Doctor in Gynae Care Fertility Centre
Most couples look forward towards completing their family with a child. However, getting pregnant isn’t easy for everyone. The inability to conceive a child despite having unprotected sexual intercourse for a year is termed as infertility. Infertility can be caused due to issues related to both man and woman's health.
Reasons behind infertility in women
- Ovulation disorders: Many women suffer from hormonal disorders such as PCOD which prevents the formation of egg by the ovaries as per the monthly cycle. If the ovaries do not release eggs at the right time, sperm cells will have nothing to fertilize. Hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism are two other common hormonal disorders that can affect ovulation. In addition to this, your ovulation cycle can get adversely affected by eating disorders, exercising too much or an injury.
- Fallopian tube damage or blockage: The ovaries are connected to the uterus through fallopian tubes. Once an egg is released by the ovaries it must pass through these tubes to reach the uterus where it can be fertilized. In some cases, a woman may have a damaged fallopian tube as a result of pelvic inflammatory disease, endometriosis or any other problem. In such cases, the inflammation and scarring can restrict the egg’s movement and keep it from being fertilized.
- Poor egg quality: It is important that the health of the egg must also be considered as a poor quality egg can cause complications at a later stage during the pregnancy. There are a number of factors that can affect the quality of an egg being released. Some of the most important factors are age of the woman, stress level and overall physical health.
- Poor sperm quality: To penetrate the egg and fertilize it sperm cells must be the right shape and be agile. Thus sperm health includes the shape of sperm cells, sperm motility and tail whip. The quantity of sperm cells produced also plays a large role in determining a couple’s fertility. Low sperm count and poor quality sperm could be the result of prolonged exposure to electromagnetic frequencies, smoking, poor diet and alcohol consumption.
- Blocked Vas Deferens: The Vas Deferens is the tube through which sperm travel from the testicles to the penis. A blockage in this tube will restrict the amount of sperm being ejaculated and can cause infertility. This blockage may be caused by scarring as a result of an STD or varicocele.
Vaginal discharge or odor is one of the most common conditions in women, yet the least talked about or taken help for. It is of vital importance that more and more women become aware of the condition and stop neglecting it. It is this neglect towards the condition that leads to some ancillary side effects and the increase in the complexity of the situation. Before things take a turn for the bad, it is imperative that you take help from concerned medical specialists and fight the condition during its initial days itself.
Why consult a specialist?
Treating the condition as soon as you notice it leads you to stem other diseases and infections that may be caused as a side effect. Also, vaginal discharge and foul odor can become not only the cause of discomfort for your day to day life, but also a great hindrance in your private life. Don’t let a curable condition hamper your personal life and most importantly your conjugal life. Visiting a doctor will help you get rid of both the excessive discharge and foul order. All you have to do is shred that mental neglect and confining attitude, step out of the home and make way to the doctor’s clinic.
What causes vaginal discharge?
Some of the most common causes of vaginal discharge include-
- Yeast Infection: Vaginal yeast infection is by far the most common cause of vaginal discharge. This relatively common condition is caused by fungus. This factor is characterised by itchiness, irritation and swelling.
- Urethritis: Another cause influencing excessing vaginal discharge includes Urethritis. This condition is influenced by the inflammation and irritation in the tube carrying urine, also referred to as the urethra.
- Gonorrhea: Gonorrhea is an alarming cause of vaginal discharge. This disease is sexually transmitted and affects warm and wet areas of the body.
Other causes of vaginal discharge include pregnancy, anxiety, cervix inflammation, cervical cancer or history of the same.
Causes of vaginal foul odor:
Some of the most common causes of vaginal odor are-
- Infection: Fungal infection is a major cause of vaginal odor.
- Sweat: Accumulation of sweat in wet and humid areas of the body leads to a certain amount of odor. The same goes for the vagina.
- Hormonal change: Change in hormone and discharges also lead to a foul-smelling vagina.
- Overused tampon: Using a tampon for a longer period than prescribed can also lead to accumulation of periodical blood and bacteria, leading to foul smell from the vagina.
Treating vaginal discharge and foul odor:
In case that vaginal discharge and a foul odor is becoming a major concern in your life and making things uncomfortable for you, it is the time that you make your way to a medical specialist. Other preventive practices often suggested by doctors include- wearing loose clothes, not wearing a tampon for a long time, losing weight, consulting a doctor before starting a specific treatment or medication, etc.
In medical terms, the pelvic floor refers to a group of muscles in the pelvic area. These muscles provide support to the organs in the pelvic region, including the bladder, uterus (women), prostate (men), and rectum.
What is pelvic floor dysfunction?
This is a medical condition that is used to refer to a situation when you are unable to control the functioning of the pelvic floor. It means you fail to control the bowel movement. People suffering from pelvic floor dysfunction use these muscles to contract rather than to relax. It is for this reason that they cannot have a bowel movement. They often have an incomplete one.
What causes pelvic floor dysfunction?
In most of the cases, the exact reason behind this dysfunction is unknown. It is often believed that this condition is caused due to traumatic injuries to the pelvic area. This can happen after an accident and due to complications aroused after vaginal childbirth.
What are the symptoms?
There are several symptoms that are linked to this medical condition. You must visit your doctor if you come across the following signs:
- The feel of having several bowel movements within a short period of time.
- If you feel that you cannot complete a bowel movement.
- When there is constipation pain linked with bowel movements.
- A frequent urge to urinate.
- Painful urination.
- Pain in lower back.
- Continuous pain in pelvic region, genitals, or rectum.
- Pain during intercourse in women
How is pelvic floor dysfunction diagnosed?
It may be diagnosed through a physical examination by the doctor. You will ask several questions to know the case history and find out the cause. You may also be asked to take pelvic muscle control test by placing surface electrodes on the perineum or sacrum. A small device called a perineometer is also used for the same.
What are the best ways for treating pelvic floor dysfunction?
It can be treated without surgery. There are several techniques. Some of these are as follows:
- Biofeedback: It is done with the help of a physical therapist.He uses special sensors to watch and monitor the muscles.
- Medication: A low-dose muscle relaxant is prescribed to treat the same.
- Relaxation techniques: Your therapist may ask you to take up techniques for relaxation such as warm baths, yoga, and exercises.
- Surgery: If your physician finds out that the dysfunction is caused by a rectal prolapse or rectocele, he or she will take up surgery.
Pelvic Floor Dysfunction results in Urinary Dysfunction. Urinary incontinence is the unintentional passing of urine. It's a common problem thought to affect millions of people. There are several types of urinary incontinence, including:
- Stress Incontinence – when urine leaks out at times when your bladder is under pressure; for example, when you cough or laugh
- Urge Incontinence – when urine leaks as you feel a sudden, intense urge to pass urine, or soon afterwards
- Overflow Incontinence (chronic urinary retention) – when you're unable to fully empty your bladder, which causes frequent leaking
- Total Incontinence – when your bladder can't store any urine at all, which causes you to pass urine constantly or have frequent leaking
It's also possible to have a mixture of both stress and urge urinary incontinence.
Pelvic Organ Prolapse
Pelvic organ prolapse is a condition in which structures such as the uterus, rectum, bladder, urethra, small bowel, or the vagina itself may begin to prolapse, or fall, out of their normal positions. Without medical treatment or surgery, these structures may eventually fall farther into the vagina or even through the vaginal opening if their supports weaken enough.
How to treat vaginal dryness
Production of estrogen slows down and eventually stops during menopause. Quite a few changes take place when this happens. Often these changes are unwelcome. Irregular menstruation happens and finally stops. Mood swings, hot flashes, increased facial hair and deepening of the voice may happen as well. Another common menopause symptom is vaginal dryness, as it affects one third of all women. Any age group can experience vaginal dryness due to various factors. It may initially appear to be just an irritation, but reduced vaginal moisture may adversely affect sexual performance. Thankfully, multiple treatment options are available for relieving vaginal dryness.
Vaginal dryness caused by reduced estrogen levels can be easily treated by applying topical estrogen. It compensates for the body’s reduced estrogen production.
Three common vaginal estrogen types used by most women are:
- Estrogen tablet: Disposable applicators can be used for inserting a tablet inside the vagina, once daily during the initial two weeks or so of treatment. The dosage is reduced to twice weekly till it is no longer needed.
- Estrogen Cream: An applicator can be used to apply the cream inside the vagina. Usually the cream is used daily for up to two weeks and then the frequency is reduced to thrice weekly or as recommended by the doctor.
- Estrogen Ring: It can be inserted by your doctor or you in the vagina. It is a flexible and soft ring that steadily releases an estrogen stream directly into the vaginal tissues. The ring has to be discarded and replaced with a new one after three months.
To keep the lubrication in the vagina constant, one can use vaginal moisturizers. These can be bought from a supermarket or at a drugstore, however, bubble baths, douches, lotions and scented soaps should be avoided. Such products may increase vaginal dryness.
However, topical estrogen should be avoided by women:
- Who have been diagnosed with breast cancer, more so when they are using aromatase inhibitors.
- Who have had/have endometrial cancer
- Who suffer from vaginal bleeding, the cause of which cannot be identified
- Who are breastfeeding or are pregnant
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
The news of pregnancy can be one of the best news in a couple’s lifetime. However, where this news does not arrive, it can turn very stressful. Whatever the reasons, if a couple has been trying to have a baby and are not able to, it can be very strenuous. However, statistics reveal that most couples take four to six months to conceive. Some couples even take up to two years.
Lifestyles are changing and there are a lot of factors, which determine the ability of a couple to conceive. There could be issues with either of the couple, and sometimes it might not even be an actual issue, but only psychological barriers hampering the health of the relationship.
Some common conditions that can contribute to the couple not conceiving include endometriosis, ovarian issues, polycystic ovaries, hormonal imbalances, medical illnesses, etc. A few common remedies can be tried first, before reaching out for professional help.
- Using lubricants without spermicide topical agents may be used, but some of them could contain chemicals, which are spermicides and reduce the sperm count. This needs to be ruled out before investigating the cause for infertility.
- Vitamin B6 helps in the luteal phase, which is from the time of ovulation to menstruation. Zinc also plays a vital role in pregnancy and conception, and so it is advisable to take these supplements when trying to get pregnant.
- Weight management, quit smoking, improved hydration, general detoxification, dietary changes, adequate hours of sleep are some changes that can immensely benefit.
- An ovulation predictor kit and trying to conceive around that time also increases chances of conception.
- For a woman who is 35 years or younger, conception should happen in about four to six months’ time. If not, it is time to see a doctor to see what is preventing pregnancy.
Some of the other conditions, which would require a visit to the doctor are as follows:
- Consumption of regular asthma medications
- Diabetic patients
- Epilepsy patients
- Chronic smoker
- Underweight or overweight women
- Diagnosed endometriosis
- History of polycystic ovaries
- History of irregular periods or other menstrual disorders
- History of thyroid disease, especially hypothyroidism, which is one of the main contributing reasons for infertility. Quite often, treating the thyroid levels can lead to pregnancy
- History of sexually transmitted disease like chlamydia
- History of sexual hormonal imbalance
- History of prolonged use of birth control pills
If there is no underlying medical issue, it will happen, don’t be anxious.
Normal delivery or vaginal delivery is when childbirth takes place without the use of any vacuum extraction or forceps. It is basically when a woman goes into labour without the use of any other external drugs which induce labour. C-Section or rather caesarean section is basically when a baby is delivered surgically via an incision in the mother’s abdomen. This is usually performed when a normal delivery can put the child’s or the mother’s health at risk. It is also performed when you are expecting twins or rather multiples.
Why Normal Delivery is preferred over C-Section Delivery?
- One of the major benefits of having a normal delivery over a C-Section is that the former leads to a shorter hospital stay as there is no major surgery involved. If there is no surgery involved then obviously the risks associated with it, such as, permanent scarring, severe bleeding, septic infection, are completely eliminated.
- Reaction to anaesthesia is another thing that one must consider and it is the most crucial difference between a normal and a C-Section delivery. As C-Section is basically a surgery, the mother is administered an anaesthetic to numb the pain. Sometimes, even spinal anaesthesia is used and the side effects of it include: back pain, prolonged numbness or weakness, shortness of breath and in extreme cases, even maternal morbidity (death during pregnancy).
- After C-Section delivery, there can be a severe loss of blood leading to hysterectomy (permanent removal of the uterus).
- The best reason to avoid a non-planned C-Section is because, once a C-Section has been done then there is a potential risk of having all your future deliveries done via C-Section.
- A research has shown that women who deliver via C-Section are less likely to start early breastfeeding as the recovery time from a surgery is pretty high.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
One of the common complaints associated with sexual intercourse, is vaginal bleeding. This bleeding can occur during the course of intimacy or after it. Post intercourse bleeding is also termed as post-coitus bleeding. This is known as post costal bleeding. Doctor should be consulted immediately as it may be a sign of hidden cervical cancer.
Reasons behind vaginal bleeding
- In most cases, the bleeding is risk free. It could be due to extreme friction, causing damage to superficial blood vessels in the cervix. It is important to use adequate lubrication; otherwise the consequences could be annoyingly painful.
- If your period dates are nearby, the source of the blood could be from your uterus.
- Benign growths, cysts, polyps on the cervix can cause bleeding. They are small fragile growths that rupture easily.
- There can also be bleeding due to inflammations that occur as a reaction to a condom or a diaphragm.
When can vaginal bleeding be difficult?
- Vaginal bleeding after sex can often be a warning sign of ectopic pregnancy. Ectopic pregnancy is when implantation of an embryo takes place outside the uterus, commonly inside the fallopian tubes.
- Bleeding every time after intercourse is also a common symptom of endometriosis. It occurs when the inner lining of the uterus, called the endometrial tissue, appears outside it. Endometrial tissue can attach itself to other surrounding organs in the pelvic region, generally, the abdomen, causing searing pain. It is also a major cause of infertility.
- Another cause of vaginal bleeding is atrophic vaginitis, a health condition mostly affecting older women, especially those who have reached menopausal age. This is due to the massive decline in the levels of estrogen that causes vaginal dryness and irritation.
- Sexually transmitted diseases could be a serious cause of vaginal bleeding. It is generally accompanied by several other symptoms such as vaginal odour, discharge, pelvic pain, inflammations. It should receive immediate medical attention.
- Vaginal bleeding could be a sign of cancer. It could be vaginal, ovarian, uterine or cervical cancer. It requires medical attention without any delay.
Most of the time, the reasons for post coitus bleeding is harmless. However, if it persists, you must pay a visit to your gynaecologist as soon as possible and get a thorough evaluation done. This could save the condition from worsening and also diagnose any other underlying medical condition at an early, curable stage. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
In order to have proper information about ovarian cysts, it is essential to discuss the anatomy of ovaries. These are basically a part of the female reproductive system and are located in the lower abdomen on the two sides of the uterus. The major functions of ovaries are production of eggs, oestrogen and progesterone hormones.
So what exactly are cysts? Cysts are fluid-filled sacks, which sometimes develop on the ovaries. These are usually painless, causing no such symptom and females develop a cyst at least once every year. However, there are various kinds of ovarian cysts like the dermoid cysts and endometrioma cysts. The most common kinds of cysts are usually the functional ones. The types of follicle cysts include the following:
- Follicle cyst: When the menstrual cycle starts, the egg grows in a sac, usually called follicle, which is located inside the ovary. In usual cases, the follicle breaks and the egg is released. However, there might be a case where the follicle may not break. In situations like these, the fluid present in the follicle may turn into cysts in the ovary.
- Corpus leuteum: After the egg is released into the uterus, the follicle ideally dissolves. However, in case the follicle does not dissolve, the excess liquid causes the developing of little sacs and these are the other kinds of cysts.
Malignant (cancerous) or low malignant potential ovarian tumors can spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body and can be fatal.
There are some more types of cysts as well, which are as follows:
- Dermoid cyst: This is a sac-like growth, which occurs on the ovaries that can contain hair, fat or other tissues. They’re a type of ovarian germ cell tumor. Usually these tumors are benign, but occasionally they can be malignant.
- Endometriomas: These are those tissues, which should originally grow inside the uterus, but instead they attach themselves outside the uterus to the ovaries. This in turn results in cyst formation.
- Cystadenomas: These are basically non-cancerous growths that develop on the ovary surface.
Polycystic ovary syndrome
This is a condition that some women develop, a large number of small cysts form inside the ovaries, thereby causing the ovaries to enlarge. It is important that polycystic ovarian syndrome is treated soon because if left untreated for long, it may cause infertility in women. These cysts are usually not harmful, but they can cause the following:
- Hormonal imbalance, which may lead to acne or facial hair, may also cause individuals to stop ovulating or cause irregular periods
- Higher chance of getting diabetes as the body starts having insulin resistance
- Weight gain
This is not that big a deal and can be controlled easily. Also with healthy living and eating, this condition can be brought to normal.
A blood clot (also called a thrombosis) is a mass or clump of blood that forms when blood changes from a liquid to a solid.
The body normally makes blood clots to stop the bleeding after a scrape or cut. But sometimes blood clots can partly or completely block the flow of blood in a blood vessel, like a vein or artery. This can cause damage to body organs and even death.
Most women with blood clotting conditions have healthy pregnancies. But these conditions may cause problems for some pregnant women. In severe cases, they can cause death for both mom and baby. But testing and treatment can help save both you and your baby.
If you’re pregnant or trying to get pregnant and have had problems with blood clots in the past, tell your health care provider at a preconception checkup (before pregnancy) or at your first prenatal care checkup. Also tell your provider if someone in your family (your parent or a brother or sister) has had problems with blood clots. This means the condition may run in your family.
What problems can blood clots cause during pregnancy?
If you have a blood clot or a kind of thrombophilia called antiphospholipid syndrome (also called APS), you may be more likely to have complications that can affect your health and your baby’s health, including:
- Blood clots in the placenta. The placenta grows in your uterus (womb) and supplies the baby with food and oxygen through the umbilical cord. A blood clot in the placenta can stop blood flow to your baby and harm your baby.
- Heart attack. This usually happens when a blood clot blocks blood and oxygen flow to the heart. Without blood and oxygen, the heart can’t pump blood well, and the affected heart muscle can die. A heart attack can lead to lasting heart damage or death.
- Intauterine growth restriction (also called IUGR). This is when your baby grows poorly in the womb.
- Miscarriage. A miscarriage is when a baby dies in the womb before 20 weeks of pregnancy.
- Placental insufficiency. This is when the placenta doesn’t work as well as it should so your baby gets less food and oxygen.
- Preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is a condition that can happen after the 20th week of pregnancy or right after pregnancy. It’s when a pregnant woman has high blood pressure and signs that some of her organs, like her kidneys and liver, may not be working properly. Some of these signs include having protein in the urine, changes in vision, and severe headache.
- Premature birth. This is when your baby is born before 37 weeks of pregnancy.
- Pulmonary embolism (also called PE). An embolism is a blood clot that moves from where it formed to another place in the body. When the clot moves to a lung, it’s a PE. PE can cause low oxygen levels in your blood and damage your body organs. It’s an emergency and a leading cause of death during pregnancy. Signs and symptoms of PE may include:
- Stillbirth. This is when a baby dies in the womb after 20 weeks of pregnancy.
- Stroke. This happens when a blood clot blocks a blood vessel that brings blood to the brain, or when a blood vessel in the brain bursts open. Pregnancy and childbirth cause strokes in about 8 in 100,000 women. Stroke can cause lasting damage to the body or death.
- Thrombosis. This happens when a blood clot forms in a blood vessel and blocks blood flow. It most often happens in the deep veins of the legs but can be in other places of the body:
How are these conditions treated?
If you are pregnant and have a clotting condition, you may need to go for prenatal care checkups more often than women who don’t have these blood clot conditions. At these visits, your provider checks your blood pressure and can use other tests, like blood tests, to monitor your health.
Your gynaecologist also checks your baby’s health in the womb using tests like:
- Ultrasound to check your baby’s growth and development. She may use a special kind of ultrasound called Doppler to check your baby’s blood flow in the umbilical artery, a blood vessel in the umbilical cord. The umbilical cord connects your baby to the placenta. It carries food and oxygen from the placenta to the baby.
- Fetal heart rate monitoring (also called a nonstress test or NST). This test checks your baby’s heart rate in the womb and sees how the heart rate changes when your baby moves. Your provider uses this test to make sure your baby’s getting enough oxygen.
A blood clot occurs when your body sends cells, called platelets, to interrupt the stream of blood. Typically, this happens when you have a cut, to keep the damage from draining consistently. During pregnancy, your blood will probably cluster as a defense mechanism against losing an excess amount of blood during the process.
Signs and Symptoms
Women have a tendency to be more sensitive and risk-prone of potential difficulties while they are pregnant. Despite the fact that blood clots are far-fetched, there are a couple of signs that can demonstrate the possibility of a blood clot. These include:
- Swelling or pain in one leg
- Pain that increases when you walk
- Veins that look bigger or more swollen than usual
Different components that can additionally raise your odds of growing profound vein related blood clots in pregnancy include:
- Being thirty-five or older while pregnant
- Pre-pregnancy blood clots outside of pregnancy
- Being overweight
- Having a cesarean conveyance (C-section).
However, there are certain solutions to every problem. In order to get rid of blood clots during pregnancy or prevent them from happening, these are the possible solutions:
- Continue moving: In case that you are overweight and inactive, it will affect your blood-stream and increase your risk for profound vein clots in pregnancy. So, remain active and keep up a healthy weight. If you must be on bed rest because of a damage or inconvenience in your pregnancy, your specialist may endorse blood thinners as a careful step.
- Get up during travel: Flying alone is a risk for clots; so pregnant women need to be very careful about that. In case that you need to fly, get up and move around consistently and do a lower leg exercise while you sit. Do a similar thing in case you go for a long journey or have to travel fast.
- Wear pressure tights: Since they enhance the flow and lessen swelling in the legs, pressure tights can bring down your danger of profound clots in pregnancy.
- Drink loads of water: Remaining hydrated during pregnancy forestalls clots by keeping the blood from getting too thick.
The reason pregnant women need to be aware of the connection amongst pregnancy and clot risks is that an untreated clot can possibly break free and go through the circulatory system. The fear is that it will move to the heart or lungs and cause a pneumonic embolism, which can lead to death.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease, also known as PID, is characterized by an infection that occurs in a lady's reproductive organs. Usually this occurs as a result of a complications arising from a STD. The disease causes severe damage to the ovaries, fallopian tubes and the uterus. It is one of the bigger causes of infertility in women.
The cervix which is the entry to the uterus has the function of stopping bacteria that are present in the vagina from spreading to the other organs. Once infected by a STD, the cervix can no longer perform its function of preventing the bacteria from spreading to other organs. PID develops when the infection spreads from the cervix to the upper areas of the genital tract.
There are certain factors which increase the chances of being affected by PID:
- Being sexually active
- Already affected by STDs such as gonorrhea
- Past history of PID
- Having multiple sexual partners
Women may experience pain while urinating and engaging in sexual intercourse, coupled with sore feeling in the stomach along with nausea. Abnormal vaginal discharge and a rise in body temperature are common symptoms as well.
Once the disease has been diagnosed by a doctor, a treatment plan is devised. The treatment options that you can avail of are:
- Medications: If the symptoms are mild, then the doctor will prescribe antibiotic medications. Usually the antibiotics are administered by mouth unless the symptoms are severe, when the drugs are administered intravenously. Your partner would also require medications if you happen to be diagnosed with PID, so that he/she does not catch it.
- Surgery: Surgery is recommended by the doctor in case of tissue inflammation and the presence of pus (abscess). The aim of surgery is to get rid of the abscess to prevent any further infection.
In addition to the treatment methods, there are certain precautionary measures that you can adopt to be safe:
- Have protected sex.
- Try and stick to one sexual partner.
- Visit your gynecologist for regular checkups.