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Down Syndrome - Signs You Should Never Ignore!

Down Syndrome - Signs You Should Never Ignore!
Down syndrome is a chromosomal disorder that is caused by the presence of an extra chromosome. A genetic condition, it causes physical and cognitive impairments and can lead to disabilities and increase the risk of a number of health problems.

Causes:

Each cell in our body contains 23 pairs of chromosomes where one chromosome in the pair comes from the mother and the other comes from the father. But in the individuals with Down syndrome, the chromosome 21 has an extra copy. This means that there are three copies instead of the usual two. The reasons behind this genetic abnormality remains unknown as of yet, but there are a few risk factors that might increase the chances of the condition.

Women who are older than 35 years of age have a higher risk of their children being born with Down syndrome.
If a woman has a child with Down syndrome, then chances are that the next child might be born with the condition as well.
Though uncommon, Down syndrome has been seen to have been passed from parent to child.
Symptoms:

Children born with Down syndrome exhibit certain characteristic symptoms which include flattened facial features, a short neck and eyes that slant upwards. Ears that are atypically shaped and muscles that lack tone are also symptoms of Down syndrome. Physical growth and development of the child are also hindered by the condition. A child with Down syndrome might also display social and mental disabilities that include a short span for attention, a lack of judgment and issues with impulse control.

Complications:

Down syndrome can lead to a number of medical complications that include but are not limited to visual impairment, leukemia, chronic constipation, dementia, hypothyroidism and Alzheimer s disease in the later stages of life.

Homeopathic Treatments:

Homeopathic treatment methods of Down syndrome focus on the development and improvement of the behavioral and cognitive abilities of a child with Down syndrome. The treatment that is usually prescribed includes homeopathic medicines and bio-neural supplements that help remedy the disorder. These also reduce the effects that the condition might exert on the physical growth and intellectual development of the child.

A child with Down syndrome might find it difficult to communicate and recognize objects and people. Homeopathic treatment can help remedy these shortcomings. Homeopathic treatment for Down syndrome should be initiated at the earliest possible in order to help the child with behavioral and physical development.

Alzheimer's Disease - All You Need To Know!

Alzheimer's Disease - All You Need To Know!
Alzheimer s disease is a neurological, irreversible, progressive brain disorder. It is a chronic neurodegenerative dementia that causes the death of brain cells, causing memory loss and cognitive decline. It affects a person s thinking and behavior. The symptoms develop slowly and get worse as time passes.

Causes:
As it is a kind of dementia, Alzheimer s is caused by the death of brain cells. Over a course of time, brain cells die progressively and at the end, the tissue is left with fewer nerve cells and connections. As a result, the total brain size shrinks. Tiny inclusions called plaques and tangles can be seen in the postmortem. These cannot be seen or tested in a living Alzheimer s affected brain. These plaques are given the name amyloid plaques because they are found among the dying cells of the brain when a protein called beta-amyloid builds. The tangles stay in the neurons; they are formed from a protein called tau.

There are several reasons behind all this, some of which are listed below-

Anti-anxiety medications
Hitting on the head too many times
Regularly sleep-deprived
Loneliness
Diabetes in the brain
Old age
Genetic line
Down s syndrome
Cardiovascular diseases
Symptoms:
Alzheimer s disease damages the brain, so the clinical signs and symptoms begin to show very early. The symptoms are-

Memory loss
Agitation and mood swings
Poor judgment
The trouble with money calculations
Difficulty doing familiar tasks
Trouble in planning or solving a problem
Confusion with time and place
Difficulty in communicating
Loss of motivation
Inappropriate behavior
Aggressive personality
Childlike behavior
Preventing Alzheimer s disease:
Alzheimer s disease ultimately results in death. Even if there are treatments, they cannot fully cure it. So it s better to try to prevent it before it happens. Ways to prevent Alzheimer s disease are-

Eating more fruits and vegetables.
Eating berries every day.
Increasing omega-3 fatty acids.
Taking folic acid supplements.
Drinking grape juice or red wine with evening meal.
Doing the Mediterranean style diet.
Controlling the blood pressure.
Having strong social support.
Treatment of Alzheimer s disease:

Treatment of Alzheimer s disease is a long time process.
First of all, doctors perform a physical exam to check the overall neurological health. By this, they check muscle strength, reflexes, walking ability, sense of sight and hearing, coordination and balance.
Then comes the blood test to find the cause of confusion and memory loss by checking the thyroid disorder and vitamin deficiency.
Then they perform the neuropsychological test and check the mental status.
Then there are other tests, like MRI, CT, and PET.
After all this, drugs are given and a safe and supportive environment is created with proper exercise and nutrition.
Alzheimer s disease is undoubtedly the worst kind of disease. Hence, it is highly recommended to contact a doctor as soon as any symptom is noticed.
3228 people found this helpful

Severe Hyperdontia - How Can You Get It Corrected?

Severe Hyperdontia - How Can You Get It Corrected?
Hyperdontia is an oral condition where people may have an overcrowding of teeth in their mouths due to the growth of extra teeth which are known as supernumerary teeth, in dental terms. This problem may hit people of any gender, background and medical history. This is caused when an extra tooth bud is found in the tissue from which the teeth typically grow. The most common cases are those that affect children who are already suffering from Down's Syndrome.

This article will tell you all about coping with and correcting the issue:

Problems Experienced: Let us first understand the various problems that a patient may experience. To begin with, there may difficulty when it comes to eating and chewing as too many teeth will make this task cumbersome. Also, this condition may prevent the normal teeth eruption process. Further, these teeth may fuse with the permanent teeth in the mouth of the patient. And finally, all this can also lead to the formation of a cyst or tumour.
Check Ups and Diagnosis: In order to treat this problem, the dentist will first of all conduct a thorough check up of the mouth of the patient and try to find the exact cause of the ailment. This will also be done with the help of lab tests based on blood samples as well as a dental X-ray. Further, the most important thing that the dentist will try to check is whether or not the supernumerary teeth are affecting the growth of the permanent teeth, in any way.
Tooth Extraction: Once the dentist has had a look at the problem, he or she will be in a better position to take a call regarding whether or not the supernumerary teeth need to be removed. In most cases, these teeth will not be removed unless the said tooth is loose, which in turn can present the risk of choking by passing into the lungs. If tooth extraction has been decided upon, then the orthodontist or the dentist will do so by administering local anaesthesia first. Depending on the severity of the condition, the tooth may have to be cut and removed in pieces while the doctor has to ensure that there is enough space left for the permanent teeth to grow and find a place for themselves.
Alignment: After the process of extraction is done, the dentist has to ensure that there is proper alignment of the teeth with the help of proper orthodontic methods for the remaining teeth to grow in a proper manner. Endodontic treatment will be used for fused treat in order to work on the tooth pulp and tissue in the surrounding area.
1 person found this helpful

Suffering From Genetic & Chromosomal Anomalies - Know About PGD!

Suffering From Genetic & Chromosomal Anomalies - Know About PGD!
Chromosomal abnormality happens when a cell has too many or too few chromosomes. The most common form of chromosomal anomaly is Down s syndrome. If a parent has a chromosomal anomaly, she/he will pass it on to the child. PGD or Pre-implantation Genetic Testing aims to select only the embryos with normal chromosomal count and only these embryos are implanted to achieve a healthy pregnancy and bring down the number of children affected with a chromosomal anomaly.

The risk of Aneuploid pregnancy:

The older a woman is when she tries to conceive (aged 35 or more), the higher the risk of Aneuploid pregnancy (carrying a baby with genetic or chromosomal abnormality). Most of these pregnancies end in miscarriages and the few that come to term produce babies with chromosomal abnormalities.

Causes of Chromosomal Abnormality:

Usually, chromosomal abnormalities occur due to an error in the cell division. Meiosis refers to the cell division, which the sperm and the egg undergo during the development procedure. Normally, meiosis breaks the chromosomal material into two equal halves, so that each of the parents contributes 23 chromosomes to the pregnancy. However, when the number of chromosomes in the cell goes up or down than the normal, it results in genetic/chromosomal anomalies.

PGD Procedure for a Chromosomal Anomaly:

If a couple elects to go for Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis, they have to undergo ICSI Cycle. ICSI cycle initiates a fertilization cycle to produce embryos. When the embryos reach upto day 5 and blastocyst are formed, they are biopsied and further sent to genetic lab for detecting the chromosomal abnormalities. The embryos are incubated for the entire duration of the genetic screening. Only the embryos that the genetic test clears are implanted. PGD never reveals the gender of the embryo.

PGD can help detect the single genetic disorders that may lead to the following ailments:

Cystic fibrosis
Muscular dystrophy
Tay-Sachs
Sickle cell anaemia
Thalassemia
Turner syndrome

PGD is a revolutionary science that can help root out incurable disorders linked to genetics. It ensures that pregnancy is sustained until term and a healthy baby is born.
3472 people found this helpful

Testicular Cancer - How To Track It?

Testicular Cancer - How To Track It?
Testicular cancer is mostly witnessed among young adults in the age range of 24 35. It results from the growth of abnormal cells in the testes. It is not the most common type of cancer found in the body, but can pose a serious threat to an individual if not treated early. The cure rate is one of the highest among all kinds of cancer found in the body. This being said, the rate of cure is totally dependent on the stage of detection.

Risk Factors for Testicular Cancer
The historical trend of testicular cancer suggests that white men are prone to this type of cancer than their African, Asian and Latino counterparts. A person with a family history of testicular cancer of HIV is at higher risk of getting this disease. Some other risk factors include Klinefelter s syndrome and cryptorchidism.

Protection from Testicular Cancer
There is no hard and fast rule of protection. It is suggested that the testicles get evaluated while routine medical check-up. A person with a family history of testicular cancer should opt for a periodic checkup after every three months. In case a patient has already recovered from testicular cancer, routine medical tests are a must to ensure non-recurrence.

Symptoms of Testicular Cancer
The common symptom is a swelling in the testicle. It feels like a thickening of the testicle and is mostly painless. Minor discomfort in the swelling region is often reported. Some other symptoms include back pain, ache in the scrotum and groin, change in the size of the testicle, bloating of the lower abdomen and heavy sensation of the scrotum. There is a rare form of this cancer, which produces a female hormone called estrogen in a man s body. This disease results in a lack of sexual desire, lump in the affected area, etc. Even less serious testicular cancer might show these symptoms. An oncologist should be immediately consulted if one or more of these symptoms surfaces.

What are the treatment options?
Testicular cancer is mostly cured with the help of a surgery. A follow-up radiation and chemotherapy is suggested by doctors to destroy the surrounding cells. It is done to ensure that the cancer cells do not spread easily and the chance of recurrence is minimal. The rate of cure depends on early detection.

Does testicular cancer affect sexuality?
In most of the cases, testicular cancer is detected in one testicle. If this is the case, the other testicle produces all the hormones needed for sexual drive. It also does not affect sex drive, beard and muscularity. There is also a large section of patients who reported of a difficult sexual life after the surgery. There can be some discomfort in the scrotum as well.
2924 people found this helpful

George Fernandes Dies Of Alzheimer's & Swine Flu - All About The Diseases!

George Fernandes Dies Of Alzheimer's & Swine Flu - All About The Diseases!
Former Union Defence Minister and an epitome in Indian politics, George Fernandes, passed away on Tuesday morning owing to a prolonged illness, confirmed his family members.

He was 88 and suffering from Alzheimer's disease, a neurological, irreversible, progressive brain disorder, since long. Recently, he contracted swine flu, which is quite prevalent across the country these days. Fernandes, an anti-Emergency crusader and an arch-enemy of Indira Gandhi, had been bedridden for the past few years.

Here we will be discussing about Alzheimer's and Swine flu to help you stay away from the complications of these diseases.

Alzheimer's Disease:

It is a chronic neurodegenerative dementia that leads to death of brain cells, triggering memory loss and cognitive decline. It affects the patient's thinking and behaviour. The symptoms develop slowly & worsen with time.

Causes of Alzheimer's Disease:

Being a kind of dementia, brain cells die progressively and eventually, the tissue is left with fewer nerve cells and connections.

As a result, the brain size starts shrinking. Tiny inclusions known as plaques and tangles cannot be seen in a living Alzheimer's affected brain but they are visible in the postmortem.

These plaques are known as 'amyloid plaques' as they are found among the dying cells of the brain when a protein called beta-amyloid builds. The tangles stay in the neurons and are formed from a protein called tau.

There are many reasons behind this problem. Some of those are mentioned below:

Anti-anxiety medications
Hitting on the head too many times
Regularly sleep-deprived
Loneliness
Diabetes
Old age
Genetics
Down's syndrome
Cardiovascular diseases
Symptoms of Alzheimer's Disease:

As Alzheimer's damages the brain, hence, the clinical signs start showing up very early. The symptoms include:

Memory loss
Agitation and mood swings
Poor judgment
The trouble with money calculations
Difficulty doing familiar tasks
Trouble in planning or solving a problem
Confusion with time and place
Difficulty in communicating
Loss of motivation
Inappropriate behaviour
Aggressive personality
Childlike behaviour
Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease:

The medical science has evolved a lot over the years but still, there is no permanent cure for Alzheimer s disease. It ultimately results in death. Hence, it is better to try and prevent it before developing. Discussed below are the preventive measures for Alzheimer s disease:

Eating more fruits and vegetables
Eating berries every day
Increasing Omega-3 fatty acids
Taking folic acid supplements
Having grape juice or red wine with evening food
Doing the Mediterranean style diet
Controlling the blood pressure
Having strong social support
In most of the cases, the treatment only keeps the condition of the patient under control as there is no treatment which can completely reverse Alzheimer's Disease. Hence, prevention is the best way possible to keep this deadly ailment at bay.

George Fernandes had recently contracted Swine Flu and the disease only worsened his condition. Here is everything you should know to stay safe:

Swine Flu:

Swine flu, or H1N1 infection, is a respiratory disease which is caused by influenza viruses that infect the respiratory tract of pigs and eventually result in a barking cough, nasal secretions, decreased appetite and listless behaviour. It gets transmitted to humans swiftly and takes shape of a pandemic.

How does it prevail?

It spreads in a very similar manner as seasonal flu. People release tiny drops of virus into the air while sneezing or coughing. Whenever any person comes in contact with these viruses, he/she also gets infected by it. It can also spread by using or touching the things used by the infected person.

H1N1 Symptoms:

The symptoms of this disease are also very similar to the seasonal flu. They include:

Cough
Fever
Sore throat
Body aches
Headache
Running nose
Fatigue
Chills
Breath shortness
Frequent vomiting
Dizziness
Pain in the belly region
Swine flu can potentially lead to more serious complications such as pneumonia, lung infection and other breathing problems. In diabetes and asthma patients, it can make the situation even worst.

Can vaccination keep swine flu at bay?

The flu vaccine which keeps away seasonal flu also protects against N1H1 infection.

How to prevent H1N1 infection?

Apart from vaccinations, there are some other ways also to keep yourself healthy:

Wash your hands with soap and water
Use alcohol-based hand-sanitizer
Do not touch your eyes, mouth or nose
Try to maintain a safe distance from infected people
Prevention is always better than cure! At the time when the pandemic is quickly spreading across the country, people should be more cautious about their health. If you also have the symptoms of the disease, you should immediately visit a doctor to diagnose it and start with the treatment.
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What Is Preimplantation Genetic Screening (PGS)?

What Is Preimplantation Genetic Screening (PGS)?
Preimplantation genetic screening is a method used to check the number of chromosomes in an embryo. Up to 50 % of embryos produced may have an incorrect number of chromosomes described as aneuploidy. This is a common cause of miscarriage and implantation failure. Pgs can also be used to test for genetic conditions that are caused by an abnormal number of chromosomes. These include Down's syndrome and Turner syndrome.

Procedure-
The patient undergoes a specialised IVF process using ICSI to create a number of embryos. After three to five days, one or more cells are taken from each embryo. These cells can then be tested to determine the number of chromosomes present. The embryos are frozen to allow time for the genetic testing to take. When the results are confirmed, the embryologist selects one embryo with the correct number of chromosomes to transfer back to the patient.

Who can benefit from preimplantation genetic screening?
Pgs is offered to women over the age of 37. Using pgs, the chances of pregnancy from embryo transfer in older women are as good as those seen in younger women. However, with advanced maternal age, the chances of making an embryo with the correct number of chromosomes are lower.

Pgs may also be offered if you or your partner have a history of chromosomal abnormality-related conditions in your family. It is important to note that pgs cannot be used to detect the presence of conditions caused by single mutations in genes; for these cases, preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) can be used.

Pgs is one of the investigations recommended if you have had recurrent miscarriage or previously failed IVF.

What are the benefits of PGS?
A significant benefit of PGS is the reduction of miscarriage rates. Aneuploidy is a large contributor to recurrent miscarriage, so by testing embryos before transfer, the rate of miscarriages are reduced and can be of great help to the couples struggling with recurrent miscarriages or IVF failures
1 person found this helpful

Alzheimer's Disease - All You Need To Know About It!

Alzheimer's Disease - All You Need To Know About It!
Alzheimer s disease is a neurological, irreversible, progressive brain disorder. It is a chronic neurodegenerative dementia that causes the death of brain cells, causing memory loss and cognitive decline. It affects a person s thinking and behavior. The symptoms develop slowly and get worse as time passes.

Causes:
As it is a kind of dementia, Alzheimer s is caused by the death of brain cells. Over a course of time, brain cells die progressively and at the end, the tissue is left with fewer nerve cells and connections. As a result, the total brain size shrinks. Tiny inclusions called plaques and tangles can be seen in the postmortem. These cannot be seen or tested in a living Alzheimer s affected brain. These plaques are given the name amyloid plaques because they are found among the dying cells of the brain when a protein called beta-amyloid builds. The tangles stay in the neurons; they are formed from a protein called tau.

There are several reasons behind all this, some of which are listed below-

Anti-anxiety medications
Hitting on the head too many times
Regularly sleep-deprived
Loneliness
Diabetes in the brain
Old age
Genetic line
Down s syndrome
Cardiovascular diseases
Symptoms:
Alzheimer s disease damages the brain, so the clinical signs and symptoms begin to show very early. The symptoms are-

Memory loss
Agitation and mood swings
Poor judgment
The trouble with money calculations
Difficulty doing familiar tasks
Trouble in planning or solving a problem
Confusion with time and place
Difficulty in communicating
Loss of motivation
Inappropriate behavior
Aggressive personality
Childlike behavior
Preventing Alzheimer s disease:
Alzheimer s disease ultimately results in death. Even if there are treatments, they cannot fully cure it. So it s better to try to prevent it before it happens. Ways to prevent Alzheimer s disease are-

Eating more fruits and vegetables.
Eating berries every day.
Increasing omega-3 fatty acids.
Taking folic acid supplements.
Drinking grape juice or red wine with evening meal.
Doing the Mediterranean style diet.
Controlling the blood pressure.
Having strong social support.
Treatment of Alzheimer s disease:

Treatment of Alzheimer s disease is a long time process.
First of all, doctors perform a physical exam to check the overall neurological health. By this, they check muscle strength, reflexes, walking ability, sense of sight and hearing, coordination and balance.
Then comes the blood test to find the cause of confusion and memory loss by checking the thyroid disorder and vitamin deficiency.
Then they perform the neuropsychological test and check the mental status.
Then there are other tests, like MRI, CT, and PET.
After all this, drugs are given and a safe and supportive environment is created with proper exercise and nutrition.
Alzheimer s disease is undoubtedly the worst kind of disease. Hence, it is highly recommended to contact a doctor as soon as any symptom is noticed.
2100 people found this helpful

Chromosomal Abnormalities - Why Get It Screened In The First Trimester?

Chromosomal Abnormalities - Why Get It Screened In The First Trimester?
First-trimester screening is a prenatal test. It is conducted to get early information about a baby's risk of certain chromosomal conditions. It can detect conditions like Down syndrome (trisomy 21) and extra sequences of chromosome 18 (Trisomy 18).

It is usually conducted in two steps:

Blood test
Followed by USG
Initially, a blood test is conducted to ascertain the levels of two pregnancy specific substances in the mother's blood. The blood is tested for pregnancy associated plasma protein and human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). Thereafter, a USG is done to find out the size of the clear space in the tissue that is present at the back of the foetus s neck.

The screening is done between weeks 11 and 14 of pregnancy. The doctor is able to gauge the risk of your baby having Down syndrome or Trisomy 18 by using your age and results of the test. This screening is quite helpful and can guard you against deadly consequences in the future. Down syndrome is known to cause impairments in the mental and social development of the child. Trisomy 18 gets often fatal by age 1. However, first screening doesn t find out the risk of neural tube defects.

It is the first screening done in pregnancy. It can be done before any other screening. Thus, the results are known at an early stage. You will get time to think about the future consequences can help you in deciding your course of action and the decision to either continue or terminate the pregnancy. You will be ready to know and decide whether you will be able to live and take care of a baby with special needs. You can conduct other screenings later in pregnancy. You must know that first-trimester screening is treated as being optional. It can detect the risk and cannot tell you whether your baby has the problems in real or not.

Often women get worried about the test and it s after effects. However, there is no need to worry. It will not harm your pregnancy. The foetus remains untouched and safe during the screening. It will not lead to any miscarriage or any other complication.

A practitioner will collect your blood by inserting a needle into your veins. The blood is then sent for testing to the lab. You can resume your usual daily activities. The ultrasound will need you to lie on your back on a table and the technician will put a transducer on your abdomen. The sound waves will be changed into digital images that the technician will refer to. You can get back to your normal routine as soon as the test is over.
5783 people found this helpful