Cancer) Health Feed

Ovarian cancer k vaccination karna chahiye? Is vaccination help to avoid this cancer cost of this vaccination?

Homeopath, Noida
If you r asking for yourself (age-36) then its useless. It should be taken before you become sexually active. Doctors stop recommending the HPV vaccine to women once they've reached their mid-20s. The human papillomavirus vaccine is FDA-approved only through age 26, with the thinking that by that time women (and men) have had enough sex that they're probably already exposed to the virus and won't benefit. However you should annually get your PAP smear done.
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My mom has little tingling after urine. She is 58 years old and. 6th chemo (ovarian cancer) done on 22 aug. After taking alkasol 10 ml three times after meal. What to do if I am continue with alkasol or not.

MD - Homeopathy, BHMS
Homeopath, Vadodara
Do it as suggested by an oncologist. My suggestion is to start Homoeopathic treatment side by side.
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Ovarian Cancer - Who Is At Risk Of Developing It?

MBBS, MS - General Surgery, DNB - Surgical Oncology
Oncologist, Surat
Ovarian Cancer - Who Is At Risk Of Developing It?
Ovarian cancer is characterized by the uncontrolled and rapid cell division and proliferation that develops in the ovary and its associated cells and tissues. There was a time when ovarian cancer detected at a later stage was almost untreatable. However, with latest pathbreaking discoveries, the situation has undergone a drastic improvement.

Types of ovarian cancer
While ovarian cancer can be of different types, three major types of ovarian cancer include - Epithelial ovarian cancer, Stromal ovarian cancers, and Germ cell ovarian cancers.

Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most common type of ovarian cancer affecting females. In EOC, the cancerous growth develops in the outer layer that covers the ovary.
The malignant tumor or cancer can also develop on the lining of the fallopian tube (fallopian tube cancer) or the lining of the abdomen or peritoneum (Primary peritoneal cancer).
Stromal ovarian cancers are found to originate from the cells that are involved in the production of estrogen and progesterone (female hormones).
Germ cell ovarian cancer, as indicative of the name, develop in the germ cells (cells responsible for the production of ova and eggs.

Unfortunately, in most of the cases, the early stages of ovarian cancer are asymptomatic. The symptoms usually appear as cancer progresses to the advanced stages making the condition almost untreatable. However, some of the warning signs that should be medically examined and investigated include

Abdominal pain and swelling.
Feeling bloated. There may be a pain the pelvic area.
A sudden increase in the frequency of urination.
Irregular periods and often pain after intercourse.
Extreme fatigue and tiredness. A person may complain of indigestion, constipation, as well as heartburns.
The bowel habits may appear altered.
A mild to severe back pain.
Who are at a risk of suffering from ovarian cancer?

A family history of breast cancer (especially in mother and sisters).
Testing positive for a BRCA gene test (indicates the presence of mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes)
Women who get their periods at a much younger age with a delayed menopause (ovulate longer than usual).
Women who are unable to conceive.
In some rare cases, medical conditions such as Cowden's syndrome, Lynch syndrome or Fraumeni syndrome can also contribute to ovarian cancer.

Latest breakthroughs related to ovarian cancer
Of late there have been some commendable breakthroughs and inventions that can increase the effectiveness of ovarian cancer treatment by many folds.
One such breakthrough is the discovery of a drug ONX-0801. The drug which is found to mimic folic acid (to gain access to the cell) works by blocking the activity of Thymidylate Synthase. The London s Royal Marsden Hospital carried out a trial run of the drug ONX-0801 on 10 women with ovarian cancer. The results were truly encouraging. The drug was found to shrink the size of the malignant tumor in around 7 women. However, research is being carried out to enhance the effectiveness of the drug further.
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Ovarian Cancer - Symptoms And Treatment!

DNB - Medical Oncology, MD - Medicine, MBBS
Oncologist, Chandigarh
Ovarian Cancer - Symptoms And Treatment!
Ovarian cancer is referred to as the cancer of the ovaries. The ovaries are a component of the female reproductive system. There are two ovaries located on either side of the uterus in a woman's body. Ovaries which are the organs responsible for producing egg cells also produce the hormones estrogen and progesterone. Ovarian cancer is a type of cancer which often goes undetected until it has spread all the way to the pelvis and the abdomen. However, it is also very difficult to treat the condition in its later stages which is why diagnosing ovarian cancer quickly is quintessential. Here is everything you need to know about ovarian cancer;


No symptoms at first: Usually, in its early stages ovarian cancer does not cause any symptoms.
Abnormal bloating: Bloating is when your abdomen swells due to excess fluid or gas inside. Abnormal bloating is more frequently associated with irritable bowel syndrome or even constipation is a common symptom of ovarian cancer.
Feeling full quickly: This is also an associated symptom which has often been mistaken for constipation or irritable bowel syndrome.
Weight loss: This is one of the more common signs of ovarian cancer.
Discomfort in the pelvis area: This symptom occurs towards the later stages of ovarian cancer after it has already spread.
Constipation: Constipation is a symptom of ovarian cancer as well.
Frequent urination: This is yet another symptom which is a sign of ovarian cancer.
The symptoms of ovarian cancer are often mistaken with that of irritable bowel syndrome and constipation.

Causes: As with other forms of cancer, it is still very unclear what exactly causes ovarian cancer.


Surgery: Surgery most commonly involves removing large parts of the female reproductive system which includes the ovaries, the fallopian tubes, the uterus as well as the lymph nodes. The surgeon will also try and remove as many cancer cells as possible from the abdomen and pelvic areas.
Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy is usually done after surgery. It is usually performed so that the rest of the cancer cells are killed off. Chemotherapy drugs can be injected directly into the vein, abdominal cavity or sometimes even both.
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Ovarian Cysts - How To Treat Them?

MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, MS - Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Gynaecologist, Madurai
Ovarian Cysts - How To Treat Them?
All women have two ovaries located on either side of the uterus. They are fundamental for the process of child birth. However ovarian cysts have emerged as major problems which most women suffer from. In this, small pockets filled with fluids develop on the surface or within the ovaries. Though they are generally harmless, often times disappearing without any treatment, they do have the potential to create complications during child birth. Treatment of ovarian cysts depends on the size and the quantity of the cysts.

Some of the treatments available are-

1. Patience and a careful watch
In case medical examinations reveal tiny cysts, patience can be the key word. If you did not suffer from perceptible symptoms and the cysts were revealed only through tests, you must follow it with regular visits to the doctor. Few medications and regular ultrasound examinations are all you need in such a case.

2. Contraceptives
Birth control pills or contraceptives may be sometimes prescribed to you as possible medications to treat the cysts. Regular administering of these medicines deters the possibility of further development of cysts. They also benefit greatly in reducing the possibilities of suffering from ovarian cancer in the future.

3. Operations
In case the tests reveal large cysts, operations or surgical removal of them may be the only possible solution. Operations are generally suggested if the cysts have persisted for a long time and are accompanied by terrible pain in the lower abdomen.

4. Ovarian cystectomy
This is performed when the ovaries are kept intact and only the cysts are carefully removed.

5. Oophorectomy
In this form of surgery, only the ovary that is affected with the cysts is removed, while the other is kept intact. Both the ovaries might also have to be surgically removed if they are found to be affected.

6. Hysterectomy and subsequent removal of fallopian tubes and uterus
This is done when the cysts developed have the potential of becoming cancer us. In such a situation, an extreme measure is adopted with the complete removal of the ovaries along with the uterus and fallopian tubes. This is done in order to prevent the subsequent spreading of cancer.
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Ovarian Cancer - The Silent Killer!

Post Doctoral Fellowship In Gynecologic Oncology, MS - Obstetrics & Gynaecology, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine & Bachelor of Surgery
Oncologist, Bangalore
Ovarian Cancer - The Silent Killer!
Cancer is that word that many people dread to hear, yet it is a real scourge and can have deadly effects. One such type of cancer is ovarian cancer, which claims countless lives in India every year, yet is not talked about because of social taboos. Because cancer cells are regular cells whose growth is uncontrolled, it is important to know what ovarian cancer is, what causes it, and how to prevent it.

Ovarian cancer is cancer of the ovarian cells. Ovaries are the reproductive glands containing eggs, which only women have. Women usually have one ovary on each side, and the ovaries produce the hormones estrogen and progesterone, which is necessary for ovulation and pregnancy to occur. Three different cells comprise the ovaries, all of which can develop cancerous (malignant), and non-cancerous (benign) tumors. The cells covering the ovarian walls are called epithelial cells, which can become cancerous - most types of ovarian cancer are epithelial. Germ cell cancer grows in the cells producing the eggs, and stomural cancer grows in the cells that hold the ovaries together and produce reproductive hormones.

The good news is that in the majority of cases, the tumors are benign and never spread (metastize). These tumors are non cancerous and can easily be removed. Malignant tumors, however, are cancerous. These can, and often times, do spread to other parts of the body (metastize) and can kill the women having them.

A risk factor is any action people take to increase their likelihood of getting a certain type of cancer. With ovarian cancer, age is a big factor, with older women more likely to develop this type of cancer than younger women. Ovarian cases are rare in women under age 40, with the bulk of patients being post-menopausal. About 50% of ovarian cancer cases are in women who are 63 or older.

More obese women (those with a BMI of 30 or higher) are more likely to develop ovarian cancer than skinnier women. Women who had a successful pregnancy before age 26 are less likely to develop ovarian cancer. By contrast, women who had their first kid after age 35, or who have never had children, are more likely to develop ovarian cancer.

Also, while there is no direct correlation, there is thought to be a link between breastfeeding and lower rates of ovarian cancer.

Women who use oral contraceptives have a lower risk of developing ovarian cancer. The risk lowers dramatically after 3-6 months of using the pills, and remains low long after the pills are taken, or even stopped.
Also, getting a tubal ligation, or having a hysterectomy lowers the risk of developing ovarian cancer.

While there is no known cause of ovarian cancer, certain women carrying the BRCA1 and 2 genes will develop ovarian cancer, so it can be genetic.

Most women only have one risk factor for ovarian cancer, which in itself is not significant. However, since no woman wants to develop this type of potentially deadly cancer, she needs to know how to prevent it. Taking oral contraceptives for a long period of time has been shown to lower the risk of ovarian cancer. Tubal ligation has also shown a decreased risk.

While there is no one magic bullet for completely preventing ovarian cancer, lifestyle choices can definitely mitigate one s risk of developing this dangerous cancer.
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Early Symptoms Of Ovarian Cancer

MBBS, MS - General Surgery, FICS (Surgical Oncology), Fellowship of Association of Indian Surgeons(FAIS), Fellowship in Minimal Access Surgery(FMAS) & Reproductive Medicine, Fellowship of Indian Association of Gastrointestinal Endo Surgeons (FIAGES)
Oncologist, Ghaziabad
Early Symptoms Of Ovarian Cancer
Ovaries are small structures present in the lower part of abdomen adjacent to the uterus. Cancers arising from ovaries can be of different types:

Germ cell type (these cancers arise from cells that produce ova or cells that grow into the new born upon fertilization), epithelial (these arise from the outer lining of the ovaries) and others (multiple types from remaining tissue in ovaries).

Epithelial ovarian cancer is the commonest type of ovarian cancers and is also the one associated with high fatality. High fatality is related to the aggressive behaviour of cancer but is also due to the fact that majority of epithelial ovarian cancers are diagnosed late.

In the early stages of ovarian cancer, very few symptoms may be present. Many women do not experience any symptoms at all. The symptoms that may be experienced can be associated with other conditions and hence often go unrecognized. However, in the case of ovarian cancer, these symptoms will gradually increase and worsen with time. Some of the symptoms of ovarian cancer are:

Pain in the lower abdomen or pelvic area
Back ache
Frequent urge to urinate
Painful intercourse
Change in bowel habits (constipation usually)
Loss of appetite or feeling full without eating too much
Fullness or distension of the abdomen
Ovarian cancer usually affects women over the age of 50 but can occur in younger women also. Women with a family history of breast cancer or ovarian cancer have a higher risk of developing these tumours. Endometriosis and hormone replacement therapy could also increase one s risk of ovarian cancer.

As with other types of cancer, treatment for ovarian cancer depends largely on how far it has advanced. The main forms of treatment include surgery and chemotherapy. Surgery is usually the first step of treating ovarian cancer. Surgery for early ovarian cancer is called staging laparotomy while surgery for advanced ovarian cancer is called cytoreductive surgery . Surgery involves complete hysterectomy with removal of both tubes and ovaries. In addition, lymph nodes in the pelvis and retroperitoneum are removed. Removal of omentum (a fatty layer of tissue attached to stomach and large intestine) is also done.

In addition, biopsy samples are collected from the peritoneal lining of the abdomen. If there are other sites of disease, they are also removed surgically. In very advanced cases, parts of intestine (large intestine, small intestine), spleen, liver etc. may also be removed. In some early stage ovarian cancer that are not very aggressive, uterus and one side fallopian tube and ovarian can be saved. This can permit child bearing and is called fertility sparing surgery.

Surgery is usually followed by chemotherapy. Usually six cycles of chemotherapy are used. For early stage ovarian cancer that is low grade, chemotherapy may not be required. Ovarian cancer can come back and all patients need regular follow up after surgery and/or chemotherapy. Physical examination, blood tests, ultrasound and/or CT scan of abdomen are used for follow up. If the disease comes back, chemotherapy may be repeated and sometimes additional surgery can be carried out.
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Ovarian Cancer - Things You Need To Know!

MBBS, Md - Radiation Oncology
Oncologist, Hyderabad
Ovarian Cancer - Things You Need To Know!
On each side of the uterus, two ovaries are present. It is the size of an almond and produces ova or eggs in simple terms, along with the release of hormones like oestrogen and progesterone. When a cancerous growth or a tumour grows in the outer lining (epithelium) of the ovary, it is known as ovarian cancer. Ovarian cancer occurs in women who are aged above 65 years.

There are three types of tumour
Ovaries are made up of three kinds of cells and each kind is capable of developing different types of tumour.

Epithelial tumour- It develops from the cells that cover the ovary s outer surface.
Germ cell tumour- It develops from the cells that produce ova.
Stromal tumour- It develops from the tissue cell which is the structure holding the ovary together and produces oestrogen and progesterone.
Some tumours are non-cancerous and never spread beyond the ovary. Cancerous or ovarian tumours that are less malignant can metastasize to other body parts. The signs initially would be mistaken with premenstrual syndrome or poor bowel movement or a bladder problem, but if the problems are persistent then one must get an expert opinion. Ovarian cancer often goes undetected till it spreads within the abdomen or the pelvis.

Causes of ovarian cancer
Cancer develops when the cells of the body divide and multiplies in an unregulated manner. Mutations that are genetic like BRCA1 and BRCA2 can be the cause often or if an individual is diagnosed with any other type of cancer before like breast, colon or uterine. There is a higher risk of being affected by this type of cancer if the person had undergone fertility treatment or is suffering from infertility. Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) is another cause of this type of cancer. Experts say that longer the HRT, higher the risk. Women who are obese or are overweight has more chances of being affected. Endometriosis or the disorder in which the growth of the tissue occurs outside the uterus, in such a case the risk is 30% higher.

The signs or symptoms of ovarian cancer differ from one woman to another. Some of the symptoms given below might as well be non-cancerous because since the ovaries are situated near the intestines and bladder, it might be often mistaken to be symptoms of gastrointestinal issues. It is advisable to consult a doctor if the symptoms are persistent.

Symptoms that occur at an early stage
Pelvic pain, Abdomen pain, Indigestion issues, Loss of appetite, Painful sexual intercourse, and Changed bowel movement are a few of the symptoms that occur during the early stages of the development of an Ovarian cancer.

Signs at a progressive stage
Loss of weight, Fatigue, Short of breath, and Nausea are the predominant symptoms when the Ovarian cancer has progressed more. Early diagnosis may lead to complete cure

Symptoms of ovarian cancer are similar to that of ovarian cysts. These ovarian cysts are often non-malignant but women with such cysts have a higher risk of being affected by cancer. Ovarian cancer can begin silently and are often detected at a later stage. Thus any individual undergoing these symptoms can avail medical assistance for further diagnosis.
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My elder sister passed away with ovarian cancer. Is it really necessary that we all have to keep getting cancer test every year.

Oncologist, Mumbai
Ms. lybrate-user, some of the ovarian cancers are caused due to a mutation in the genes called as BRCA. In families where BRCA mutation is positive, you need rigerous follow up. If that is not the case, then you won't need it. I can see that you are 53, you should certainly get screening done for breast cancer and cervical cancer.
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How womb tumor gets cure and what is the best way to get cure because my mother is suffering from small tumor in womb please suggest me.

MBBS, M.S. General Surgery, M.R.C.S. England, M.Ch. Surgical Oncology, DNB Surgical Oncology, FEBS Surgical Oncology, DNB General Surgery, MNAMS, FMAS, FIAGES, FAIS, FICS, FEBS Breast Surgery, FACS, Fellowship IFHNOS & MSKCC USA, Fellowship in breast and oncplastic Surgery
Oncologist, Mumbai
Womb tumor can be of different types. Treatment is different for cervical and endometrial tumours. Early stage cervical and most of the endometrial tumours are treated with surgery and adjuvant radiation or chemotherapy depending upon the histopathology report. Advanced stage cervical tumours are usually treated with definitive chemoradiation. Ovary treatment is quite different from these. I would be able to help you better if you send the reports and details directly.
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