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Tinea Versicolor -
Tinea versicolor also called as pityriasis versicolor is an infection of the human body caused by the Malassezia fungus, which is normally found on the human skin. Normally, this fungus does not harm the body and even protect our skin from the infections or diseases. But at times, it grows rapidly and changes the skin colour, resulting in the tinea versicolor disease.
Tinea versicolor does not cause any kind of critical harm to the health or pain in your body. However, those are more of the cosmetic concerns for its patients. The disease causes small white or other coloured patches of light to dark shades in smaller to larger areas on the skin. It primarily takes place in the upper back, chest and shoulders of an individual.
However, it may impact almost any part of the body. So, if such marks are well visible on your body even on covering up with the getups, you may feel a little awkward to go out in public. This disease generally affects the young adults and teens. Other than that, the individuals residing in the humid and warm weather are more likely to suffer from tinea versicolor.
Symptoms of Tinea Versicolor:
Following are the various general symptoms of the tinea versicolor disease:
- Light to dark skin discolouration patches mainly on the chest, back, neck, upper half areas of the arms, and other areas on the body
- The patches may be of red, pink, brown, or tan colours
- The short-period or continual growth of such patches for few months
- Mild to intense itching in the skin area on which such patches are seen
Normally, tinea versicolor does not cause any harm to your skin or body, just apart from the itchy temptation. Additionally, you may feel sensitivity, uneasiness and irritation in the impacted area at times. Rest than that, young and healthy people are more likely to have tinea versicolor on their skin as compare to the people of other age groups.
Note that once such marks appear on any part of the body of its patient, those may be disappeared in the cold season, and intensify again in the summer season. Those may also subside in case you shift to a cold place during the summer season also. So, it is more of a seasonal or climatic disease for its patients.
Causes of Tinea Versicolor:
As already mentioned, the primary cause of the tinea versicolor is the Malassezia class of fungus, found on the skin of a healthy person. However, the symptoms of tinea versicolor are seen only with their overgrowth. Following are the primary reasons that trigger the growth of the Malassezia fungus and consequently causes tinea versicolor:
- Humid and hot weather, this fungus could not breed easily in the cold weather
- Individuals with oily skin
- Hormonal changes in the body of healthy people
- Individuals with weaker immunity
- Individuals who observe more sweating than usual
Prevention of Tinea Versicolor:
Since the Malassezia fungus is always there on the human skin, it is very difficult to completely prevent the occurrence of tinea versicolor. But in case you are once diagnosed with it and have got complete treatment, you may take several measures to prevent its recurrence in the future.
Some of those are mentioned below:
- Avoid exposure to excessive heat, which may cause you to sweat more
- Refrain from direct exposure to the sunlight for several hours at a stretch
- Prevent your body from tanning due to sunlight by applying sunscreen lotion on your body before going out
- Avoid excessive sweating for any reason
- Use a selenium-based antidandruff shampoo at least once in every few weeks
- Avoid wearing tight clothes in the summer seasons
- Try to wear cotton clothes for decreasing sweat
- Adopt a well-balanced and healthy diet rich with vitamins, minerals and fibre, to keep your immune system intact
- Avoid eating too much junk food
Take a note that there are several patients who tend to suffer from tinea versicolor during a specific set of months of every year, like from May to August. They may prevent its reoccurrence by adopting some skin strengthening treatment using the following medicines:
- Selsun or selenium sulphide, 2.5% lotion
- Ketoconazole, Ketoconazole or Nizoral gel or cream
- Onmel and Sporanox (Itraconazole) capsules or tablets
- Diflucan (Fluconazole) tablets
How is it diagnosed with Tinea Versicolor?
Normally, you are not required to worry about the treatment for tinea versicolor, being a lesser harmful disease. But, in case you see any of the symptoms associated with it on any part of your body, you may consult your doctor. Post a visual examination of the symptoms, the doctor may confirm the occurrence of tinea versicolor.
If required, the dermatologist may recommend performing a test in which some skin sample is extracted from the infected area and sent to the laboratory for the microscopic examination. A good amount of the Malassezia fungus in the skin sample confirms the tinea versicolor disease in the infected part of the body.
Treatment of Tinea Versicolor:
Post the diagnosis and confirmation of tinea versicolor, the dermatologist may recommend you the medical treatment for stopping the growth of the Malassezia fungus in your skin. This may be required only in the cases when the symptoms are severe. This treatment would also help you in avoiding the disease’s symptoms for long-term.
Some of the medicines that help in coping-up with the symptoms of this disease include the following types of antifungal shampoos or creams:
- Clotrimazole - Lotrimin AF and Mycelex
- Selenium Sulfide - Selsun Blue shampoo
- Miconazole - Monistat and M-Zole
- Terbinafine - Lamisil
The following creams or ointments may be applied locally on the skin area affected with tinea versicolor to kill the fungus:
- Ketoconazole - Extina and Nizoral
- Ciclopirox – Loprox and Penlac
Note: It is recommended to wash and dry the infected area before applying these creams or ointment over those. The doctor may prescribe to apply those as a thin layer at least twice a day for at least one to two weeks.
The dermatologist may also prescribe you the following pills or capsules for the treatment of tinea versicolor:
- Itraconazole – Onmel and Sporanox
- Fluconazole - Diflucan
Other than the dermatology treatment, there are certain home remedies that you may adopt for the treatment of this disease. Although all such home remedies are natural and hence safer to adopt, it is strongly recommended to discuss with your doctor before starting over those. There are certain conditions like pregnancy or other illnesses, in which these ingredients may cause harm to the body.
The doctor will diagnose your physical conditions and symptoms to ensure that any of those would not cause any harmful side impact on your body. Some of such home remedies may include consumption and/or application of the following substances on the impacted area of tinea versicolor:
- Apple cider vinegar
- Indian lilac
There have not been found any cases where tinea versicolor would have caused severe complication on the skin or any other part of the body. For this reason, you may leave it untreated even for a long time from its diagnosis. The only bad part is that many of its patients do not like its appearance of their body.
The primary, but mild, a complication of this disease is the discolouration of the skin. This may persist for even several weeks after starting the treatment, since the skin colour producing cells (known as melanocytes) may take that much of time for complete recovery and pigmentation. Note that this disease never imposes any permanent complication on your skin.
The symptoms are even vanished or minimized in the winter season or at colder places. Since the infection or discolouration occurs only on the surface of the skin, there is no impact on the body organs or the immune system of the patient of this disease.
Other than the weird or different coloured appearance, few patients in some rare cases may observe the enlarged size of tineas on their body. It makes them face problems wearing fitted clothes, shoes and more.
Myths related to Tinea Versicolor:
Myth #1: Tinea versicolor, if not treated on time, may become a cause of skin cancer
Although the symptoms may look little alike, tinea versicolor is different from that of a skin cancer. Tinea versicolor is the overgrowth of a specific type of fungus on the skin. However, skin cancer is an overgrowth of the skin tissues itself, which is unstoppable. In case the symptoms on your skins are worsening over the time, it would be good to see a dermatologist at the earliest. If the physicians suspect that the discolouration or patches on the patient’s skin are due to the skin cancer, they may advise getting a biopsy test done.
Myth #2: Sitting in the sunlight would help in reducing the size and growth of tinea versicolor
Sunlight would not reduce the existing impact or stop the growth of tinea versicolor. On the other hand, the sunlight would tan the affected area and highlight it. Other than that, the sunlight would give an ample amount of heat to the fungus, which would be ideal for them to breed. So, sunlight will ultimately worsen the symptoms of tinea versicolor.
Myth #3: Once after completion of the treatment, tinea versicolor would not reoccur
This is not true. A person once affected by tinea versicolor is, in fact, more prone to catch the infection again in the hotter climate conditions. It is therefore recommended for them to take most care and follow the precautions, especially during the summer season.
Myth #4: Only the individuals with a weaker immune system may be affected by tinea versicolor
It is true that the individuals with a weaker immune system are more likely to catch an infection of tinea versicolor. However, there are multiple other reasons that tend to increase the risk associated with this disease. For instance, the healthy people undergoing hormonal changes may also suffer from this disease easily.
Myth #5: Individuals with a fairer skin are more prone to get affected by tinea versicolor as compared to those with light skin
Individuals with any colour of skin are equally likely to develop this disease considering the other affecting conditions and factors. There is nothing specific for this disease related to the skin colour.
Tinea versicolor is just the state of mild skin infection caused due to overgrowth of the Malassezia class of fungus on the patient’s skin. It does not have adverse symptoms on the skin, which also do not impose any direct health complication.
However, you must visit a dermatologist if the symptoms are not stopping over several months, for the confirmation that it is not skin cancer. Once diagnosed, you may get it treated by the doctor for the disappearance of the symptoms. You should also follow the precautions mentioned in this article to avoid this disease to take place.
Pancreatitis is an inflammation in the pancreas which is an organ located behind the stomach’s lower part in the human body.
Types of pancreatitis:
- Acute Pancreatitis
- Chronic Pancreatitis
Acute Pancreatitis lasts for a shorter duration of time. It is the sudden inflammation of the pancreas in the human body. Acute pancreatitis is a disease where an individual has damage in their tissues, bleeding into the gland, get an infection and is also subject to the formation of a cyst. If this goes untreated, then it might also result in the harm of organs like lungs, kidneys and lungs. Acute Pancreatitis can cause mild discomfort and can also turn into a disease that is life-threatening.
Chronic Pancreatitis is a long-term disease. The inflammation in the pancreas lasts for a longer duration of time. It can be caused by the consumption of alcohol in large quantities. Though the symptoms might not be visible for a few years, it has the possibilities of developing over the years that causes this chronic condition. Chronic Pancreatitis is a condition that happens after Acute Pancreatitis.
The symptoms of Acute Pancreatitis and Chronic Pancreatitis are usually similar but might vary in some terms.
Symptoms of Acute Pancreatitis:
- If an individual has an increased heart rate, they might have the condition. But, an increased heart rate might be due to a plethora of other reasons. So, other symptoms combined with this should be considered.
- The swelling of the abdomen region
- Tenderness in the abdomen
- Vomiting and feeling nauseated
- Having a fever
- Pain in the upper abdomen area. This pain radiating into the back of the body might be a strong symptom of Acute Pancreatitis.
Symptoms of Chronic Pancreatitis:
- Having a constant pain in the upper abdominal area that radiates into the back means that an individual might be having chronic pancreatitis. The abdominal pain might even be disabling in some individuals
- Individuals who have Pancreatitis suffer from malabsorption of food which results in weight and diarrhoea. When an individual has pancreatitis, the gland does not release enzymes that are enough to break down the food taken; this results in poor absorption of food
- In case the damage occurs in the cells that are responsible for the production of insulin, then it might result in diabetes.
Causes of Pancreatitis:
- The fat level in blood: high
- Calcium level in blood: high
- Pancreatic genetic abnormalities
- Viral infections
- Abnormalities in the hormones
- Damage to pancreas due to injuries in the abdominal area
- Intake of steroids and/or estrogens
The causes for this ailment are unclear but it is linked to being caused by the following:
- Acute pancreatitis can be caused because of the presence of gallstones in an individual.
- It can also be caused by high levels of alcohol consumption.
- Certain medications and surgeries might also cause the disease.
- If an individual has an autoimmune disease, trauma, certain infections, disorders of the metabolic system, they might be at a higher risk of developing Acute Pancreatitis.
20 % to 30 % of the Chronic Pancreatitis cases are unknown in terms of the causes. The rest 80 % to 70 % of cases are because of the following:
- Presence of gallstones
- A heavy consumption of alcohol for a long duration of time is also linked to the development of Chronic pancreatitis
- Chronic pancreatitis can be caused by the presence of Cystic fibrosis and other hereditary conditions
- Having a high level of lupus and triglycerides can cause chronic pancreatitis
Prevention From Pancreatitis:
The following prevention steps can prevent most of the medical ailments to take a toll on you, let alone Pancreatitis. But, they are specifically for this disease as it can be caused if one does not follow the following prevention steps:
- Increase your physical activity
The development of gallstones is more likely in the case an individual is overweight. So, excess weight can be reduced to reduce the chances of developing gallstone and further reducing the risk of developing pancreatitis. Engaging in physical activity on a daily basis will help one to reduce excess weight.
- Do not follow diets that promise immediate weight reduction
Weight reduction and becoming fit and healthy is a slow process and is not something you can achieve within a span of a few days or even months. It is a slow process that involves dedication to the cause. Crash dieting should be avoided. Following a crash diet could result in the liver to cause increased cholesterol production. This increases the chances of the development of gallstones that might cause Pancreatitis.
- Eating healthy
One of the major causes of the development of acute pancreatitis is gallstones. And, gallstones can form in case there is a high level of cholesterol that has been accumulated in the bile (a liver substance that aids in the process of digestion of fats). Eating healthy and the reduction of alcohol intake can avoid high levels of cholesterol. Avoid the consumption of foods with high fats and sugars and intake more vegetables, fruits and grains in your diet. A high dairy consumption should also be avoided. High levels of cholesterol and triglyceride can result in the increased risk of the development of acute pancreatitis. Eating more natural and healthy foods is a good way to make sure you stay ailment - free.
Avoid toxic substances:
- Quit or avoid smoking
If you have not smoked yet, do not start! And, if you do, try to completely quit the intake of tobacco or at least reduce. Smoking is linked to causing acute pancreatitis through the development of gallstones. Quitting smoking might also result in the reduced chances of many other medical ailments, making you a healthier person; it also increases the life expectancy of an individual.
- Avoiding or reducing the intake of alcohol
Alcohol has been linked to causing many health ailments. Reducing or limiting the consumption of alcohol can help the pancreas be safe from the toxins of alcohol. The increased intake of alcohol is linked to causing Pancreatitis in, both, women and men. This reduces the risk attached to developing Pancreatitis.
If you have been diagnosed with Pancreatitis:
Once diagnosed, it is advised to start the treatment immediately as if it is left untreated, then it might progress and develop into EPI - Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency. You should make all the above lifestyle changes immediately to avoid it.
How is it diagnosed?
One of the methods to check if an individual has Pancreatitis is to suspect the disease through the symptoms that they have been having. When an individual has Pancreatitis, then their blood glucose level is affected, so blood tests are done to check the same. The following tests are performed to check the pancreas for irregularities:
The X-ray will help check for any damages to the lung like a collapsed lung tissue and any accumulation of fluids in the cavity of the chest.
- Physical Examination
A physical examination is carried out by a doctor. They examine the abdominal area to see if any area is sensitive to touch. If any area in the abdomen is found to be sensitive when it is touched, then it might mean that the individual examined has acute pancreatitis.
What is the indication of acute pancreatitis?:
The muscle walls of the abdomen are rigid. Also, while the abdomen is being inspected with a stethoscope, then there might be no or less intestinal sounds.
- MRCP scan - Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography scan
The Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography scan is done to see the pancreatic ducts and the bile in a clearer way. This scan shows a more accurate and clear version than the CT scans and is specifically designed for diagnosing Pancreatitis.
- Ultrasound scan
An ultrasound scan is done on an individual to check the condition of their pancreas. It is a high-frequency sound wave that shows the pancreas and the surroundings on a monitor so that the doctor can examine it for irregularities.
- CECT scan - Contrast Enhances Computed Tomography
A CECT scan takes several pictures of the area suspected to be affected from various angles. Then, they are placed in a way that a 3-dimensional image is produced so that scanning it for the disease is possible. This can also help in the determination of the collection of fluids in the gland and the number of changes in the gland’s density.
- Blood Test
A blood test might also be done to check for pancreatitis. In case the levels of lipase and amylase are high in the blood of an individual, it means that they are suffering from pancreatitis. But, blood tests cannot be fully reliable as they might not show any signs of the disease if the tests are done in the first 2 days. In addition to this, the level of lipase returns to normal in 8 days to 14 days and the level of amylase return to normal within a matter of 3 days to 7 days.
- ERCP scan - Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangio - Pancreatography scan
This scan is an endoscopy that is inserted into an individual’s digestive system. Ultrasound is used to guide the endoscopy process. The Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangio - Pancreatography scan is also capable of find out the exact location of the gallstone.
Treatment of Pancreatitis:
In case the individual has diabetes, they are given insulin. In the case of a low enzyme level causing problems in the digestion process, artificial digestive enzymes would be prescribed. A painkiller as chronic pancreatitis can cause constant and a high level of pain. In case the individual has autoimmune pancreatitis, then they are given steroids. In the case of chronic pancreatitis, if the pancreas is damaged, then it can’t be reversed. So, medication is given for the purpose of reduction of the pain.
Endoscopy is done in order to get rid of any blockages pain is reduced. This process is also carried out to make sure the pain is reduced. The blockage is removed by inserting a flexible and long tube through the mouth of the individual to remove pancreatic stones. Then, stents are placed by putting in small tubes so that any leaks are closed and achieve an improved flow.
- Surgery: The last resort
This treatment is only needed in severe conditions. The conditions being that an individual is not responding to the medication and has a severe level of pain. What the surgery does is that it removes a part of the pancreas in order to provide relief from the pain. The surgery is also capable of draining cysts and unblocking the pancreatic duct.
Complications in Chronic Pancreatitis:
- Chronic pancreatitis can progress to pancreatic cancer. Though the risk is low, some individuals might develop it.
- Chronic Pancreatitis can also cause pseudocyst. A pseudocyst is a collection of debris, blood, enzymes of the pancreas, tissue and fluids in the abdomen that is caused by any leaks of the digestive fluid that escaped from an irregular pancreatic duct. If these pseudocysts are infected, they might cause internal bleeding.
- A case of chronic pancreatitis can take a toll on the mental health of the individual. They might develop depression, stress and/or anxiety. This is due to the constant pain caused by pancreatitis. To cope with this, the individuals can seek help from support groups and therapy.
Complications in Acute Pancreatitis:
- Acute Pancreatitis can lead to the obstruction of the pancreatic duct or the bile
- It might also cause the failure of the lung or heart of the individual, leading to death if left untreated
- Acute Pancreatitis can also cause splenic vein thrombosis
- Can cause pleural effusion
- The pancreatic duct can have a leak
- Can also cause Pseudocysts with the complications of an infection, haemorrhage and/or a rupture
Avoid heavy consumption of alcohol and fatty foods are one of the best ways to make sure your body and system are healthy and to avoid ailments like Pancreatitis. Treatment is extremely important in case of Pancreatitis as if left untreated, it can cause further complications.
High Blood Pressure
High blood pressure is also called as hypertension. Blood pressure is the total force that is exerted against the arteries walls as the blood flows through the arteries. If you have a high blood pressure problem then you should visit a doctor. High blood pressure can lead to various health complications if left uncontrolled or untreated. These health problems include loss of the vision, kidney disease, stroke and heart problem. It is a common problem. But it is important to diagnose it early so that treatment can be provided on time. You should check your blood pressure regularly as it would help you and your doctor to find the changes if any. Hypertension can be treated with the help of prescribed medicines or by making some changes in the lifestyle related to health.
Symptoms of High Blood Pressure
It is not necessary that people will experience symptoms in case of high blood pressure. Many people do not experience the symptoms. That is why it is generally known as a silent condition. When blood pressure reaches around 180/110 mmHg then it becomes a medical emergency called a hypertensive crisis. You will experience the symptoms at this stage. Check out various symptoms of high blood pressure that you may experience:
- High blood pressure may lead to nosebleeds.
- Blurred or double vision is one of the symptoms or signs of high blood pressure.
- A condition of hypertensive crisis may lead to palpitations or forceful or irregular heartbeats.
- Children with high blood pressure may experience various symptoms including blurred vision, headache, nosebleeds, fatigue or Bell's palsy in which it becomes hard to control the muscles on one side of the face.
- Very young babies and newborns can also have high blood pressure. They experience various signs including respiratory distress, irritability, seizure, lethargy, and failure to thrive.
Causes of High Blood Pressure
A person has high blood pressure when the arteries walls receive a lot of pressure on a constant basis. High blood pressure causes are categorised in two categories including essential high blood pressure and secondary high blood pressure. Essential high blood pressure has no cause while secondary high blood pressure has an underlying cause. As per some evidence, there are some factors that can be responsible for essential high blood pressure. Check out some of the causes of essential high blood pressure and secondary high blood pressure:
- The more your age is the higher the risk of developing high blood pressure.
- If you have someone in your family who has the problem of hypertension then you are at a greater risk of developing high blood pressure.
- Both obese and overweight people are prone to develop hypertension or high blood pressure in comparison to other people who have a normal weight.
- Adult men are more prone to high blood pressure than adult women. Though, after the age of 60 years, both women and men are equally prone to develop high blood pressure.
- Lack of physical exercises may lead to hypertension or high blood pressure.
- Due to smoking, the blood vessels can become narrow leading to high blood pressure. Smoking also minimises the content of oxygen in the blood due to which the heart has to pump the blood faster to compensate, leading to high blood pressure.
- People who consume alcohol regularly are at more risk of developing high blood pressure than other people who do not consume alcohol.
- High salt intake increases the chances of developing hypertension or high blood pressure.
- Having a high-fat diet may lead to an increase in blood pressure.
- If a person has some stress from a long-term then it can create a serious impact on blood pressure.
- People with diabetes have greater chances of developing high blood pressure.
- As per some research, it has been noticed that if you have psoriasis then you are at a risk of developing diabetes and high blood pressure.
- Pregnant women are at risk of developing high blood pressure or hypertension than women who are not pregnant and are of the same age.
How is it diagnosed?
High blood pressure or hypertension can be easily diagnosed by taking a reading of blood pressure. Generally, most of the doctors check your blood pressure during your routine visit. You should get your blood pressure checked regularly, especially whenever you visit a doctor. If your doctor finds that you have high blood pressure then your doctor will ask you to take more readings regularly over the course of some days or weeks. It is not possible to give high blood pressure diagnosis just after one reading. That is why your doctor wants to check your blood pressure over the course of some more days. The level of blood pressure changes throughout the day. Sometimes blood pressure elevates due to stress that you may have during your examinations. So, your doctor wants more readings in order to confirm the diagnosis. If your doctor notices that your blood pressure remains elevated then your doctor may ask you to get more tests done to find out underlying conditions. These tests include:
- Urine test
- Screening for cholesterol
- Other blood tests
- Electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG) test for recording the electrical activity of your heart
- Ultrasound of your kidneys or heart
Doctors ask you to get these tests done in order to know about the secondary issues leading to high blood pressure. Tests will also help to find out the effects that elevated blood pressure may have had on the organs of an affected person.
Check out various ways that may reduce the chances of developing high blood pressure or hypertension:
- You should add healthy food items to your diet. You should eat a lot of vegetables and fruits every day. Your goal should be to add 10 servings of vegetables and fruits in a day.
- You should avoid foods which have high-sugar such as flavoured yoghurts, sodas, and cereals.
- You should monitor your blood pressure regularly as it helps to avoid various complications associated with hypertension.
- You should set goals in order to lose the weight. It will be more beneficial for you if you would be specific about your goals.
- You should reduce the intake of salt or sodium.
- Excessive drinking can lead to elevated blood pressure so you should reduce or avoid the consumption of alcohol.
- You should not drink plenty of those beverages which contain caffeine.
Treatment of High Blood Pressure
The treatment that is provided by your doctor depends on many factors including its severity, type of hypertension, causes of hypertension, chances of developing cardiovascular disease or stroke. Your doctor provides you with the best treatment as per your condition.
- Primary treatment options for hypertension: If your doctor finds out that you have a problem of primary hypertension then should make some changes in your lifestyle as it would help you to reduce your elevated blood pressure. If lifestyle changes only do not work for you then your doctor may prescribe you some medicines.
- Secondary treatment options for hypertension: If your doctor finds out the underlying cause of elevated blood pressure then your doctor would focus on treating that particular condition. If there is some medicine that is the cause of high blood pressure then your doctor will recommend you some other medicine with no side effects. There is a possibility that hypertension continues even after treating the underlying cause. In such case, your doctor would suggest you some lifestyle changes and prescribe medicines to reduce the elevated blood pressure. Your doctor continuously works with you to evolve your treatment plan as it is not necessary that what worked earlier will work now.
If the hypertension is not treated at the right time the excessive pressure on the artery walls can lead to damage of the blood vessels as well as some other vital organs. The factors on which the extent of damage depends are the severity of hypertension and for how long it has not been treated. Check out various complications associated with high blood pressure:
- the problem in brain functioning and memory functioning
- thickened, narrow, or torn blood vessels in the eyes
- blood clots
- kidney disease
- metabolic syndrome
Check out some of the common myths about high blood pressure:
Myth #1. There are people in my family with high blood pressure so I cannot do anything to prevent it.
It is a fact that if someone in your family has the problem of high blood pressure then you are more prone to develop hypertension or high blood pressure. But it is wrong to say that you cannot prevent high blood pressure if it runs in your family. Lifestyles changes help people to avoid high blood pressure even if it runs in their family.
Myth #2. I am a patient of high blood pressure and my doctor checks my blood pressure whenever I visit him so I need not check it at home.
Blood pressure keeps on fluctuating. If you record and monitor the blood pressure at home then you will able to provide important details to your doctor. This will help your doctor to decide whether the treatment plan is working or not. It is important that you take blood pressure readings daily, every morning and evening, or as per your doctor suggestion.
High blood pressure or hypertension is a common problem. People generally ignore high blood pressure in its earlier stage but this should be avoided. High blood pressure can lead to severe health complications if left untreated for a long time. The common symptoms of high blood pressure are nosebleeds, vomiting, nausea, dizziness, and more. A high-fat diet, high salt intake, smoking, and lack of physical exercises are some of the possible causes of high blood pressure. Your doctor can easily find out that you have high blood pressure by taking a reading. If your doctor finds out that you have elevated blood pressure then he or she may ask you to get more readings. Once your doctor notices that the readings are continuously high then your doctor will ask you to get some tests done including urine test, blood tests, electrocardiogram test, ultrasound of kidneys and heart, and more in order to be confirmed about the diagnosis. A lot of complications are associated with high blood pressure including stroke, kidney disease, heart failure and blood clots. People have many myths or misconceptions about high blood pressure. If someone in your family has high blood pressure then you cannot do anything to prevent it is one of the common myths.
In our study of the females of urban area, the following were the comments made by them when asked as to why they felt lack of sexual interest for their partners:
Deteriorated sexual self-esteem
Women expressed lower feeling of attractiveness and change in the body image. Such feelings overshadowed their sexual self-steam. “…I’m not happy with my body. I have sagging breasts and flabby stomach bulging out after child birth which made me very ugly ... I don’t feel attractive at all (24 y/o, teacher).
Some participants had experienced being reproached by their spouse and believed that this behavior had reduced their self-confidence. “…He permanently finds faults in my body. He blames my loose vagina, my passivity in sex and…; my self-confidence in sex has been reduced” (44y/o, teacher).
The spouse’s infidelity was also expressed by some women. “I have noticed his relationships for some years. He has not approached me for several months” (45 y/o, govt officer).
Deteriorated feminine position
Sexual desirability was mentioned by some participants. “When I was sexually active, I had more energy and motivation. I felt merriment and lively but I don’t, now.” (36 y/o, PhD).
Feeling as an incompetent woman was very challenging for the women who took part in this research.“Meeting the sexual need of the spouse is the duty of his wife. He wants me to be like other eager women, but I have no interest in sex. I do not act in a feminine manner” (42 y/o, Master of Science).
Being rejected by the spouse was also stated by some women. “He says that he doesn’t want me anymore. When I remember his words, I go mad. I have even cried during intercourse several times” (33 y/o, diploma).
Struggle in sexual issues
Concern about losing the relationship and spouse
Accepting sex to maintain the spouse was mentioned by women. “He also needs sex. Either I have to accept it or he may have desire for other women” (40 y/o, bachelor).
Many of housewife women talked about financial support: “When I need money, I accept the relationship, even an anal intercourse” (30 y/o, diploma).
Concern about continued sexual reluctance was worrying in some women. “If my lack of desire continues, I may see his sexual frigidity and our intimate relationship will collapse… I will get miserable” (24y/o, diploma).
Surrendering to sexual relationship
Half of the women expressed their pretension to be interested in sex and their role playing: “I pretend I am interested in sex, but he knows that I’m not behaving like the past”. I role-play in sex to satisfy my husband’s sexual needs.” (24 y/o, diploma).
Deterioration of the couple’s relationship
Deteriorated marital interactions
Less emotional interactions with the spouse was stated by some women. “I’ve been avoiding him and I don’t get intimate with him” (39 y/o, associate degree).
Women believed that change in the spouse’s behavior reduced his attractiveness. “… If my husband demands sex and I refuse it, he will get grumpy and will find an excuse to begin an argument” (31 y/o, associate degree).
Reduced affection expressed by the spouse was also mentioned “...he doesn’t care about me anymore. If I go to my mom’s house from morning to evening, he even doesn’t call to see how I am doing”. (30y/o, diploma).
Sexual disharmony between the couple
Lack of sexual talk with the spouse was observed among the majority of participations.
“I haven’t talked about my problem with him. We do not talk about sexual issues together” (30 y/o, diploma).
Sexual avoidance of the woman was stated by participants. “When my husband demands sex, I say I’m busy or sleepy…” (24 y/o, diploma).
More than half of women referred to sexual coercion by their spouses. “Sometimes, I have to accept sex. It is very difficult to tolerate it. I feel offended and choked with anger” (31 y/o, bachelor).
Anal and oral sex were considered as annoying or unusual sexual demands by the spouse “anal sex according to Islam, it should be avoided ... I also don’t like oral sex. I feel women are insulted to do so. I feel sick when I talk about it” (22 y/o, diploma).
The clitoris may be the most pivotal structure for female sexual pleasure. While its significance has been reported for hundreds of years, no complete anatomical description was available until recently. Most of the components of the clitoris are buried under the skin and connective tissues of the vulva. It comprises an external glans and hood, and an internal body, root, crura, and bulbs; its overall size is 9-11 cm.
Clitoral somatic innervation is via the dorsal nerve of the clitoris, a branch of the pudendal nerve, while other neuronal networks within the structure are complex. The clitoris is the center for orgasmic response and is embryologically homologous to the male penis. While the source of vaginal eroticism might or might not be exclusively clitoral stimulation, it is necessary to understand the intricate anatomy of the organ to assess the data in this regard. Ultimately, sexual enjoyment entails a balance of physical and emotional factors and should be encouraged.
Most women report that clitoral stimulation is an integral aspect of their orgasm experience. we conducted a study on Eighty-eight women 18 to 53 years old who answered detailed questions about their usual and recent orgasm experiences, sexual history, depression, and anxiety. Then, they viewed a series of sexual films.Most women (64%) reported that clitoral and vaginal stimulation contributed to their usual method of reaching orgasm. Women who reported primarily stimulating their clitoris to reach orgasm reported higher trait sexual drive and higher sexual arousal to visual sexual stimulation and were better able to increase their sexual arousal to visual sexual stimulation when instructed than women who reported orgasms primarily from vaginal sources. Thus, watching porn or sex video call will help a woman get orgasm more by clitoral stimulation than vaginal insertion.
Diagnosis and treatment-
According to Unani medicine, management of any disease depends upon the diagnosis of disease. Proper diagnosis depends upon observation of the patient's symptoms and temperament.
Unani, like Ayurveda, is based on theory of the presence of the elements in the human body. According to followers of Unani medicine, these elements are present in fluids and their balance leads to health and their imbalance leads to illness.
According to Unani practitioners, the failure of the Quwwat-e-Mudabbira-e-Badan, or the body's ability to maintain its own health, may lead to derangement of the normal equilibrium of the body's akhlat (humors). Abnormal humors are believed to lead to pathological changes in the tissues at the affected site, creating the clinical manifestations of illness. The theory postulates the presence of blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile in the human body. Each person's unique mixture of these substances determines his mizaj (temperament). A predominance of blood gives a sanguine temperament; a predominance of phlegm makes one phlegmatic; yellow bile, bilious (or choleric); and black bile, melancholic.
The body needs time to repair itself. Lack of sleep can upset the body's metabolism and possibly hasten the onset of age-related conditions.
Itchy skin is a very uncomfortable condition and causes physical and mental irritation to those who have it. It is a very common problem especially among those who have dry skin.
Pruritus is a skin condition where it gets very itchy. The level of itchiness differs among individuals and also varies according to the cause of the condition as well. Due to constant scratching of the affected area, this condition can become worse and can even cause infections.
Pruritus is most commonly caused because of dry skin and that is why it is more common in adults because the skin gets drier as the age of the person increases. When the skin is affected by pruritus, it might get red or it might appear just as normal. When it gets a bit severe, chances of developing bumps and blisters are also high. The mind reacts very quickly when it itches, that is why most of the people end up scratching the itchy area which proves to be harmful in the end. Repeated scratching causes the affected area to thicken, after which it can also start bleeding.
Generally, itchiness is caused only in some small or specific areas of the body. If there is itching on the whole body, then probably it is because of an allergic reaction. It is important to note that pruritus can happen without any visible changes on the skin but there could be following symptoms as well:
- Redness of the skin. The area will also feel warmer.
- Blisters or bumps. There could be a presence of spots in different areas.
- Dry skin which causes it to crack, giving it a leathery kind of texture.
Pruritus can also last for a long time with more severity. Itching and its severity are dependent on each other. When people feel itchy, they cannot resist scratching and when they scratch, itching and skin condition gets worse. Coming out of this loop is very hard but sometimes, trying to divert the attention somewhere else might help. In many situations, only medications are helpful.
When these conditions last for a period of weeks and do not show any signs of improving, it is best to visit the doctor. It is wise to seek medical attention in the following situations as well:
- When the person is not able to concentrate on their routine activities and cannot help thinking about it.
- When they abruptly feel itchy on any body part.
- When pruritus happens in the whole body instead of a specific part.
- In case there are other symptoms present in the body like drowsiness, weight-loss or weakness, digestion issues or fever.
Skin is vital, as well as delicate. It acts as a shield to protect the inside parts of the body. It can save the body from harmful elements like bacteria, viruses etc. with the help of some cells which are part of the human body’s immune system. Those cells detect the occurrence of an unwanted condition or a presence of a substance which might harm the body. Those cells are very reactive and act when some harmful substance touches the body, or when the body is having some infection or a disease. When those cells detect such a thing, they cause the affected area to develop inflammation which is what is known by the popular term rash or dermatitis. This inflammation triggers the itching. The severity of the rash varies from one person to the other. Some people have very sensitive skin. They can have rashes which are very painful and red, but some can have just the visibility of rashes but no or very less itching.
Following are some of the popularly known reasons for pruritus:
- The most common cause of pruritus is having a dry skin. This can be found out by checking the affected area carefully. If there are no blisters or bumps or no other change on that part, then probably the reason is dry skin. Dry skin which causes pruritus is also known as xerosis. Most people have dry skin by birth and it gets even drier when they grow up. Other reasons why the skin can become dry could be the exposure to an air-conditioned environment, staying in a heated room for a long time or washing the hands/body too often with soaps and chemical based washes.
- Pruritus can also be a result of other skin conditions. Those can be psoriasis, chickenpox, hives, scabies or dermatitis. Dermatitis is also known as eczema. These kinds of conditions generally have an impact on certain specific areas of the body and also cause other issues like redness, bumps or blisters.
- When the skin is itchy, it could be a signal that something is wrong in the body and there could be a presence of an illness. The illness could be related to the liver, kidney or any other organ. Diseases like kidney malfunction, deficiency of iron, cancer, leukaemia, thyroid and lymphoma could be the reasons. In such cases, not a specific part but the whole body becomes itchy. It is advisable not to go by the physical appearance because the skin might appear to be normal but still, there could be repeated itching on some parts or the whole body.
- It has been seen that diseases related to the nervous system also causes itching. Some examples of issues related to the nervous system are shingles, pinched nerves, diabetes mellitus, sclerosis etc.
- Another major cause of pruritus is an allergic reaction to some object. The range of objects is quite wide. It could be hard chemical based soaps like body wash, hand wash or even dishwashers. Some people also find wool as allergic and causes itching to them. Other objects could be some cosmetics, metals like nickel, or plants like poison ivy. There are certain foods like peanuts which also causes pruritus.
- There are certain medicinal drugs which can have their side effects like some antibiotics, narcotic pain related medicines, antifungal drugs. Reactions from these drugs mostly spread to the whole body and cause the rashes all over.
- Other general causes of itching are fungal infections or things like bedbugs, lice or other worms. An example of a fungal infection is athlete’s foot in which the area between the toes or the area around it gets affects and starts to itch.
- In females, during pregnancy, the skin can get itchy. Especially the abdominal area gets very itchy but even thighs can become like that. If a female who already has dermatitis becomes pregnant, the chances of dermatitis getting worse are very high.
How is it diagnosed?
To diagnose the presence of pruritus is straightforward because it simply means itching in the body. But to detect the cause of the itching can be a bit tricky. It can be a time-consuming process and requires a physical examination by the doctor or a skin specialist. The doctor would also ask about the medical history of the patient to check if the person is allergic to some specific substances or drugs. The doctor might also ask for one or few of the following tests:
- Blood tests: Lot of information can be gathered from a blood sample. The blood count can point in the right direction to detect the underlying cause of pruritus. It could be deficiency or iron or some other internal issue.
- Kidney function test: They are important to verify how well the kidneys are doing their work. Any disorders can immediately be detected with the help of kidney function. If there is a chronic kidney disease, it damages the kidneys very severely and disables them from filtering the toxins. This condition is also known as Uremia. When a person has Uremia, their itching increases in the night time and mostly affects the back, abdominal area and the arms.
- Thyroid test: It is used to find out if the person has got hyperthyroidism or any other thyroid abnormalities.
- Liver tests: They are helpful in checking the health of the liver.
- Chest X-rays: This test is useful in recognising the presence of any lung related diseases or issues like enlarged lymph nodes.
To avoid getting pruritus, it is important to keep the skin healthy and keep it away from risky substances. Following suggestions will help in the prevention of pruritus:
- Keeping the skin moisturized always is very crucial. Avoiding it from getting dry will improve its overall health as well. Use of moisturizing lotions and creams is highly advisable.
- When there is sunshine, use of sunscreen is also highly worthwhile. It does not matter whether the person is inside or outside. The rays of the sun reach indoors as well which is why sunscreen is beneficial.
- If the skin is sensitive or prone to pruritus, then soaps should be avoided. There are soap free options available in the market. If the soaps must be used, then using mild ones is advisable.
- Showering with hot water should be avoided and using warm water instead is suggested. Hot water makes the skin drier.
- Whenever possible, use cotton instead of synthetic clothes. Woolen clothes might not have many alternatives, but a cotton cloth can be worn inside them to avoid their direct contact with the skin.
- When the person is spending much time in the heated or air-conditioned room, then using a dehumidifier or keeping a bowl of water might help a little bit.
- When the skin is irritated, it might be very difficult to resist itching, but keeping a washcloth soaked in cold water can help in giving some relief. It will bring the inflammation down and prevent the person from scratching the already sensitive area.
- When the person is going outside where the presence of insects or mosquitoes could be there, then keeping themselves covered is wise. Using a mosquito repellent indoors will also be very helpful.
- If the person is allergic to substances like nickel, then use of artificial jewellery should be strictly avoided. Instead, they should use alternatives like pure gold or pure silver.
The treatment of pruritus depends on the underlying cause of this problem. If the reason is simply dry skin, then moisturizing alone will solve the issue. For other causes, the treatments are as follows:
- Skin conditions like eczema or hives can be treated with the help of corticosteroids, but these should be used only if the skin specialists approve of them. Sometimes, doctors also prescribe antihistamines.
- If the itching is caused because of some allergy, then anti-allergy drugs like Benadryl, Allegra etc. can help as well.
- Fungal infections are mostly treated with drugs that are available over-the-counter. There are a few anti-fungal creams available with the pharmacies that can be used. For that, the person should be sure that the infection is fungal which only the doctor can confirm. They might also prescribe oral drugs like Lamisil or Terbinafine.
- A popular drug that doctors prescribe is hydrocortisone. Since it is a low potency steroid, it should only be used if it is prescribed by the doctor.
- In case the cause of pruritus is an internal body condition, then treatment will be provided to heal that, and the treatments could vary.
- Light or phototherapies are also used to control the itching.
Apart from mental discomfort, pruritus can also cause infections in case people cannot help scratching their skin. If pruritus is left untreated, it might not get healed and remain there.
People often believe that the presence of pruritus is only because of some allergy. It is not always the case. Allergies are just one reason for having this condition. There could be internal body condition as well which might lead to pruritus. Also, when the skin becomes red and hives are developed, many people relate those scenarios with superstitions which are scientifically and medically not valid.
Tachycardia is also known as tachyarrhythmia. It is a common type of heart rhythm disorder. For adults, the normal resting heart rate is between 60 - 100 beats per minute. In tachyarrhythmia, the heart rate is greater than 100 beats per minute. The heart rate generally rises during exercise or when you take a lot of stress. But in case of tachycardia, the heartbeats are faster than normal in the upper or lower chambers or both while at rest. Various treatment options are available including medications and surgery to treat the heart disorder of tachycardia. Sometimes, people are not able to recognise the symptoms of tachycardia. Tachycardia can lead to serious heart problems or complications if not treated properly on time or left untreated. Heart failure, stroke, sudden cardiac arrest, or death can be some of the serious complications of tachycardia. So, if you find out that you are suffering from the symptoms of tachycardia then should visit the doctor at the earliest for a diagnosis.
Due to the fast heartbeat rate, your heart is not able to pump the blood properly to your body. This can lead to various symptoms or signs of tachycardia:
- Pain in the chest
- Rapid pulse rate
- Heart palpitations
- Sudden weakness
Sometimes, people do not experience the symptoms at all. They get to know about it from their doctor after the physical examination or electrocardiogram test.
Tachycardia happens when something disrupts the normal electrical impulses that control the rate of pumping action of your heart. Many things can cause the problem of tachycardia. Sometimes, it becomes hard to recognise the exact cause of tachycardia. Check out the various causes of tachycardia:
- Drinking too much alcohol and beverages that contain caffeine can lead to the problem of tachycardia.
- Many heart diseases including heart valve disease, heart failure, heart muscle disease, coronary artery disease, tumours, or infections can lead to the tachycardia.
- Congenital heart conditions which are present at the time of birth can lead to tachycardia.
- Sudden stress or hypertension can cause tachycardia.
- Tachycardia can also happen due to smoking, the consumption of cocaine and some other recreational drugs.
- Side effects can happen due to the intake of certain medicines which can result in tachycardia.
- Electrolytes are the mineral-related substances required for conducting electrical impulses. The imbalance of electrolytes can lead to tachycardia.
- Overactive thyroid, high or low blood pressure, fever, anaemia, certain lung diseases and more are some of the other causes of tachycardia.
How is it diagnosed?
As soon as you experience any or some of the symptoms of tachycardia, you should visit the doctor. The doctor will conduct a physical examination in order to diagnose the problem. Your doctor will ask you about your medical history and health habits. You may be asked to get some tests done including:
- Electrocardiogram (ECG or ECK): It is a painless test done to diagnose tachycardia. The small sensors (electrodes) are attached to your chest or arms in order to record the electrical activity of your heart. This test helps your doctor to know what type of tachycardia you have and how problems in your heart leading to a fast heart rate. This test provides the information for a limited time period. If your doctor wants more information then he may ask you to use portable ECG devices.
- Holter Monitor: It is a portable ECG device. This device helps to record your heart's activity for around 24 hours. You can easily carry this device in your pocket. It can also be worn on a belt or shoulder strap. If your doctor wants to check the record of your heart activity for a longer period then he may ask you to use this device.
- Event Monitor: It is also a portable electrocardiogram device helps to monitor your heart activity for a few months or weeks. You wear this device for the whole day but it allows you to record the heart activity at the certain times. Whenever you experience the symptoms of fast heart rate, you have to push a button on the device in order to record. There are some monitors that automatically sense your abnormal heart rhythms and start recording your heart's activity. By the help of this, your doctor is able to see the activity of your heart at the time of your symptoms.
- Electrophysiological test: This non-surgical test is done to confirm the diagnosis and to pinpoint the location where the problem is. In this test, a doctor inserts electrodes tipped catheters into your arm, groin or neck and guided through blood vessels to various spots in your heart. Electrophysiologist does this test in the EP lab.
- Stress test: In the stress test, extra stress is given to you in order to check how your heart functions when it works hard. During this test, your doctor may ask you to do exercise may be on a treadmill or stationary bicycle and at the same time, your heart activity would be monitored.
- Tilt-table test: If the electrocardiogram and Holter monitor fail to diagnose the problem then your doctor may perform a tilt-table test. This test helps to monitor the rhythm of the heart, blood pressure, and heart rate.
- Blood tests: Blood tests help to know if thyroid problem or other substances leading to tachycardia.
- Chest X-ray: Chest X-ray is done to check if your heart is enlarged. By the help of this test, the still images of your heart and lungs are taken to check their condition.
A healthy lifestyle can reduce the risk of tachycardia. The problem of tachycardia can be prevented by making some changes in health habits including:
- You should quit smoking.
- The intake of beverages that contain caffeine should be reduced.
- You should reduce the consumption of alcohol.
- Exercise and weight loss can also reduce the risk of tachycardia.
- Avoid the situations that give you stress.
- Avoid having spicy and fatty food and stick to a healthy diet.
The treatment depends on the cause of your tachycardia. It also depends on your age and health record. In tachycardia, the treatment is given to slow down the fast heart rate and minimize the complications that can arise in the future. The following treatment options are available for the people suffering from tachycardia:
Ways to slow down a fast heartbeat:
- Vagal manoeuvres: It is an action performed to slow down your heart rate. Your doctor may ask you to perform this action during an episode of a fast heartbeat. The vagal nerve regulates your heartbeat and vagal manoeuvres affect this nerve. Manoeuvres include coughing, heaving as if you are having a bowel movement and putting an ice pack on the face.
- Medications: If vagal manoeuvres do not show any result then your doctor may give you an injection of an anti-arrhythmic medication for restoring the normal heart rate. Your doctor may also recommend you pill version of an anti-arrhythmic drug.
- Cardioversion: In this, an electric current is given to your heart through electrodes placed on your chest. This helps to restore a normal heart rhythm. This treatment method is used when there is an emergency or vagal manoeuvres and medications do not work with your type of tachycardia.
Ways to prevent episodes of a fast heart rate:
- Catheter ablation: In this, doctor inserts catheters tipped with electrodes into your arm, neck or groin and guide them through the blood vessels to your heart. This method is used when an extra electrical pathway is the cause of increased heart rate.
- Medications: Your doctor may ask you to have anti-arrhythmic medications in pills version regularly to prevent a fast heart rate. Calcium channel blockers and beta blockers are the other types of drugs that may be prescribed by your doctor as an alternative to or in combination with anti-arrhythmic medications.
- Pacemaker: Pacemaker helps in treating some types of tachycardias. A pacemaker is a small device that is implanted under your skin through a surgery. An electrical pulse is emitted by this device whenever it senses an abnormal heartbeat. The electrical pulse helps your heart to resume a normal beat.
- Implantable cardioverter: In this, a device of pager size named implantable cardioverter-defibrillator is implanted in your chest through a surgery. This device helps continuously to monitor your heartbeat, detect an increase in heart rate and deliver calibrated electrical shocks, if required, in order to restore a normal rhythm of the heart. This treatment is recommended if you are having a life-threatening tachycardia.
- Surgery: Doctors recommend surgery when all the other options do not work or when surgery is required to treat another heart disorder. Open-heart surgery is generally done to damage an extra electrical pathway leading to tachycardia. The maze procedure is another type of surgery in which a surgeon makes small cuts in heart tissue.
- Ways to prevent blood clots:
- Blood-thinning medication: Those people who suffer from the heart disorder of tachycardia have a great risk of developing a blood clot. A blood clot can cause a heart attack or stroke. For this purpose, your doctor may prescribe you blood thinners to reduce the risk of developing a blood clot.
The various complications that are associated with tachycardia are:
- Blood clots: This is one of the common complications of tachycardia. Due to tachycardia, the risk of developing blood clots increase. Blood clots formation can lead to a stroke or heart attack.
- Heart failure: If your condition of tachycardia is not controlled on time then it can make your heart weak. Weak heart increases the chance of heart failure. In heart failure, the heart does not pump the blood properly to all the organs of the body. Due to this, the body of the person can be affected from the left side, right side or both the sides.
- Sudden death: Sometimes, ventricular tachycardia can lead to sudden death.
- Other complications: The other complications of tachycardia are fainting, dizziness, tiredness, fatigue, and shortness of breath.
Myth #1: If your heart rate is higher than the normal resting heart rate then it means you are stressed out.
In tachycardia, the heart rate is greater than the normal resting rate. It is true that stress can spike your heart rate. But heart rate can also rise due to other causes including fever, anemia, thyroid disease, consumption of alcohol and beverages containing caffeine, smoking and more.
Tachycardia is a heart disorder in which the heart rate is higher than the normal resting heart rate. The normal resting heart rate is between 60 - 100 beats per minute for adults. People who suffer from tachycardia experience the heart rate of greater than 100 beats per minute. Sometimes, people are not able to recognize tachycardia as they do not experience the symptoms at all. Your doctor can help you to diagnose tachycardia through the physical examination and various tests. As soon as you experience any or some of the symptoms of tachycardia, you should reach out to the best doctor. Fever, high or low blood pressure, lung diseases, anemia, consuming alcohol, smoking, drinking beverages having caffeine, thyroid disease and various heart diseases can lead to tachycardia.