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My Father suffering from TB and his age is 59 by mistakenly my father intake double dose of combutol 1200 mg with in 7 hr of gaap it is harmful or create any problem help guide me.

C.S.C, D.C.H, M.B.B.S
General Physician, Alappuzha
It is not harmful or will not create any problem if your father took double dose of combutol 1200 mg with in 7 hr of gap.
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5 Most Common Types Of Lungs Diseases

MD - General Medicine, CCEDM, Fellowship In Neurology & Stroke, Post Graduate Diploma in Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
Internal Medicine Specialist, Navi Mumbai
5 Most Common Types Of Lungs Diseases
Lung diseases are some of the most common diseases suffered by human beings throughout the world. Smoking and infections are responsible for most lung diseases. The lungs perform one of the most important functions of the body. It is also one of the most active organs in the human body and hence lung problems can arise due to problems in any other part of the body. Some of the most common and infectious lung diseases are discussed below...

1. Asthma
Asthma is a common long term disease which is characterized by reversible airflow obstruction and bronchospasm. The symptoms of asthma include coughing, shortness of breath and tightness of chest. These symptoms may occur frequently during a day and depending on the person, it may become worse during night or during a certain exercise.

2. Pneumonia
Pneumonia is another common lung problem which is suffered due to inflammation in the microscopic air sacs in the lungs known as alveoli. Symptoms of pneumonia include dry cough, chest pain, breathing problem and fever. Pneumonia is caused most commonly by viruses or bacteria. It is also caused by certain medications and conditions which are popularly known as autoimmune diseases. There are a number of vaccines available to prevent certain types of pneumonia. Other methods include hand washing and refraining from smoking.

3. Tuberculosis
Tuberculosis is a very infectious disease which is caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Although tuberculosis generally affects the lungs, but it has been known to affect other parts of the body as well. Symptoms of tuberculosis include cough containing sputum with blood, night sweats, fever and weight loss. Air is an active medium for spreading tuberculosis. This happens when people who already have tuberculosis sneeze, cough or speak. Infection occurs more in those who have HIV/AIDS or those who smoke. Prevention of tuberculosis includes staying away and keeping those who are at high risk, early detection and treatment and vaccination.

4. Mesothelioma
Mesothelioma is a type of cancer which affects the lungs. It affects the lining of the lungs and chest wall. Symptoms of mesothelioma include shortness of breath, swollen abdomen, cough, chest pain, weight loss and general lethargy. Mesothelioma is caused mainly due to exposure to asbestos. Those people who mine asbestos, produce products from asbestos, work with asbestos products are at high risk. Mesothelioma also results from genetical problems and due to infection caused by the simian virus 40.

5. Pulmonary Embolism
This is a disease caused due to blockage of an artery in the lungs by a substance which has travelled from another part of the body by the bloodstream. Symptoms of this disease include chest pain, breath shortness and coughing up of blood. There may also be signs of blood clot in the legs.
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4 Common Lung Diseases Which Affect Women

MD - Pulmonary, DTCD
Pulmonologist, Faridabad
4 Common Lung Diseases Which Affect Women
Lung diseases have become very common for people living in the urban areas all over the world. Diseases in the lungs are the most common medical conditions which affect millions of people globally; however, the numbers of women who have been affected by numerous lung diseases are more in comparison to men. There are a number of lung diseases which differ from each other in terms of severity and their treatment. Some of the most common lung diseases which affect women mostly are given below.

1. Asthma
Asthma is the condition in which the lungs and bronchial tubes get inflamed and become extremely sensitive as well. In this condition, the airways become easily irritated mostly because of smoking cigarettes or being in a polluted area. Your lungs and bronchial tubes may also get sensitive to allergens like dust mites and pollen. Difficulties in breathing, regularly coughing and wheezing are some of the problems which are caused by Asthma. This condition affects women more than men because of the presence of high level of testosterone protect them from the disease, if the research is to be believed.

2. Lung Cancer
Lung cancer is that deadly disease which affects women more than men. The leading cause of cancer deaths in women, this disease is largely linked to smoking cigarettes. However, it is often observed that women who have quit the habit are more likely to get affected by the disease. It is believed that estrogen plays a major role in the development of lung cancer in women as treatment with progesterone and estrogen after hitting menopause can increase your chances of getting affected by lung cancer.

3. Pulmonary Emboli
Blood clots which start forming in one part of the body, which is usually the legs, and slowly travel to various other parts of the body which end up getting stuck in the lungs are called pulmonary emboli. These small blood clots which get stuck in the lungs cause problems in breathing and affect more women than men, in general. The pulmonary embolus is also responsible for reducing the oxygen flow in the blood-streams. Women who take contraceptive pills or go through hormone treatments are often at the risk of developing this problem.

4. Pulmonary Hypertension
Another lung disease which affects women more than men is pulmonary hypertension. The blood pressure in this lung disease becomes dangerously high. The right side of the heart starts to work harder due to the increased pressure built. This results in the oxygen-rich blood to be pumped back to the lungs. Childhood infections and other lung problems are often observed as the reason for women to develop this issue.
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I am 14 years old I was coughing for more than 3 weeks and this happens with me in every winters sometimes I feel very week and sometimes when I cough continuously my face produces heat and I feel it is fever Is it TB.

MD - Homeopathy, BHMS
Homeopath, Vadodara
To diagnose tb you will need to take some laboratory test and X ray chest. You can consult me at Lybrate for homoeopathic treatment. The chances are of seasonal allergies and not the.
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Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis - Causes, Symptoms & Diagnosis Of It!

MBBS, MD - Medicine, DM - Pulmonary Medicine & Critical Care Medicine
Pulmonologist, Delhi
Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis - Causes, Symptoms & Diagnosis Of It!
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a allergic manifestation to the fungus Aspergillus sp. Patient with underlying Bronchial Asthma or Cystic Fibrosis are more susceptible to this. The patient may be having severe symptoms of asthma which respond poorly to inhaled medications.

This fungus is very commonly found in the surroundings and is referred to as mold. It is found at various places like soil, water, air and even on decaying matter. This fungus has the characteristic feature of spore formation and these spores are inhaled commonly from the air, without causing any disease or discomfort.

The fungus enters the body and produces colonies by inhabiting the airways. But the presence of Aspergillosis in the lungs does not always indicate an infection. In people with weakened immunity, this fungus enters the lungs and produces an acute infection that spreads along the respiratory tract. An allergic response given by the immune system to the Aspergillus fungi causes the allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.

In this condition, there is a tightening of the muscles of the airway. There is a build of mucus which causes frequent coughing, obstruction of the airway and difficulty in breathing.

Symptoms of this disease are as follows:

1. Frequent cough

2. Brown colored mucus while coughing

3. Hemoptysis (blood in cough)

4. Difficulty in breathing

5. Wheezing sounds from the chest

6. Lethargy and weakness

7. Tightness of the chest In case of an asthmatic patient, if asthma is in a poorly controlled state, this condition is most likely to develop.


People suffering from asthma can contract ABPA when the medications are unable to control asthma. ABPA can also occur with cystic fibrosis which is a condition that has a genetic basis.


Diagnosis of this condition is difficult. It is usually diagnosed on the basis of the symptoms experienced by the patient. Certain specific tests like lung function tests (spirometry) can be carried out to evaluate the breathing capacity of the lungs.

An evaluation of the levels of the immunoglobulin IgE is also required. In conditions that are related to allergic responses from the immune system, it is observed that the levels of IgE are raised than above normal.

However, in ABPA the levels of the immunoglobulin IgE rise to a very high count. Monitoring of the IgE levels is done regularly during the management of ABPA. Chest x- rays do not help in the diagnosis of this disease. While treating ABPA, the evaluation of the immunoglobulin levels is done regularly. To relieve inflammation corticosteroids can be given.

Treatment of ABPA is Oral corticosteroids and in case of steroid dependence or persistent symptoms consider adding antifungal. Also, to treat the fungal infection, anti-fungal medications are prescribed. Repeated episodes of ABPA require more targeted treatment. Itraconazole is the anti-fungal drug which is effective in treating the fungal infection.
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Tuberculosis (TB): Causes And Symptoms You Need To Know

MD - Pulmonary, DTCD
Pulmonologist, Faridabad
Tuberculosis (TB): Causes And Symptoms You Need To Know
Although your body is already in possession of the bacteria leading to tuberculosis, your immune system is able to prevent you from becoming sick. Doctors have made a distinction between latent and active tuberculosis (TB). In case of latent TB, the bacteria in the body in a passive state and it causes no symptoms, and therefore it is not contagious. But, in the case of active TB, you would become sick and may even spread the disease to others. It can take place in the first few weeks or even after several months of being infected with TB bacteria.

What are the symptoms of active TB?
If you are coughing for over three weeks and sometimes even coughing up blood, it can be a sign of TB. Chest pain and pain while coughing and breathing along with fatigue, fever, chills and night sweat are the common symptoms of TB along with loss of appetite and unintentional weight loss. TB may even affect other organs of your body, including your brain, spine and kidneys. When TB takes place outside the lungs, then the signs of TB can vary as per the organs that are involved. For instance, TB in the spine can cause back pain and that in kidneys may cause blood in the urine.

What are the causes of TB?
TB is stemmed from a bacteria which spreads from individual to individual via the microscopic droplets that are released into the air. This may happen when an affected person is left untreated and he speaks or sneezes or coughs or laughs. Though the disease is contagious, it is not easy to be affected by it. As a result, you are much more likely to get affected with active tuberculosis from a person you live with or come in regular contact with, rather than a stranger. It is important to note here that people who are affected with TB and going through proper medications for over two weeks are no more contagious.

Right from the 1980s, the number of individuals affected with TB has increased dramatically, owing to the spread of HIV, which is the virus known for causing AIDS. A person infected with HIV has a weak immunity system as a result of which it becomes difficult for the body to deal with TB bacteria. So those who have AIDS are more likely to be affected with active TB and sometimes the latent form also progresses to an active one very quickly. Therefore, it is important to seek medical assistance and detect if you have any such health complications concerning TB.
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Sir, I will start AKT 4 kit tomorrow onwards Little bit confused How to use four tabs.

C.S.C, D.C.H, M.B.B.S
General Physician, Alappuzha
The red-coloured capsule must be taken either 1 hour before breakfast or 2 hours after breakfast. After taking the capsule patients must not consume anything (except water) for at least an hour. The remaining 3 tablets can be taken with food. These tablets can be taken together, i.e., all three with breakfast or lunch or dinner. The 3 tablets can also be taken separately after different meals, but the timings should be maintained.
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Pollution - How Is It Worse For Children?

MBBS, MD - Pulmonary Medicine, FNB-Critical Care, Europeon Diploma In Adult Respiratory Medicine, Europeon Diploma In Intensive Care, Fellow
Pulmonologist, Delhi
Pollution - How Is It Worse For Children?
The term pollution means introduction of harmful and unwanted contaminants into our environment. Due to the borderless nature of our atmosphere and oceans, contamination at a small level can have a huge impact that to in places which are nearby and one of the best examples of this is crop stubble burning in Punjab and Haryana which is a major contributor to Delhi smog. Pollution is a slow poison and is deleterious to the life of all beings, including plants, animals, and humans. With the rise in the pollution levels, no one can escape the harmful effects of the same on health. Though pollution poses a great threat to everyone, it is the children who are most effected, let us read on to know the reasons

Why are children more susceptible to pollution?

The lung function, immune system, and metabolic systems in children are not fully developed and functional which makes it difficult for the body to fight these pollutants.
Children breathe in more air per kilogram of their body weight than adults, so they take in more pollutants per breath.
Children are not only more active but also have a faster breathing rate than that of adults. This means that they take in more environmental toxins and at a much faster rate.
What are effects of pollution on children s health?

Exposure of pregnant women to polluted air is strongly associated with premature birth, low birth weight, and intrauterine growth retardation. Low birth weight babies and premature infants are more prone to developmental delays and other disorders.
Exposure to certain pollutants like carbon monoxide and ozone are linked with septal and valvular defects in the heart of a child.
There is a strong association between particulate pollution and symptoms like wheezing and bronchitis in both adults and children. This is the main reason why there is an increased prevalence of Asthma in children in urban areas. Research has shown that high level of pollutants in air cause deficits in lung function growth.
The immune system which protects the body from infections and germs is not fully developed in children. Pollutants are known to cause suppression of immunity in small children making them more prone to infections.
Children need sufficient Vitamin D for strong and healthy bones. Vitamin D is known as sunshine vitamin and is synthesized in the body on exposure to UVB rays of the sun. Increased particulate components in the air reduce the amount of UVB radiation reaching the ground level. More than 60% children are Vitamin D deficient and require supplements orally.
The exhaust of gasoline and diesel is known to emit carcinogens which are thought to play a role in the development of leukemia (blood cancer) in children.
The nervous system is a target for many environmental pollutants. Exposure to these pollutants can lead to neurological deficits and delays in development. Some of these effects are irreversible and long-lasting.
Unfortunately, with urbanization and increased population, the levels of particulate pollutants in the air are increasing at an alarming rate. The problem of pollution needs to be addressed immediately, until then it is best to keep the children indoor and take necessary precautions and keep children safe from exposure to the pollutants.
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