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Apolipoprotein E Health Feed

Alzheimer's Disease - Know More About It!

DM - Neurology, Fellowship in Stroke Neurology, MD - General Medicine, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
Neurologist, Kolkata
Alzheimer's Disease - Know More About It!
Alzheimer s disease is a neurological, irreversible, progressive brain disorder. It is a chronic neurodegenerative dementia that causes the death of brain cells, causing memory loss and cognitive decline. It affects a person s thinking and behavior. The symptoms develop slowly and get worse as time passes.

Causes:
As it is a kind of dementia, Alzheimer s is caused by the death of brain cells. Over a course of time, brain cells die progressively and at the end, the tissue is left with fewer nerve cells and connections. As a result, the total brain size shrinks. Tiny inclusions called plaques and tangles can be seen in the postmortem. These cannot be seen or tested in a living Alzheimer s affected brain. These plaques are given the name amyloid plaques because they are found among the dying cells of the brain when a protein called beta-amyloid builds. The tangles stay in the neurons; they are formed from a protein called tau.

There are several reasons behind all this, some of which are listed below-

Anti-anxiety medications
Hitting on the head too many times
Regularly sleep-deprived
Loneliness
Diabetes in the brain
Old age
Genetic line
Down s syndrome
Cardiovascular diseases
Symptoms:
Alzheimer s disease damages the brain, so the clinical signs and symptoms begin to show very early. The symptoms are-

Memory loss
Agitation and mood swings
Poor judgment
The trouble with money calculations
Difficulty doing familiar tasks
Trouble in planning or solving a problem
Confusion with time and place
Difficulty in communicating
Loss of motivation
Inappropriate behavior
Aggressive personality
Childlike behavior
Preventing Alzheimer s disease:
Alzheimer s disease ultimately results in death. Even if there are treatments, they cannot fully cure it. So it s better to try to prevent it before it happens. Ways to prevent Alzheimer s disease are-

Eating more fruits and vegetables.
Eating berries every day.
Increasing omega-3 fatty acids.
Taking folic acid supplements.
Drinking grape juice or red wine with evening meal.
Doing the Mediterranean style diet.
Controlling the blood pressure.
Having strong social support.
Treatment of Alzheimer s disease:

Treatment of Alzheimer s disease is a long time process.
First of all, doctors perform a physical exam to check the overall neurological health. By this, they check muscle strength, reflexes, walking ability, sense of sight and hearing, coordination and balance.
Then comes the blood test to find the cause of confusion and memory loss by checking the thyroid disorder and vitamin deficiency.
Then they perform the neuropsychological test and check the mental status.
Then there are other tests, like MRI, CT, and PET.
After all this, drugs are given and a safe and supportive environment is created with proper exercise and nutrition.
Alzheimer s disease is undoubtedly the worst kind of disease. Hence, it is highly recommended to contact a doctor as soon as any symptom is noticed.
211 people found this helpful

Hello Doctor, Doctor My question is :-Why in our country We have maximum No. Of Sugar patient 2) Why Nowadays Majority of Our people dying due to Heart attack before they could attain Average 60 years Of life 3) What is the Treatment to Avoid it.

MD - General Medicine, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
Endocrinologist, Indore
The good news is that there are steps to take to reduce your risk for heart disease if you have diabetes If you have diabetes, heart disease can be a serious concern. In fact, cardiovascular disease leading to heart attack or stroke is by far the leading cause of death in both men and women with diabetes, says Control your weight. One of the most important things you can do if you have diabetes is maintain a healthy weight. If you are overweight, talk to a registered dietitian about healthy ways to lose weight. Get regular physical activity. There is a significant body of research that proves the myriad cardiovascular benefits of regular physical activity (that goes beyond weight loss). Start off slowly, and build a plan that works well for you and meets your needs. Don’t smoke. If you already do, make plans to begin a smoking cessation program. "Nicotine narrows and restricts blood vessels; diabetes will also do the same thing to your blood vessels. You can't change having diabetes. But you can stop damage caused by nicotine, Maintain tight control over glucose. Tight control can prevent many complications from diabetes and also protects your heart. Shoot for an A1C reading of less than 7%. Lower your LDL cholesterol (the "bad" type). Both the American Diabetes Association and the American Heart Association recommend an LDL cholesterol goal of less than 100 mg/dl. Control your blood pressure. All people with diabetes should aim for a blood pressure reading of less than 130/80, advises Dr. Ganda.
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It is advised to eat plenty fruit and other fibre food to prevent heart deceases. However sugar level is likely to increase due to fruit intake what is the remedy?

MBBS, CCEBDM, Diploma in Diabetology, Diploma in Clinical Nutrition & Dietetics, Cetificate Course In Thyroid Disorders Management (CCMTD)
Endocrinologist, Dharwad
Hello, Thanks for the query. Intake of fruits is good in persons who have no diabetes. Even in those with diabetes when blood glucose is well controlled some fruits in limited quantity are good enough. For a person without diabetes there is absolutely no problem at all. As regards other fiber containing foods, intake of those foods does not cause a marked increase in glucose. The restrictions are specifically for a person with diabetes only. Thanks.
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Causes, Symptoms And Treatment Of Alzheimer's!

MBBS, MD - Psychiatry
Psychiatrist, Delhi
Causes, Symptoms And Treatment Of Alzheimer's!
With age, most body organs begin to deteriorate in their function. This happens to the brain also, thereby reducing the overall speed of functioning of most organs. While slowing of bodily movement is visible, the internal organs functioning also slows down, which is not that obvious. Memory loss or dementia is one of the main manifestations of this degeneration of the brain.

Alzheimer s is the most common form of dementia, and the associated symptoms includes reduced reasoning abilities and cognitive defects. Though it is seen only in the elderly, not all elderly people will have Alzheimer s. The overall quality of life of the affected person is reduced with difficulty remembering things that were recently learned. It is a progressive disease and as it gets more severe, a full-time caretaker may be required.

Causes: The brain cells are affected by protein masses known as plaques and tangles. These hamper the way communication between the brain cells happens as well as affect nutrition from reaching all parts of the brain. This leads to shrinking of the brain, eventually leading to memory loss and other problems. There is also a strong genetic linkage, as most people with Alzheimer s have the lipoprotein A gene.

Symptoms: Though memory loss is the most common symptom, there are other symptoms:

Being confused about places, people, and times
Inability to find the right words during conversations
Regular objects are misplaced
Becoming irritable, (in someone who was not so previously)
Mood swings
Personality changes
Inability to organise thoughts
Not able to make the right decisions
Repetitive talks and actions
Forgetfulness (not something the person always does)
Difficulty with numbers (again, not something calculations
Difficulty managing everyday tasks and minor problems
Suspicion of others (like immediate family members and friends)
Risk factors: While age is definitely a risk factor, the fact that not all aged people develop Alzheimer s is to be borne in mind. Other risk factors include the history of stroke, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, diabetes, smoking, obesity, and poor lifestyle choices.

Diagnosis: While there is no definitive way to diagnose Alzheimer s, symptoms along with brain scans and neuropsychological function testing are useful ways to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment: This is aimed at two things reducing the rate of disease progression and treat (or reverse) symptoms if possible.

Cholinesterase inhibitors improve cellular communication in the brain and also manage depression and agitation. Memantine is used to slow the pace of disease progression.
In people with the disease, small changes are useful to help them with the symptoms. These include keeping essential things like keys and wallet in the same place, keep a daily diary to help them remember things, keep pictures of friends and family within visible distance.
2487 people found this helpful

5 Common Psychological Problems That Affect People In Old Age!

M.D Psychiatry , MBBS
Psychiatrist, Faridabad
5 Common Psychological Problems That Affect People In Old Age!
As people grow older, they age physically as well as mentally. Just as they become more susceptible to conditions such as arthritis, their risk of mental illnesses also increases. It is also important to note that physical ailments influence mental ailments. Thus, arthritis may not only be a problem in itself but may cause mental disorders as well.

Some of the most common psychological problems that affect the elderly are:

Depression: Depression can affect people of all ages but the elderly have a higher risk of suffering from it. The symptoms and effects of this condition vary from person to person. These include feeling sad constantly, tiredness and lack of energy, lack of self-worth, unexplained weight loss or weight gain, insomnia and reduced appetite. This may be caused as a side effect of certain medications or treatment, as a result of frustrations caused by other physical ailments or just an effect of age.
Memory Problems: As people get older, their memory weakens. Many lose their long-term memory skills. They may also lose their short-term memory. This is not the same as being forgetful. Characteristic symptoms of amnesia include confusion, memory loss, inability to recognize people, etc. Amnesia may be caused by a number of factors including trauma to the head, brain damage or psychological factors such as PTSD.
Dementia: Dementia is characterized by the person s mental inability to function normally. This could be in the form of random mood swings, apathy, confusion, changes in short-term memory or failed sense of direction. Dementia is typically caused by the death of brain cells due to tumors, infections, lack of oxygen, lack of nutrition etc. Parkinson s disease, Huntington s disease, vascular dementia and frontotemporal dementia are all forms of dementia.
Alzheimer s Disease: This is a kind of dementia as well. In such cases, the patient loses memory of where they are and believe themselves to be in another place and time zone. The patient may not be able to rationalize things happening around him and may be unable to recognize their own family members. This is a neurodegenerative disease that involves shrinkage of the brain cells. It may be genetic. Alzheimer s can be treated and managed but it cannot be cured.
Insomnia: Insomnia can be classified as a physical and mental ailment. It is characterized by the inability to sleep well at night. Some of the noticeable symptoms include tossing and turning for hours in bed before going to sleep, waking up frequently at night, waking up earlier than planned and falling asleep during the day. Insomnia in the elderly is typically caused by stress and anxiety. It may also be the result of certain types of medication.
4419 people found this helpful

Know The Causes And Treatment Of Alzheimer's!

DPM, DNB Psychiatry, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
Psychiatrist, Mumbai
Know The Causes And Treatment Of Alzheimer's!
With age, most body organs begin to deteriorate in their function. This happens to the brain also, thereby reducing the overall speed of functioning of most organs. While slowing of bodily movement is visible, the internal organs functioning also slows down, which is not that obvious. Memory loss or dementia is one of the main manifestations of this degeneration of the brain.

Alzheimer s is the most common form of dementia, and the associated symptoms includes reduced reasoning abilities and cognitive defects. Though it is seen only in the elderly, not all elderly people will have Alzheimer s. The overall quality of life of the affected person is reduced with difficulty remembering things that were recently learned. It is a progressive disease and as it gets more severe, a full-time caretaker may be required.

Causes: The brain cells are affected by protein masses known as plaques and tangles. These hamper the way communication between the brain cells happens as well as affect nutrition from reaching all parts of the brain. This leads to shrinking of the brain, eventually leading to memory loss and other problems. There is also a strong genetic linkage, as most people with Alzheimer s have the lipoprotein A gene.

Symptoms: Though memory loss is the most common symptom, there are other symptoms:
Being confused about places, people, and times
Inability to find the right words during conversations
Regular objects are misplaced
Becoming irritable, (in someone who was not so previously)
Mood swings
Personality changes
Inability to organise thoughts
Not able to make the right decisions
Repetitive talks and actions
Forgetfulness (not something the person always does)
Difficulty with numbers (again, not something calculations
Difficulty managing everyday tasks and minor problems
Suspicion of others (like immediate family members and friends)
Risk factors: While age is definitely a risk factor, the fact that not all aged people develop Alzheimer s is to be borne in mind. Other risk factors include the history of stroke, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, diabetes, smoking, obesity, and poor lifestyle choices.

Diagnosis: While there is no definitive way to diagnose Alzheimer s, symptoms along with brain scans and neuropsychological function testing are useful ways to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment: This is aimed at two things reducing the rate of disease progression and treat (or reverse) symptoms if possible.

Cholinesterase inhibitors improve cellular communication in the brain and also manage depression and agitation. Memantine is used to slow the pace of disease progression.
In people with the disease, small changes are useful to help them with the symptoms. These include keeping essential things like keys and wallet in the same place, keep a daily diary to help them remember things, keep pictures of friends and family within visible distance.
4505 people found this helpful

Can The Immune System Trigger Alzheimer's Disease?

DM - Neurology, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, MD - Medicine
Neurologist, Ghaziabad
Can The Immune System Trigger Alzheimer's Disease?
Alzheimer's Disease is a neurological problem that is characterised by a cognitive decline and memory loss. It is a type of neurodegenerative dementia. The symptoms of Alzheimer's Disease include not being able to absorb and retain new information, lack of reasoning and judging, not being able to take on complex tasks, impaired visuospatial abilities, problems in reading, writing and speech, among many others. If a person has at least two of these symptoms in a debilitating manner, then the diagnosis can be made in favour of Alzheimer's Disease. The main causes of Alzheimer's are shrinkage of the brain size and death of the brain cells. The immune system is also said to trigger this neurodegenerative disease. Let us find out what medical science has found so far.

1. Connections: Many a times, in Alzheimer's disease, the memory and behaviour of the person changes because the brain is unable to make proper neural connections which can lead to memory loss of how a person behaved and the elements that formed the basis of the patient's cognition. Apparently, the immune system behaves in the same way within the brain and blocks the connection. This happens because there is constant communication between the brain and immune system along neurological lines, which is where the disease first emanates.

2. Inflammation: The brain is prone to inflammation or swelling that is not the normal kind. This inflammation happens as a result of the activation of the infection fighting neurotransmitters and the chemical changes that happen in the brain when an infection strikes. The inflammation usually happens in the plaques or clumps which the brain tries to protect. These clumps are made up of a protein called Amyloid. The immune system is responsible for creating this inflammation in the brain of the patient.

3. Pattern Recognition Receptors: Many of these receptors work in different manners and cooperate with each other to create a response in the brain. These PRRs can be found in the brain plaques, and they develop the signs of danger which further fuels the inflammation in the brain as a matter of protection.

4. Activation of Cells Linked with the Immune System: When the PRRs begin to respond, it basically activates the immune system and the cells of the same. This is the basic reaction that causes the changes in brain which then leads to the attachment of the protein to the tissue that is diseased, in which case Alzheimer's Disease starts. The inflammation that we had spoken about earlier basically happens in the nervous tissue.

It is important to recognise and act on the initial signs of Alzheimer's Disease before it progresses beyond one's control.
2976 people found this helpful

Alzheimer's - Learn About How The Disease Progresses!

MBBS, MD - Internal Medicine, DM - Neurology
Neurologist, Ahmedabad
Alzheimer's - Learn About How The Disease Progresses!
Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that causes a degradation and eventually death of the brain cells. People with Alzheimer's disease suffer from a memory loss. There is also a progressive decline in the cognitive capacity of the brain.Today, Alzheimer's disease and dementia have become almost synonymous with old age. It is a heartbreaking experience to see aged people with Alzheimer's disease. They have little or no memory of the present time, of their loved people or the things around them.

The Alzheimer's disease starts off as a mild condition and then gradually progresses through stages. In this article, we will discuss the different stages associated with Alzheimer's disease.

The first stage: This stage shows no significant changes in the affected person. Thus, without any diagnostic tests (such as a PET scan), it will be difficult to detect the condition in the initial stage.
The second stage: This stage brings about some changes in the person. The person might misplace things or may even forget words (something that is often brushed aside as a small problem). However, this seldom interferes with their daily activities. Like the first stage, this stage, in most cases, goes unnoticed.
The third stage: This is the stage that brings about visible changes in the person concerned such as
The person experiences difficulties in trying to organize things.
They forget things they have read, or heard just a few seconds back.
In some cases, the person may not be able to recollect a person's name they have just met.
Some people may end up repeating the same question over and over again.
The fourth stage: This stage marks a further decline in the mental health. The person gets forgetful about himself or herself. They also start mixing up with the dates and months or makes major goof up while cooking (misses out on ingredients).
The fifth stage: The mental deterioration reaches a step further. The person slowly starts forgetting about the present, such as their address, the time of the day, their profession and even phone numbers.
The sixth stage: The problem is getting worse. Hallucination is slowly setting in. The person is starting to forget people and their faces, mixing one identity with another.
The seventh stage: The final and unfortunately, the worst stage. The person stops talking to people, eating, or even walking. They stay confined to their world, oblivious of their immediate surrounding.
Dealing with an Alzheimer patient

In addition to the treatment and medication, a person with Alzheimer's disease needs the love, care, and support of their close and dear ones. Isolating them will only worsen the situation.
It may not be easy to deal with an Alzheimer's patient as the disease progresses, but do not be rude to them. Give them the confidence.
Always keep a paper containing their name, address and emergency contact number in their wallet.
People after the age of 50 should undergo regular health check ups.
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Will putting mobile phones in shirt pocket affect heart? Will the vibrations be harmful?

MBBS, MD - Internal Medicine, DM - Cardiology, Fellowship in EP
Cardiologist, Delhi
No, not harmful. Patient's with pacemaker should avoid carrying cell phone in pockets near the pacemaker.
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Why do I always feel exhausted and heavy at heart. Even though there is nothing to worry about.

BHMS, Diploma in Dermatology
Homeopath, Hyderabad
Why do I always feel exhausted and heavy at heart. Even though there is nothing to worry about.
Though not a treatment for anxiety disorders, the following tips can help reduce symptoms of anxiety: Take care of your body by eating a well-balanced diet. Include a multivitamin when you can't always eat right. Limit alcohol, caffeine, and sugar consumption.
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