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Cancer in colon forms due to uncontrolled cell growth in the large intestine cells. Most colon cancers originate from the healthy cells in the lining of the colon that grow into tumors called adenomatous polyps. These polyps can be cancerous or benign. A cancerous tumor is malignant and may spread to the other parts of the body by traveling through blood and lymph systems, this process is known as metastasis. Whereas a benign tumor can grow but don’t necessarily spread to other parts of the body. It takes years for these changes to develop depending upon both genetic and environmental causes.
Causes and risk factors:
In a healthy body, the cells normally grow, divide and then die. Cancer is the result of uncontrollable cell growth where the cells do not die. Aging is one of the important risk factors for colon cancer; other risk factors include a family history of colon cancer. As per Johns LE and Houlston RS individuals with a family history of colon cancer have a high risk of developing this form of cancer as compared to those with no such history. A study conducted by Giovannucci and others in 1995, successfully established the relation between physical activity, obesity and colon cancer. As per the research lack of physical activities elevates the chance of getting colon cancer. Individuals who regularly smoke, are obese and use aspirinhave a higher risk of developing this form of cancer. Diet is also an important factor, diets that are high in fat and low in fiber may elevate the risk.
The symptoms of colon cancer are varied, depending upon the condition of the tumor. At the early stage, patients may experience no symptoms. However, as cancer grows, symptoms arise. Diarrhea or constipation are common; patients may see changes in stool consistency and narrower stool. Abdominal discomfort, bloating, fullness and cramps may also indicate colon cancer. Sudden weight lossand unexplained iron deficiency (anemia) are also associated with this form of cancer. If these symptoms last for several weeks, don’t hesitate to consult your physician.
Colon cancer is highly treatable and depends on the type and the stage of cancer along with health and other characteristics of the patient. However, there is no single treatment; the most common options are – surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy. The surgery for colon cancer is known as colectomy and involves removing the affected part of the colon and the adjoining areas including nearby lymph nodes.
Chemotherapy involves killing the cancer cells by utilizing certain chemicals that interfere the cell division process and damage the proteins or DNA. In the radiation therapy, high-energy gamma rays are used to target and destroy the cancer cells. Radiotherapy can be used both as a standalone treatment and also along with other treatments.
What is Cervical Cancer?
Cancer is a disease in which cells in the body grow out of control. When these abnormal cells are present in the cervix, it is called cervical cancer, or cancer of the cervix.
Screening Prevents Cervical Cancer and Saves Lives:
The Pap test can find abnormal cells in the cervix. These cells may, over time, turn into cancer. This could take several years to happen. If the results of a Pap test show there are abnormal cells that could become cancerous, a woman can be treated. In most cases, this treatment prevents cervical cancer from developing.
Pap tests can also find cervical cancer early. When it is found early, the chance of being cured is very high. The most important thing you can do to avoid getting cervical cancer is to have regular Pap tests.
Any woman who has a cervix can get cervical cancer, especially if she or her sexual partner has had sex with several other partners. Most often, cervical cancer develops in women aged 40 or older. Abnormal cells in the cervix and cervical cancer don’t always cause symptoms, especially at first. That’s why getting tested for cervical cancer is important, even if there are no symptoms.
The Pap test, also called the Pap smear, is a cervical cancer screening test. It is not used to detect other kinds of cancer. It is done in a doctor’s office or a clinic.
During the test, the doctor or nurse uses a plastic or metal instrument, called a speculum, to widen the vagina. This helps to examine the vagina and the cervix, and collect a few cells from the cervix. These cells are placed on a slide and sent to a laboratory to be checked for abnormal cells.
Who Should Have a Pap Test?
Doctors recommend that women begin having regular Pap tests and pelvic exams at age 21, or within three years of the first time they have sexual intercourse – whichever happens first. After a woman has a Pap test each year for three years in a row, and test results show there are no problems, she can then get the Pap test once every 2-3 years.
Who Does Not Need to be Tested?
The only women who do not need regular Pap tests are:
- Those over age 65 who have had regular Pap tests with normal results
- Women who do not have a cervix. This includes women whose cervix was removed as part of an operation to remove the uterus. (The surgery is called a hysterectomy.) However, a small number of women who have had this operation still have a cervix and should continue having regular Pap tests. If you’re not sure whether you have a cervix, speak to your doctor about it.
How Do I Prepare for the Pap Test?
To prepare for the Pap test, doctors recommend that for two days before the test you should avoid:
- Using tampons
- Having sexual intercourse
- Using birth control foams, creams, or jellies or vaginal medications or creams
Try to schedule your Pap test for a time when you are not having your menstrual period.
When Will I Get the Results?
It can take up to three weeks to receive Pap test results. Most results are normal. There are many reasons that Pap test results can be abnormal, and usually it does not mean you have cancer.
Uterine cancer of cancer of the uterus is a fairly common type of cancer. In fact, this is the fourth most common type of cancer to affect women. This type of cancer is usually diagnosed in its early stages and hence can be easily treated. However, did you know that this type of cancer can be prevented? This is primarily because most cases of uterine cancer are caused by an increased amount of estrogen as compared to progestin.
Here are a few tips to keep in mind.
- Birth control pills: The regular use of birth control pills for at least a year is believed to reduce the risk of uterine cancer by at least 50%. The longer these contraceptives are used for, the more effective they are. The protection provided by them lasts for 15 years after their use has been discontinued.
- Reduce weight: Being overweight not only increases the risk of lifestyle diseases such as diabetes and high blood pressure but can also increase a woman’s risk of suffering from uterine cancer. This is because fat cells produce estrogen that further dis-balances the estrogen to progestin ratio. Reducing weight can thus help lower the estrogen levels in the body and prevent cancer. To lose weight, one must keep a strict control over portion sizes, eat nutritious food and exercise regularly.
- Use an IUD: Some methods of contraception not only prevent unwanted pregnancy but also reduce the risk of uterine cancer. Many IUDs or Intrauterine Devices contain progestin. This helps balance the estrogen and progestin levels in the body. Additionally, it also reduces the risk of hyperplasia. This is a condition marked by the abnormal thickening of the lining of the uterus. In many cases, this condition is a precursor to uterine cancer.
- Question Your Family: Genetics can also influence the risk of developing uterine cancer. For example, people carrying the gene responsible for Lynch Syndrome or hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer have a much higher risk of uterine cancer as compared to others. Thus, if you know of family members who have suffered or are suffering from uterine or colon cancer, it is a good idea to undergo genetic testing.
- Broccoli - A super food: Some foods can also help strengthen the immune system and reduce the risk of uterine cancer. Broccoli is one such vegetable. This is known as a super food that can prevent cancer. The best way to eat broccoli is by steaming it. This has the higher amounts of glucosinolate as compared to fried or boiled broccoli.
The food you eat is critical for your overall wellbeing as a number of cancers that affect the human body are of gastrointestinal origin. Stick to organic and chemical free foods to live a healthier life since they reduce the risk of cancer substantially. Regular consumption of the food items mentioned below increase your risk of developing cancer, as well as many other conditions and should be avoided at all costs.
1. Microwave Popcorn
Most microwave-popcorn bags are lined with c8, also known as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) which increases the risk of certain cancers such as kidney, testicular, bladder, pancreas and liver cancer notably. Microwave popcorn also contains an artificial or synthetic butter flavoring called diacetyl which is extremely toxic and obstructs breathing.
2. Canned Tomatoes
While tomatoes are considered to be cancer fighting foods, their canned counterparts are extremely unhealthy and may cause cancer. This is mainly due to the lining of the cans they are put in which contains a chemical known as bisphenol-A or BPA that has been proven to elevate the risk of infertility as well as prostate and breast cancer. Due to their (tomatoes) high acidity, BPA leaks from the lining of the cans and penetrates into the fruit. Tomatoes should be cooked fresh or stored in glass jars.
3. Processed/Grilled Red Meat
Processed meats such as sausages, prosciutto, bacon, pimento loaf, bologna, hot dogs etc., contain various chemicals and preservatives such as sodium nitrate. This is added to make the meat look fresh and appealing but are, in fact, carcinogenic in nature. Moreover, you should also avoid grilling meat since it releases a carcinogen known as heterocyclic aromatic amines. Another dangerous food item includes smoked meat since it picks up tar from the smoking process.
4. Farmed Salmon
It is imperative to avoid farmed salmon because they are fed unnatural diets that are contaminated with carcinogens, antibiotics, chemicals, pesticides and so on. They also harbor sea lice, 30 times greater in amount than wild salmon. High levels of PCBs, cancer causing dioxins, and mercury have been found in them. It is advisable to opt for wild sockeye salmon instead of farmed salmon
HI, I have a small lumps in my breast and as per all the test related to it its can be benign .Doctor prescribed me medicine but still lumps are there.
Hi, I have a pain while urinating from 3 years. I consulted with Urologist. It was found from sonography that my prostate were slightly enlarged and no effect on urine retention. In urine routine test slight infection and blood is found. I had taken antibiotics and some ayurvedic medicines also but no improvement. I am 50 years old man. Kindly suggest me the medicine.
Being diagnosed with cancer is something no one looks forward to and Gynaecological Cancer is every woman’s worst nightmare. However, if diagnosed in time, it can be treated. Cancer in any part of a woman’s reproductive system is termed as gynecological cancer. It is of five types:
Paying attention to your body and understanding its natural rhythm can help you recognize signs of gynecological cancer. This is because signs of gynecological cancer can be difficult to identify unless you know your body. Here are a five signs to watch out for-
Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding: Bleeding in between periods is okay once in a while but if it happens continuously over a period of 2 to 3 months, do not ignore it. Vaginal bleeding after menopause should also never be ignored. Abnormal bleeding could be triggered by a number of conditions including cancer of the lining of the uterus. Sudden changes in your menstrual blood that persist for over 2 cycles such as heavy bleeding can also be a symptom of uterine cancer. Heavy bleeding can be defined as a period that lasts for over 7 days.
Changes in the Vulva: Any change in colour of development of bumps, sores of thickened skin should be immediately shown to a gynecologist. Any form of vulvar itching or burning should also not be ignored. These conditions could be symptoms of vulvar cancer. Hence, it is important to know what your vulva looks like normally.
Bloating: Persistent bloating that lasts for over a fortnight can be a sign of ovarian cancer. This is especially true in cases of bloating accompanied by sudden weight loss or between-period bleeding.
Change in Bathroom Habits: Due to the proximity of the bladder to the reproductive organs, a tumour or swelling in the reproductive organs can trigger symptoms similar to those of a urinary tract infection. This includes pain while urinating, difficulty passing urine, diarrhea or constipation. Urinary incontinence could also a sign of gynecological cancer.
The above could also be signs of other health disorders. The only way of knowing for sure is by consulting a doctor. Hence, understand your body and if you notice any of these symptoms consult your gynecologist at the earliest.
Ovarian cancer is referred to as the cancer of the ovaries. The ovaries are a component of the female reproductive system. There are two ovaries located on either side of the uterus in a woman's body. Ovaries which are the organs responsible for producing egg cells also produce the hormones estrogen and progesterone.
Ovarian cancer is a type of cancer which often goes undetected until it has spread all the way to the pelvis and the abdomen. However, it is also very difficult to treat the condition in its later stages which is why diagnosing ovarian cancer quickly is quintessential. Here is everything you need to know about ovarian cancer;
- No symptoms at first: Usually, in its early stages ovarian cancer does not cause any symptoms.
- Abnormal bloating: Bloating is when your abdomen swells due to excess fluid or gas inside. Abnormal bloating is more frequently associated with irritable bowel syndrome or even constipation is a common symptom of ovarian cancer.
- Feeling full quickly: This is also an associated symptom which has often been mistaken for constipation or irritable bowel syndrome.
- Weight loss: This is one of the more common signs of ovarian cancer.
- Discomfort in the pelvis area: This symptom occurs towards the later stages of ovarian cancer after it has already spread.
- Constipation: Constipation is a symptom of ovarian cancer as well.
- Frequent urination: This is yet another symptom which is a sign of ovarian cancer.
The symptoms of ovarian cancer are often mistaken with that of irritable bowel syndrome and constipation.
Causes: As with other forms of cancer, it is still very unclear what exactly causes ovarian cancer.
- Surgery: Surgery most commonly involves removing large parts of the female reproductive system which includes the ovaries, the fallopian tubes, the uterus as well as the lymph nodes. The surgeon will also try and remove as many cancer cells as possible from the abdomen and pelvic areas.
- Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy is usually done after surgery. It is usually performed so that the rest of the cancer cells are killed off. Chemotherapy drugs can be injected directly into the vein, abdominal cavity or sometimes even both.
Hi, I am suffering from prostate infection since 1.5 years now some days back my doctor advised me now I should leave the medicines bt after leaving medicine my pain again occurred bt not like that what happened previously it's like I get dehydrated very quickly what should I do I am not taking any medicines since 8 to 10 days.
Cancer today is not as rare as it once was. Today, cancer affects the young and old alike. One of the reasons for this is the pollution in particular air and water pollution that we are exposed to on daily basis.
The air we breathe in today is a mixture of smoke, particulate matter and noxious gases that causes great harm to our bodies. Amongst these, particulate matter that is smaller than 2.5 millionths of a metre is the worst.
These particle matters are emitted into the air from car exhausts, industrial exhausts, coal fires, wood stoves etc. While the body’s natural defences help keep larger particle matter out of the system by sneezing or coughing it out, smaller particle matter enters the body easily. These then get trapped in the lungs and enter the bloodstream. Particle matter has in particular been linked to increasing number of lung cancer cases. Apart from lung cancer, coal tar particle matter has been linked to bladder cancer, soot to oesophageal cancer and benzene and other pesticides to leukaemia.
Radon is another source of air pollution that is emitted from the ground. In some cases, radon can also be emitted through the water. As this gas decays, it releases tiny particles that when inhaled bombard the lung cells with radiation that can cause radiation. Smoking can worsen this effect and increase a person’s risk of suffering from lung cancer. Both first-hand and second-hand smoking have also been linked to breast cancer. Apart from trying to reduce emissions to lower air pollution, it is also important to clean filets of air conditions, etc. regularly to lower indoor air pollution. Preventing the smoking of tobacco in public spaces can also help improve air quality.
All pollutants emitted by us eventually find their way into the water we drink. Even if you are not drinking contaminated water, merely, showering or swimming in contaminated water can make your body more vulnerable to the carcinogens in it. Common water pollutants include arsenic, hazardous waste, animal waste, radon, chemicals and asbestos. Drinking water with concentrated amounts of arsenic has been linked to cancer of the lungs, liver, kidney and bladder while the chlorine used to treat drinking water increases the risk of bladder and rectal cancer.
To reduce the risks of cancer caused by polluted water, it is essential to reduce disinfectant by products by keeping water treatment facilities updated and promote green chemistry and alternative assessments to reduce pollution as a whole.