One of a group of autoantibodies is anti-double- stranded DNA antibody which is known as anti- nuclear antibodies. Autoantibodies are produced when a person’s immune system fails to distinguish between self and non-self. They mistakenly attack body's own healthy cells which cause tissue and organ damage. The genetic material or DNA which is found in the nucleus of a cell is the most preferred targets of anti-double- stranded DNA antibody. These autoantibodies are tested using the double-stranded DNA antibodies test which is also known as Elisa. The test Elisa requires the blood sample from the veins of the patient.
The Elisa test is the common lgE blood test in which a small amount of blood sample is required for checking whether the patient’s DNA is not infected. It is advised that patient should wear half sleeve shirt or easily foldable sleeves shirt on the day of test as blood sample are usually taken from the veins of the elbow.
As mentioned above it is the common type of lgE blood test which requires no fasting and patient can carry on with their normal diet on the day of the test. Unless advised by the doctor, no fasting is required for the test.
he anti-double- stranded DNA test or Elisa is basically to help diagnose lupus, systemic lupus erythematosus, Sle. The Elisa test is also used to monitor lupus and other types of lupus. There are many related tests for this Elisa test which areas ANA, ENA-Panel, Anti-Sm, Anti-Rnp, Anti-Ro, Anti-La, histone antibody, autoantibodies, and antiphospholipid antibodies. When you have a positive ANA test and there are signs and symptoms which are associated with lupus, it is very necessary to get the anti double-stranded tests done. The symptoms are such as persistent fatigue, weakness, and pain in one or more joints
A small amount precisely few milliliters will be drawn out from the veins of the patient by the healthcare professional. For small children or infants blood can be drawn from puncturing the skin with the help of a needle.
An antiseptic is used first to clean the skin surface. For the veins to swell up an elastic band is placed around the upper arm. A needle is inserted into the vein to draw blood and is collected in a vial or syringe. The sample is carried in the vessel to the laboratory with your name placed over the vessel.
Double Stranded DNA Antibodies ELISA
All age groups
What are the causes?
Bladder cancer can be caused by environment-related factors and smoking. In fact, smoking tobacco is one of the major causes of bladder cancer around the world. The chemicals present in tobacco can irritate the bladder lining which ultimately leads to bladder cancer. It may also be caused by continuous exposure to chemicals such as dyes or leather dust and radiation. These chemicals tend to cause unusual changes in the cells of the bladder lining and causes cancer in the bladder.
It can also be caused by modifications in the dna in the cells of the bladder which may impair the functioning of the cells in the body. This can cause mutations in the bladder resulting in cancer.
What are the symptoms?
1. Presence of blood in the urine, often painless
2. Feeling of pain while passing urine
3. Back pain
4. Excessive urination
5. Infections in the urinary tract
6. Lower leg swelling
7. Pain in the bones, especially in the pelvic area
8. Weight loss
Treatments for bladder cancer depend on the stage of the cancer. The various treatment choices are:
Surgery - In some cases, these cancers are surgically removed by a surgeon. A type of surgery used is transurethral resection of bladder tumor (turbt) where the cancer cells are destroyed with laser by passing a thin fiber into the bladder.
Chemotherapy - In this method, medications are used to target and destroy cancer cells.
Immunotherapy - This treatment boosts the immune system of the body so that it attacks the cancerous cells in the bladder. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Urologist.
Oral cancer (OC) occurs when DNA mutations develop in the cells lining the lips and the mouth cavity. It commonly affects the tongue, floor of mouth, buccal mucosa, lips, palate, gum etc all. Mostly, oral cancers are squamous cell carcinomas that begin in the squamous cells lining the lips and the inside of mouth.
Type: of oral cancer are as enumerated below -
Gender: affects the male populace predominantly. But, it can affect both male and female. It’s the commonest cancer in India currently, and accounts for a significant percentage of the total cancer mortality.
Etiology: consumption of “khaini” (tobacco & lime mix), betel nut, areca nut, slaked lime, chronic irritation due to irregular teeth, smoking, alcohol consumption, oral infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) / Human Papilloma virus (HPV), nutritional deficiencies, chronic infections & poor dental/ oral hygiene are the common risk factors that can trigger oral carcinogenesis. It is noteworthy that the local effects of tobacco and alcohol are both dose-dependent and synergistic.
Features: the various presentations (of signs & symptoms) of Oral cancer are as given below –
Cheek cancer - hard and painless thickening, with an ulcer sometimes that does not heal for weeks together.
Lip cancer - white patch on the inner lining of the lip on which a hard mass slowly develops.
Palate cancer- persistent sore on the hard palate that may ulcerate.
Tongue cancer - ulcer on the side of the tongue that bleeds occasionally and does not heal.
Screening: is generally recommended for asymptomatic populations goal of which, as usual, is to be able to detect & diagnose oral cancer at an early stage which is potentially curable. Visual screening by healthcare personnel including dentists, general practitioners, oncologists, surgeons etc all is crucial to detect not only early asymptomatic oral cancers but also the oral pre-cancerous lesions including oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF), oral leukoplakia, erythroplakia et al which carry a high risk of malignant transformation to in-situ and invasive cancers.
Diagnosis: a complete physical exam of the local parts basis the features mentioned above arouses suspicion that prompts diagnosis -
Biopsy (punch or removal of mass of tissue (excision) for cytology) clinches the diagnosis of oral cancer. Should there be a neck mass that arises suspicion of a regional metastatic disease, a fine needle biopsy (FNB) can be attempted.
Initial staging workup includes CT, MRI scans etc all. PET CT scan though frequently employed, is not usually used for the initial workup.
A triple endoscopy that includes laryngoscopy, esophagoscopy and bronchoscopy can help definitive staging of the disease. Biopsies obtained during this procedure help confirm the primary diagnosis, define the extent to which the primary site disease has spread, and identify additional pre-malignant lesions and metastasis, if any.
Treatment / Prognosis: preventive measures, earlier diagnosis and right early treatment is key for better prognostication and efficient/ effective therapeutic management of oral cancer. Conventional treatment includes surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy as deems appropriate. Simultaneously, an adjunctive or integrative naturopathic treatment with suitable complementary & alternative medicines (CAM) too can help improve clinical endpoints and facilitate recovery as would be feasible contextually. As seen with other cancers, the site, stage, histopathological grading etc all determine the treatment outlook. The number of micronucleated oral mucosal cells can be a useful biomarker for predicting course of oral pre-cancerous lesions and prognosis thereof.
Prevention: rightly said, prevention is always a better choice. Although genetic risks are difficult to modify, still an increased focus on protective factors and avoidance of the risk factors can be of help. Especially, abstaining from use of tobacco/ products, alcohol, regularly maintaining oral health and hygiene and daily intake of fresh seasonal fruits and vegetables can help prevent a vast majority of oral cancers. Also, timely screening/ detection of the pre-cancerous lesions of the oral cavity and prompt treatment thereof is crucial to preventing a malignant transformation of the same. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can ask a free question.
A heart attack makes you rethink and get a double take on life. Once you survive it, you tend to realize how close your brush with death has been and how important your lifestyle choices can be. Most people go on to live a productive life after a heart attack provided they can adhere to making healthy choices. Here's what you can do if you have experienced your first attack and want to change for the better:
Hitting the beach, going for a hike, mowing the lawn - when summer comes, a guy can't help but spend a lot more time outside. That's what the season is for, after all. But along with all the positive aspects of the summer, there are negative ones as well. And for many men, a summer penis rash is among those irritants. Even when a guy is at the top of his penis health game, he may proudly thrust off his trunks to find penis skin that is red, flaky or otherwise unattractive.
With that in mind, let's look at some of the things a guy can do to help keep penis rash under control as he keeps enjoying the lazy hazy days of summer.
- Go for light colors and light fabrics. One of the primary causes of skin rashes in the summer is sweat from excess heat. This can be especially true of a penis rash, as the double whammy of underwear plus a pair of trousers can significantly up the heat quotient in the crotch. Wearing lightweight pants can help to keep the heat down, as can wearing lighter colors that don't absorb as much heat. Some guys may also consider leaving off the underwear to stay cooler; that's one option, but sometimes exposing sensitive penis skin to trouser fabric may cause its own irritation.
- Go loose. It also helps if the clothes a guy wears aren't quite so tight. Looser pants give a guy a chance to breathe, and keep his basement a little cooler.
- Get out of biker shorts quickly. Compression shorts are great for biking and other sports, but they really raise the heat level - so much so that in the summer they can actively encourage the development of folliculitis. Folliculitis is infected hair follicles which create red splotches that resemble a rash. So dispose of the shorts as soon as possible, and jump into a nice shower for added protection.
- Be careful of pool chlorine levels. Most public pools are maintained at an appropriate chlorine level, but many pools in an individual's backyard may not be. Too much chlorine can dry the skin out or cause an allergic reaction, both of which can translate into a penis rash in some men. Too little can allow bacteria or parasites to thrive, which can in turn also cause skin eruptions.
- Go to extremes. To keep sweat (and the resulting potential for rash) to a minimum, try to schedule outdoor summer activities at the beginning or end of the day. The heat will be less in the morning or evening than it would be in the middle of the day.
- Choose cleansers. Going to the beach or the pool often involves using the facility's shower afterward - which may include using their soap and shampoo. When possible, a guy should bring his own, which he hopefully already knows does not cause a penis rash. Harsh commercial cleansers and soaps such as might be in use in a group shower often create penis skin issues.
- Be wary of tanning all over. Nude sunbathing, whether at the beach or a tanning salon, exposes sensitive penis skin to the unfamiliar rays of the sun (or a reasonable facsimile). Burning is the obvious risk, but more limited exposure can also create dryness, which can become flaky and rashy in short order.
Summer doesn't have to mean a bout of penis rash, especially if a man just takes basic precautions. This includes regular application of a first rate penis health crème (health professionals recommend Man1 Man Oil, which is clinically proven mild and safe for skin). Healthy penis skin is more resistant to rashing, so choose a crème that will provide a wide range of beneficial vitamins, including A, B5, C, D, and E. While a guy is at it, he should be sure the crème also includes L-arginine. This valuable amino acid helps bolster the process by which penis blood vessels can properly open to accommodate the increased blood flow essential to premium penis activity.
Everyone wants a slim suave figure and heads to a gym to work out and get trim. Fitness has its own share of myths and misconceptions
Almost everyone heads to a gym these days. If the guys want six pack abs the girls want well toned hips and thighs. Working out is good but there are several myths and misconceptions which shroud fitness. Dr. Earnest vijay, fitness director, o2 health studio dispels some of these myths.
Doing crunches helps to get six pack abs
This is not true. Men do crunches for abs and women do for well toned hips and thighs. The truth is that crunches only work on the muscles and not on the fat. If you see a surya or a hrithik roshan with six pack abs remember they haven’t had a sip of water for over 24 hours to get that look! so crunches alone don’t help to get six packs.
Spot reduction- does it work?
People come to the gym saying they want spot reduction. They want to lose weight only on the arms not on the face, only on the face not on the cheeks etc. The truth is that you cannot choose and loose in exercise. Fat loss is an overall phenomenon is exercise and also based on genetics. We say what is the first to come is the last to go! so spot reduction doesn’t work for sure!
Crash dieting- how effective?
People follow crash diets and they do loose weight but it piles back in no time. These crash diets have no proper balance of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Most of them are high in protein and are un healthy because they don’t give the body the required minerals. It is important to consult a dietician and take the recommended dietaty allowances according to the body weight and it should be a plan that can be followed for a life time.
Yo yo effect
There is a huge misconception that you lose weight when you are exercising in the gym and when you stop gymming you gain back double the weight. This is not true. You won’t gain more if you maintain a certain level of physical activity even outside the gym and also continue to follow the diet. It is only when you don’t burn the calories you consume it gets stored as fat and tend to put on weight.
Weight training builds muscles
Many women don’t do weight training because they think they will build up muscles. The truth is that women have no hormones which can cause muscles to build up. Weight training actually helps to strengthen bones and prevent osteoporosis in women.
Do you need supplements?
Proteins and fat burners are not required if you are eating healthy and working out well. The recommended protein requirement is 1 gram of protein per kg body weight per day and this we get from our diet itself. Fat burners cause adverse effects to the cardiovascular and nervous systems.
Don’t take water while working out?
Water is needed before, during and after exercise. The best is to weight yourself before the work out and after the work out and consume as much water as the weight you have lost during the work out. It is important to remain well hydrated to prevent cramps, heat strokes and it helps you perform better in the gym.
Fitness involves a cardio vascular fitness, muscle strengthening, flexibility and body composition and there is a specific exercise for all. Yoga helps only the flexibility, stress and improves the breathing capacity. One needs to do specific exercises for specific goals and yoga alone may not help for weight loss.
Exercise causes over eating
Moderately intense exercise does not cause over eating. This means you don’t go out of breath while exercise. Only people who over do it, get completely breathless end up over eating after exerciseing.
Skipping meals- does it help?
It is said that those who skip breakfast to lose weight usually end up eating 100 calories more than required for lunch. It is important to break meals into 5 portions and have balanced quantities of carbohydrates, proteins and fats in them. A well balanced meal is important to keep the body healthy.
So all you fitness freaks out there…. Make sure you eat healthy, exercise well, don’t believe in myths that misguide you! a simple work out, a healthy diet and a positive frame of mind can all get you to the figure you always dreamt of!