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Crystal Clinic

Psychiatrist Clinic

#26, Rashbehari Avenue, Mahanirban Road, Gariahat, Dover Terrace, Ballygunge, Kolkata Kolkata
1 Doctor · ₹1350
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Crystal Clinic Psychiatrist Clinic #26, Rashbehari Avenue, Mahanirban Road, Gariahat, Dover Terrace, Ballygunge, Kolkata Kolkata
1 Doctor · ₹1350
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Our medical care facility offers treatments from the best doctors in the field of Psychiatrist.We are dedicated to providing you with the personalized, quality health care that you deserve....more
Our medical care facility offers treatments from the best doctors in the field of Psychiatrist.We are dedicated to providing you with the personalized, quality health care that you deserve.
More about Crystal Clinic
Crystal Clinic is known for housing experienced Psychiatrists. Dr. Rima Mukherjee, a well-reputed Psychiatrist, practices in Kolkata. Visit this medical health centre for Psychiatrists recommended by 73 patients.

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MON-SAT
02:00 PM - 07:00 PM

Location

#26, Rashbehari Avenue, Mahanirban Road, Gariahat, Dover Terrace, Ballygunge, Kolkata
Mahanirban Road Kolkata, West Bengal - 121212
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Doctor in Crystal Clinic

Dr. Rima Mukherjee

MBBS, Diploma in Psychological Medicine
Psychiatrist
18 Years experience
1350 at clinic
Available today
02:00 PM - 07:00 PM
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Depression - In-Depth Knowledge Of It!

MD - Acupuncture, Diploma In Accupuncture, Advanced Diploma In Accupuncture
Acupuncturist, Delhi
Depression - In-Depth Knowledge Of It!

Depression
Depression is a medical condition that leads to unrelenting sadness or interest deprivation. It is also referred to as mood disorder, depressive disorder to clinical depression. The disease affects the feeling, thinking pattern or behavioural pattern of the patient leading a several emotional or physical issues.

A lot of people relate depression with weakness and do not pay heed to the treatment of the disease, which results in several complications. Often, depression requires long-term treatment. Most depression patients can lead a healthy lifestyle with the help of proper medication or psychotherapy, and in some case the blend of both.

Types of Depression:
There are several types of depression. Some of the many types of depression are:
-  Anxious Distress (Restlessness)

-  Mixed Features (Concurrent depression and mania)

-  Melancholic Features (Depression involving feelings of agitation or guilt)

-  Atypical Features (Depression accompanied by hunger, or sleep disorder)

-  Psychotic Features (Depression accompanied by hallucinations or delusions)

-  Catatonia (Depression with persistent or uncontrollable movement)

-  Peripartum/Postpartum Onset (Depression during or after pregnancy)

-  Seasonal Pattern (Depression during change of seasons)

While these are the common types and variations, depression is not limited to these and it may occur in manifold ways and at manifold times in one’s life. It is imperative to stay vigilant, not only for the patient but for those who are around them, since unlike other diseases, often depression cannot be noticed by the person who is experiencing it, and those around them have to initiate inquiry.

Disorders that Lead to Depression:
In addition to the different types of depression disorders, some other disorders may also lead to depression. Some of these disorders are: 
-  Bipolar I and II Disorders (Extreme high or low mood)

-  Cyclothymic Disorder

-  Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (frequent extreme temper outbursts)

-  Persistent Depressive Disorder

-  Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder

-  Other Depression Disorders

While it is common to have disorders or other reasons that lead to depression, it is important to remember that sometimes the reasons or situations may not be clear. Processing emotions become incredibly difficult when one is depressed, which only makes it worse.

It is insensitive and downright uninformed to seek clear reasons and outlines from a depressed person as to why they feel the way they feel, as is to ask them to go out more or just focus on other things.

It is only when the basic activities like sports, music, hobbies, etc stop entertaining a person that they get depressed, so asking them to do those things reflects immaturity and lack of any knowledge about the subject.

Symptoms of Depression:
Often signs and symptoms of depression often go unnoticed. Some people ignore depression symptoms like weakness or temporary mood swings. But it is important to understand the symptoms of depression and get adequate treatment for the same. 

Typically, symptoms of depression include:
-  Extreme emotions of hopelessness or sadness

-  Extreme angst, irritation or frustration

-  Loss of interest/pleasure

-  Sleep disorder (too much sleep or insomnia)

-  Exhaustion

-  Appetite loss

-  Weight gain

-  Restlessness or anxiety

-  Slow reflexes

-  Emotions of guilt

-  Problems in concentrating, thinking, or remembering things

-  Suicidal tendencies

-  Back pains

-  Headaches

Depression Symptoms in Children
Symptoms of depression in children are almost same as that of adults. However, there are some differences. In children of younger age, depression symptoms may involve body aches and pains and/or emotions of sadness, clinginess or irritability. In some cases, depression may cause loss of weight in younger children.

In teenagers, depression symptoms may include emotions of sadness, agitation, negativity or worthlessness. Teenagers suffering from depression are extremely sensitive and avoid social interactions. In some cases, such teenagers may also start using recreational drugs or alcohols. In some extreme cases, teenagers suffering from depression also form suicidal tendencies.

Depression Symptoms in Adults
Depression takes several years to be treated completely. In adults, the symptoms of depression may include:

-  Memory loss

-  Personality changes

-  Body aches or pains

-  Exhaustion

-  Appetite loss

-  Sleep disorder

-  Loss of interest

-  Loss of interest in socializing

-  Suicidal tendencies

-  Exhaustion, severe tiredness

-  Suicidal thoughts

-  Changes in appetite

-  Sleep disturbances

-  Panic attacks

-  Headaches, aches and pains, bloating, digestive issues,  cramps, breast tenderness, etc.

-  Inability to concentrate

-  Loss of interest

there can be many other symptoms of depression, and a person of any age group may experience the disease without even exhibiting all or any of these symptoms. To identify depression and its occurrence, sensitization and awareness are key.

What Causes Depression?
Medical fraternity has not yet been able to find out the exact cause of depression. 

However, some of the most common factors of depression may involve:
-  Neurological Disorders

-  Brain Chemistry

-  Hormonal Disorders

-  Family History

-  Social Causes

-  Biological Causes

-  Psychological causes
 

Depression Risk factors:
Often depression is found in the age group of 20 to 30 years. However, this disease can strike anyone at any age.

 Listed below are just some of the many risk factors associated with depression, due to which a person may be susceptible to the disease:
-  Personality traits (low self-esteem, self-critical or pessimism)

-  Traumatic events (physical abuse, sexual abuse, death of loved one, difficult relationship, or financial problems)

-  Family history (blood relatives with depression, bipolar disorder, alcoholism or suicidal tendencies)

-  Mental health disorder history (anxiety disorder, eating disorders or post-traumatic stress disorder)

-  Alcohol abuse

-  Recreational drug abuse

-  Chronic illness (Cancer, stroke, chronic pain or heart disease)

-  Side effects of some medicines (some high blood pressure medicines, or sleeping pills)

 

Complications:
Depression is a serious medical condition that may lead to several complications if untreated. Some of the most common complications of untreated depression include:
-  Obesity

-  Body ache or pain

-  Cramps

-  Tendency to consume alcohol

-  Tendency to drug misuse

-  Extreme anxiety

-  Panic disorders

-  Social phobia

-  Personality disorders

-  Social isolation

-  Suicidal tendencies

-  Self-mutilation

-  Premature death

Other than these as well, there are several complications that may be case specific. as the complications of the disease are physiological and psychological at the same time, it is very important to handle a case effectively and be extremely careful with a patient of depression.

Prevention from Depression:
There are no scientifically proven ways to prevent depression. However, there are few things that may help prevent depression:

-  Controlling stress

-  Taking help from family and friends

-  Starting treatment early

-  Ensuring long-term treatment and help

 

Diagnosis of Depression:
In order to diagnose depression, following tests may be conducted:

-  Physical Examination

-  Lab Tests

-  Psychiatric Evaluation

 

Treatment of Depression:
Often psychotherapy and medications remain the preferred ways to treat patients suffering from depression. Treatment of depression involves several drugs and medicines in addition to psychiatric or psychological evaluation.

Those suffering from severe depression may also need to stay in hospital for treatment till their symptoms subside.

 

Medications
Patients suffering from depression may be prescribed several types of antidepressants. Be advised to consume antidepressants only after consulting a certified medical professional. Some of the most common antidepressants prescribed to depression patients include:

-  Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) – [fluoxetine (Prozac), paroxetine (Paxil, Pexeva), citalopram (Celexa), escitalopram (Lexapro), vilazodone (Viibryd) and sertraline (Zoloft)]
-  Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRIs) – [levomilnacipran (Fetzima), venlafaxine (Effexor XR), desvenlafaxine (Pristiq, Khedezla) and duloxetine (Cymbalta)] 
-  Atypical Antidepressants – [mirtazapine (Remeron), vortioxetine (Trintellix), nefazodone, trazodone and bupropion (Wellbutrin XL, Wellbutrin SR, Aplenzin, Forfivo XL)] 
-  Tricyclic Antidepressants – [amitriptyline, doxepin, trimipramine (Surmontil), desipramine (Norpramin), imipramine (Tofranil), nortriptyline (Pamelor) and protriptyline (Vivactil)]

Note: Tricyclic Antidepressant drugs have severe side effects.  
-  Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs) – [phenelzine (Nardil), tranylcypromine (Parnate) and isocarboxazid (Marplan)]

 

Other medications
Doctors may add other medications along with antidepressants to fasten the effects of the drugs.
For some patients, the regular dosage of antidepressants may not be very effective, and doctors may not prescribe them straight away due to the associated complications and risks of extreme side effects.

Often the following alternative therapies are used to treat depression. they are not always successful and sometimes can be pointless in specific cases; but patients have been seen to benefit from them otherwise, especially when used alongside prescription medications.

-  Yoga

-  Herbal remedies

-  Reflexology

-  Acupuncture

-  Meditation

-  Massage

-  Exercise

-  Guided imagery and relaxation

 

Risk of Stopping/Missing Out Antidepressants Dose
It is recommended not to stop consuming antidepressants without confirming with your doctor. Antidepressants usually are not of addictive nature but may lead to some physical dependencies. Abruptly stopping antidepressants or missing out a dose may lead to withdrawal symptoms. It is important to consult doctor and gradually decrease the dose. 

 

Consumption of Antidepressants in Pregnancy
Antidepressant consumption is not advised to pregnant women as it may pose a risk to the unborn child. Likewise, breast-feeding women are also not advised to take antidepressants as it may adversely affect the newly born. It is important to consult a doctor before starting antidepressants in the state of pregnancy.

 

Suicidal Tendency
Mostly antidepressants are safe to consume. However, consume of some antidepressants may increase suicidal tendency in kids, young adults and even senior citizens. The suicidal tendency starts showing in the very first week of consumption of antidepressants.

It is imperative to keep an eye on the patients who are on antidepressant dosage for unusual behaviour pattern. In case the patient experiences suicidal tendencies when consuming antidepressants, it makes sense to consult a certified medical professional immediately.
 

Common Myths About Depression:
Myth #1:
 Depression is not real disease

Reality: A lot of people believe that depression is not a serious medical condition, but just some random personality trait or weakness. This is wrong. Depression is a serious medical condition that can affect anyone. It is one medical condition that may lead to several life-threatening complications right from physical disabilities to neurological disorders and even suicidal tendencies. 

 

Myth #2: Depression is just an extreme form of sadness or grief.

Reality: This is yet another popular myth about depression. However, the fact is that depression is different from ordinary sadness or grief. Ordinary sadness or grief subsides with time; whereas in depression, sadness or grief doesn’t really subside. Successful treatment of depression takes months, in some cases years.

 

Myth #3: Depression patients are required to take medications lifelong

Reality: Depression requires longer treatment, but it doesn’t require lifelong treatment. Doctors decide the tenure of the treatment of depression. And once the treatment culminates, the patient doesn’t need to get the treatment again. The exact time period of depression treatment depends upon the severity of the disorder of the patient and widely varies from person to person. In fact, latest research and studies reveal that patients can successfully complete the treatment of depression with a combination of psychotherapy and medications in as little as 24 weeks. 

 

Myth #4: Those with family history of depression are sure to have it

Reality: While it is true that depression can be passed on from parents to their children, it is not likely that everyone with family history of depression will have it. Genetic predisposition of depression is rare.

 

Myth #5: Depression patients need treatment lifelong.

Reality: This is entirely untrue. Depression patients are required to take medications for as long as their treatment continues. In addition, the duration of consuming medication for depression depends upon the time period prescribed by a certified medical professional after a careful analysis of symptoms, intensity and severity of the disease. Once a patient has substantially improved and integrated into a healthy lifestyle, there is no need to continue treatment. However, it is only a doctor who should decide when a patient is ready to go off of therapy.

 

Myth #6: Antidepressants always cure depression

Reality: Antidepressants have huge side effects and terrible withdrawal symptoms, which is why doctors only prescribe them after careful consideration in case results are not noticeable otherwise. Antidepressants sometimes fail to work on individuals with specific cases. Antidepressants work by altering the brain chemistry of the patient and thereby helping improve the situation. But when the cause of the patient’s depression does not coincide with the effect of the antidepressants at all, results may be few. In such cases, doctors prescribe other forms of treatment which may be beneficial on their own, or alongside medications and antidepressants.

 

Myth #7: Depressions only happens because of a sad situation in someone’s life.

Reality: This is sometimes the case indeed, but often times is false since a sad situation is not always even present in the patient’s timeline of disease. sometimes a tragic situation is a trigger which brings out the underlying disease to the surface after denial or pretending, or sometimes by worsening it. Medical experts have been trying to identify causes of depression for a long time but this task is not easy. some identified causes are brain chemistry, hormones, social factors, but very often the precise cause of a patient’s depression is not possible to be pointed out.

 

Myth #8: Talking about depression makes it worse.

Reality: nothing could be far from true on the list of myths associated with depression. very often, depression is a consequent or bottling up emotions and not expressing oneself. This tendency, over a prolonged period of time, may cause depression, and may be caused due to feelings of hopelessness, feeling unimportant or invalid, etc. Then, not talking about it is a solid cause for depression to worsen. Talking about one’s feelings, questions, and expressing opinions requires a lot of work when one is suffering from depression, as the various causes of these must be targeted and solved first. But once a patient is able to express themselves, their condition is seen to improve in most cases.

 

Myth #9: Depression is a result of lack of willpower.

Reality: This is terribly misinformed statement, since depression is not the result of lack of willpower, it is instead the cause for it. People of high stature who have made great contributions to the development and changes in the world have been patients of depression, and it would be stupid to say that these people lacked willpower and commitment. A lazy attitude, low self esteem, lack of self conviction are not direct causes of depression, rather they create lifestyle problems which together, with other factors, contribute to depression or its worsening.

 

Myth #10: Depression is a woman’s disease. Real men do not get depressed.

Reality: Few things could be as sexist as labeling a disease that affects the mind and body as a disease of women on the pretext that men are strong, physically and emotionally, and do not malfunction in any way. Depression affects men and women alike and both genders experience the disease the same way. Through history, this sexist assumption has lead to misdiagnosis and mistreatment of patients of depression. Women have often been diagnosis with depression due to forced domestication but that is only part of the issue, and there are endless reasons one may be suffering from depression.

 

Myth #11: Antidepressants alter one’s personality.

Reality: a common misconception is that those taking antidepressants are unable to experience emotions in an attempt to not feel the sadness that comes associated with a disease. Some patients do experience a ‘flatness’ where they do not experience much feelings, but this is not the desired effect of antidepressants. If one experiences this, it should be reported to the doctor immediately because it is highly likely that the dose of antidepressants prescribed to the patient is higher than what is needed. A change in the dosage will ensure this does not happen and the unnecessary changes in one’s personality are reverted. One must always remember that the point of antidepressants is to provide better adjustment and not change one’s personality.

 

Myth #12: Depression is a sign of mental weakness.

Reality: This myth is shaped by the stigma that is associated with depression. Depression is observed in patients who are extremely intelligent, have performed high-pressure jobs very well, perform great under stress and duress, have high mental capacity as exhibited by past actions. This shows that mentally strong people are just as likely to be depressed as anyone else. Research has also shown that people who are smarter often experience more stress and pressure to perform well, have positions of responsibility assigned to them, along with a stronger ability to feel what they are going through. This together can make them more susceptible to depression.

 

Myth #13: Teenagers also develop depression have to live with its consequence forever.

Reality: Lifelong depression is a reality, however gruesome; but is mostly not the case. Teenagers are prone to many negative feelings due to a lot of reasons, internal and external. In such a situation where the pressure is high on them, they may experience depression. But this does not mean that this disease will plague them for the rest of their life. As they grow older and get better accommodate to their environment and adjust better, they are certainly going to be well-coped adults and be healthy.

 

Myth #14: All LGBTQ persons are depressed, being gay means being depressed.

Reality: Being gay, trans, bi, or queer means being a unique and colourful individual, and does not mean being gay at all. However, studies have indicated that people of the LGBTQ community are often plagued with the deadly disease of depression. This is not because of a link between the two- depression is a disease caused due to several reasons, free of gender identities. This, instead, is because how the society has failed its LGBTQ community and mistreated them, denying them the respect and freedom that they deserve. When any individual is mistreated like so, denied the freedom to express themselves, and forced to fit into monochromatic heteronormative roles, they are going to go through an emotional turmoil. This is the cause for the multifold mental health issues that the LGBTQ persons have to go through. But it is clear that depression is not a disease which selectively attacks a specific group, community, or gender.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) about Depression:
1) Who is at risk of developing depression?

Ans: Here is a list of those who are at a greater risk of developing depression:

-  Those with family history of depression

-  Those who have experienced traumatic or abusive experiences in childhood

-  Those with history of suicide/suicide attempt in the family

-  Those experiencing stress or tensions

-  Those who are often socially isolated

-  Pregnant women experiencing postpartum

-  Those with serious illness

-  Those who consume alcohol

-  Those who partake in drug abuse

-  Patients taking certain prescribed medications

2) Why is depression more common in women than men?
Ans: It is believed that depression is twice more common in women as compared to men. There are many potential reasons and causes why more women experience depression than men. Unique hormonal and psychosocial factors contribute to depression in women, alongside the heaving weight of social oppression, and gender roles and expectations.

3) What is Postpartum Depression (PPD)?
Ans: After pregnancy, women become particularly vulnerable to depression. This is because of physical and hormonal changes and the overwhelming responsibility of the newborn. A large number of new mothers experience ‘baby blues’, a brief period of mild mood changes. Postpartum Depression is serious medical condition that not only requires apt medical attention and treatment but also requires emotional support for new mothers.

4) What is treatment resistant Depression?
Ans: Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) is medical condition of major depressive disorder. This type of dispersion disorder doesn’t respond to standard treatment. This type of depression may range from mild to acute and may require a number of treatment methods.

5) Are there any exercises that can help in treatment of depression?
Ans: Aerobics is known to offer relief from mild depression. This is because it stimulates the neurotransmitter norepinephrine, which is related to mood. In addition, it also increases the endorphin level.

6) What is Brain Stimulation Therapy?
Ans: Brain Stimulation therapy is a therapy used to treat depression. In this therapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation repeatedly sends magnetic pulses to the brain. This therapy has been found to be effective in the treatment of some major depressive disorder.

7) What is Electroconvulsive therapy?
Ans: Electroconvulsive therapy is mostly used as treatment to cure acute depression and treatment resistant depression cases. This therapy is particularly helpful in treating psychotic depression.

8) Is there any remedy for prevention of depression?
Ans: Though there are no ways to prevent depression, it is easy to control the signs and symptoms of depression. One can easily make changes to their lifestyle and control their depression from getting complicated.

Here are just some of the many things that one may do:

-  Setting a routine lifestyle

-  Setting up personal and professional goals

-  Regular exercise and healthy diet

-  Taking sleep

-  Regular screening

9) What are some of the best anti-depression supplements?
Ans: Some of the best anti-depression supplements are:

-  Fish oil

-  B-Complex vitamin

-  Amino acid 5-hydroxytryptophan

-  GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)

-  Vitamin D

Though these supplements are readily available in the market, it is important to consult a certified medical professional before taking these.

10) What is manic depression? 
Ans: Bipolar disorder is also called manic depression. It is a serious medical condition. It is major mood disorder, where the patient experiences abnormal moods of highs (mania) and lows (depression). The state of high and low mood is referred to as manic and hypomanic disorder. Bipolar disorder or manic depression is a chronic recurring medical condition.

Tips For Living With Anxiety!

Doctor In Unani Medicine(D.U.M.B.I.M)
Sexologist, Delhi
Tips For Living With Anxiety!

Tips for Living With Anxiety

  • If you deal with anxiety on a regular basis, medication doesn't have to be your only treatment.
  • To calm your mind and cut stress, try working these self-care tips into your daily routine:
  • Move your body. Exercise is an important part of physical -- and mental -- health. It can ease your feelings of anxiety and boost your sense of well-being. Shoot for three to five 30-minute workout sessions a week. Be sure to choose exercises you enjoy so you look forward to them.
  • Pay attention to sleep. Both quality and quantity are important for good sleep. Doctors recommend 8 hours of shut-eye a night. If anxiety is making it hard for you to fall asleep, create a routine to help you catch your ZZZs.

How And Why Mood Swings Impact Relationship?

Ph. D - Psychology
Psychologist, Delhi
How And Why Mood Swings Impact Relationship?

In our daily interactions, we often meet people who have mood swings and their state may vary from a few hours to a few days. The impact of these unhealthy mood swings damages their personal as well as professional life. The person suffering from these mood swings may have depressionbipolar or borderline personality disorder. There are more than 10 million individuals diagnosed with each of these psychological issues every year in India. In this article, we are going to talk about Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) or emotional instability i.e. a pattern of abnormal behaviour characterized by unstable relationships with other people at a longer period of time.

Individuals with such instability have an unstable sense of self, may feel empty or afraid of being neglected. They might be unusually sensitive in a relationship, have trust issues with everyone, difficulty in regulating their emotions, and quite impulsive in nature. This impulsive nature mostly provides them immediate relief from their emotional pain and in extreme situations to lesser down this pain, they get involved into risk-takingdangerous behaviours like rash driving, compulsive gambling, substance abuse, binge eating, unprotected sex, accumulating debt, the threat of suicide or self-mutilation tendencies.

They most likely have a history of breakups or a sequence of a futile love relationship. Even the possibility of multiple sexual partners, not just impulsively but intentionally too. It helps them to fight the feelings of emptiness. Whenever they feel empty, lonely, or even bored, sex may generate positive feelings. While, some individuals, on the other hand, can even have a negative attitude towards sex, thus avoidance of sex for fear of experiencing an exacerbation of their symptoms is also quite common amongst them.

Individuals with this psychological illness tend to believe in an all or none phenomenon, they might feel intense joy and gratitude at perceived expressions of kindness, and intense sadness or anger at perceived criticism or hurtfulness. A slight disappointment with others can cause a shift in their feeling from admiration or love to anger or dislike. These mood disturbances can undermine relationships with family, friends and even colleagues. We all might be ignorant about such mood swings, but we have to understand that at times they could be quite abnormal and require professional help.

There are various reasons for the very occurrence of this type of emotional instability or BPD, some of them are:

  1. The most prominent cause is molestationsexual or physical abuse experienced by an individual. Research points out that an incident of sexual or physical abuse can increase the chances of developing disorder manifold.
  1. Traumas like being neglected, rejected, separated from their parents, at an early age can have a later impact too.
  1. Brain Development also plays a major role many people with BPD have something wrong with the neurotransmitters in their brain, particularly serotonin. Altered levels of serotonin have been linked to depressionaggression and difficulty controlling destructive urges.
  1. Family History where parents or sibling might be suffering from BPD can also lead to a higher risk of developing it. It can injure many areas of life.
  1. Not just inheritance but also the environment in which an individual grows up influences his thought process and his behavioural patterns. People have a hard time dealing with it and their hypersensitivity often results in a very intense and variable response by a person. The individual learns to express his emotions in an extreme way or completely inhibits them. The root cause of the problem can be traced back to childhood.
  1. Emotionally unstable individuals lack self-awareness and are not very certain about how they see themselves and their interests. In most of the cases, people suffering from it have low self-worth and self-image. Their behaviour is very intense and most of the time doesn’t fit the situation.

The psychological condition (mood swings) can last for years and may be quite long-lasting, so it would be highly recommendable to seek for professional help if you are facing such issues. Borderline Personality Disorder is usually treated with counselling (talk therapy). Although medication may reduce the symptoms, they do not cure as the therapies do. Therapy is beneficial for people at this stage as the counsellor has the appropriate training and patience to comprehend the emotional crises that the person experiences. The main intent of the counsellor is to help the person to identify the cause of these mood swings and to make the individual learn how to modify such behavioural patterns. The counsellor also further helps them to develop better communicative strategies and improve interpersonal relationships. Through counselling, the individuals learn how to cope positively in stressful situations, tolerate distress and how to start responding instead of reacting.

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Multiple Sclerosis - Understanding Its Effects!

DM - Neurology, MD - General Medicine
Neurologist, Pune
Multiple Sclerosis - Understanding Its Effects!

Multiple Sclerosis or MS is an ailment that is mainly caused due to the degeneration of nerves in the body. The central nervous system is the main area affected by multiple sclerosis and it has been diagnosed that it occurs more in women than men. The main areas that are affected include optic nerves, brain, and spinal cord. Multiple sclerosis in other words also means scar tissues in multiple areas. There are 4 types of multiple sclerosis which include clinically isolated syndrome, relapse remitting, primary progressive, and secondary progressive.

Causes of Multiple Sclerosis

  1. Multiple sclerosis is regarded as an autoimmune disorder and its exact cause is not known by the doctors. The disease causes demyelination of the brain cells and spinal cord.
  2. People in the age group of 15-60 are the ones affected by this disease. According to scientists, the four main factors that cause this disease are virus, genetic, environmental and immunological.
  3. It is a long-lasting disease that causes disturbances in the body functions.
  4. The condition is examined by the doctors by checking the patient’s medical history, conducting neurological exams, and imaging scans.
  5. The spinal fluid analysis is also a procedure that can rule out the possibility of multiple sclerosis.

Symptoms Caused by Multiple Sclerosis

  • Some of the symptoms that are caused due to this disease include impaired coordination, pain, vision loss, and fatigue.
  • The nerves in our body are coated with myelin sheath that protects the nerves.
  • The myelin sheath also aids in the conduction of impulses all through the body.
  • Inflammation is caused due to multiple sclerosis which eventually results in thinning and destroying of the sheath.
  • The nerve without a coating is left with a scratch and this results in the nerve not functioning properly.
  • Severe chronic symptoms are faced by patients so at times pain occurs in the eyes and back. In some patients the symptoms are mild thus the disease is not noticed in the early stages.
  • The main symptoms include problems with thinking, memory, muscle weaknessnumbness, and tingling. Many people even find trouble in walking due to multiple sclerosis.

Effects of Multiple Sclerosis

Causes And symptoms Of Dementia

MBBS, MD - Psychiatry
Psychiatrist, Bangalore
Causes And symptoms Of Dementia

Dementia cannot be singularly regarded as a specific disease, but rather indicates a group of symptoms associated with your memory, cognitive thinking and social abilities, up to the point where daily functioning gets affected. In most cases, Dementia steadily worsens over time (progressive dementias). Dementia is not to be confused with memory loss alone; because it is natural with old people to experience memory loss, but that does not necessarily mean they have Dementia. If the reason is Dementia, then you may require medical treatment.

Causes

Dementias are generally caused either by damage to or changes in the nerve cells operating in the brain. The causes can be grouped differently based on the type of dementia experienced and the part of the brain affected. While some causes can be reversed with effective treatment, others, unfortunately, cannot.

The most common causes of Dementia which cannot be reversed include :

1. Alzheimer's disease
2. Vascular dementia
3. Parkinson's disease
4. Frontotemporal dementia
5. Dementia with Lewy (Dementia which is neurodegenerative and progressive in nature) bodies
6. Severe head injuries

Other irreversible causes which are relatively rarer than usual include :

1. Huntington's disease (breakage of the brain's nerve cells)
2. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (irreversible and fatal brain disease)
3. Multiple sclerosis or Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
4. Infections like syphilis
5. Leukoencephalopathies (diseases affecting the brain's 'white' areas)
6. Brain injuries
7. Multiple system atrophy

Causes of Dementia which can be treated include :

1. Hypothyroidism
2. Heavy metal poisoning
3. Certain brain tumors
4. Chronic alcoholism
5. HIV/AIDS
6. Vitamin B12 deficiency
7. Medicinal side effects or abnormal drug reactions
8. Normal pressure hydrocephalus
9. Certain cases of encephalitis

Symptoms of Dementia include

1. Memory loss
2. Difficulty finding the right words
3. Difficulty exercising judgments, especially during emergencies
4. Inability to recall particular events or to recognize people and places
5. Depression or other mood disorders, in addition to symptoms like uncontrolled aggression or constant agitation

Manic Behaviour - What Are The Signs?

MD - Psychiatry
Psychiatrist, Chennai
Manic Behaviour - What Are The Signs?

Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive illness, is a brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in mood, energy, activity levels, and the ability to carry out day-to-day tasks. A person’s mood and emotions can be altered drastically due to bipolar disorder, but they do not have more than one personality. Split personalities problem is more commonly seen in those with dissociative disorders. 

There are four basic types of bipolar disorder; all of them involve clear changes in mood, energy, and activity levels. These moods range from periods of extremely “up,” elated, and energized behavior (known as manic episodes) to very sad, “down,” or hopeless periods (known as depressive episodes). Less severe manic periods are known as hypomanic episodes.

  1. Bipolar I Disorder— defined by manic episodes that last at least 7 days, or by manic symptoms that are so severe that the person needs immediate hospital care. Usually, depressive episodes occur as well, typically lasting at least 2 weeks. Episodes of depression with mixed features (having depression and manic symptoms at the same time) are also possible.
  2. Bipolar II Disorder— defined by a pattern of depressive episodes and hypomanic episodes, but not the full-blown manic episodes described above.
  3. Cyclothymic Disorder (also called cyclothymia)— defined by numerous periods of hypomanic symptoms as well numerous periods of depressive symptoms lasting for at least 2 years (1 year in children and adolescents). However, the symptoms do not meet the diagnostic requirements for a hypomanic episode and a depressive episode.
  4. Other Specified and Unspecified Bipolar and Related Disorders— defined by bipolar disorder symptoms that do not match the three categories listed above.

The disorder has two strong phases: 1) Bipolar Mania and 2) Depression.

Mania

Mania is a state of heightened energy and euphoria - an elevation of mood. It is in direct contrast to depression. Mania can vary in severity from hypomania, where, in addition to mood and energy elevation, the person shows mild impairment of judgement and insight, to severe mania with delusions and a level of manic excitement that can be so exhausting that hospitalisation is required to control the episode.

The mood, energy and other related symptoms define both mania and hypomania, with psychotic features being an 'add on' component experienced by a sub-set of individuals. 

You have an intense sense of well-being, energy and optimism. It can be so strong that it affects your thinking and judgement. You may believe strange things about yourself, make bad decisions, and behave in embarrassing, harmful and - occasionally - dangerous ways.
 
Like depression, it can make it difficult or impossible to deal with day-to-day life. Mania can badly affect both your relationships and your work. When it isn't so extreme, it is called 'hypomania'.
 
If you become manic, you may notice that you are:

Emotional:

  • very happy and excited
  • irritated with other people who don't share your optimistic outlook
  • feeling more important than usual. 

Thinking:

  • full of new and exciting ideas
  • moving quickly from one idea to another
  • hearing voices that other people can't hear

Physical:

  • full of energy
  • unable or unwilling to sleep
  • more interested in sex.  

Behaviour:

  • making plans that are grandiose and unrealistic
  • very active, moving around very quickly
  • behaving unusually
  • talking very quickly - other people may find it hard to understand what you are talking about
  • making odd decisions on the spur of the moment, sometimes with disastrous consequences
  • recklessly spending your money
  • over-familiar or recklessly critical with other people
  • less inhibited in general.

If you are in the middle of a manic episode for the first time, you may not realise that there is anything wrong – although your friends, family or colleagues will. You may even feel annoyed if someone tries to point this out to you. You increasingly lose touch with day-to-day issues – and with other people's feelings. 

Depression- 

The feeling of depression is something we all experience from time to time. It can even help us to recognise and deal with problems in our lives. In clinical depression or bipolar disorder, the feeling of depression is much worse. It goes on for longer and makes it difficult or impossible to deal with the normal things of life. If you become depressed, you will notice some of these changes:

Emotional:

  • feelings of unhappiness that don't go away
  • feeling that you want to burst into tears for no reason
  • losing interest in things
  • being unable to enjoy things
  • feeling restless and agitated
  • losing self-confidence
  • feeling useless, inadequate and hopeless
  • feeling more irritable than usual
  • thinking of suicide.  

Thinking:

  • can’t think positively or hopefully
  • finding it hard to make even simple decisions
  • difficulty in concentrating. 

Physical:

  • losing appetite and weight
  • difficulty in getting to sleep
  • waking earlier than usual
  • feeling utterly tired
  • constipation
  • going off sex. 

Behaviour:

  • difficulty in starting or completing things – even everyday chores
  • crying a lot – or feeling like you want to cry, but not being able to
  • avoiding contact with other people.

Causes:

  1. Biological Causes: Experts say that patients with bipolar disorder often show physical changes in their brains. Nobody is sure why the changes lead to the disorder.
  2. Genetic Traits: Researchers are involved in finding out whether or not the causes of bipolar disorder arise out of genes and other hereditary factors. If you have a first-degree relative or a sibling who is/was affected by this condition, you would probably have it too.
  3. Neurotransmitters: Mood swing disorder is caused by an imbalance in brain chemicals known as ‘neurotransmitters’.

Treatment Methods:

  1. Initial Treatment: The initial treatment method is to take medications to balance and control the mood swings. After the symptoms are in control, one has to start working with his/her trusted doctor for chalking out an effective and practical long-term treatment procedure.
  2. Hospitalization: Hospitalization or immediate medical support is recommended in case of suicidal thoughts or when a person starts exhibiting erratic behavior (being psychotic).

  3. Medications: Medications include the administration of antipsychotics (such as ziprasidone, olanzapine), antidepressants (usually in combination with a mood stabilizer or an anti-psychotic), mood stabilizers (such as valproic acid, lithium, divalproex sodium) and anti-anxiety medications.

  4. Recovery from substance abuse: Problems related to excessive alcohol and drug abuse are solved by this therapy. Failing this step, this disorder can be unmanageable.

  5. Day care treatment: Day care treatment programs can be recommended by your doctor. This treatment method includes counseling and support which keep the bipolar traits under control.

I have been facing severe clinical depression for the past 2 years. Please help me in getting out of it completely, also please refer diet, exercise etc. Can Naturopathy heal depression fast?

BHMS, MD- Alternative Medicine, Basic Life Support (B.L.S)
Homeopath, Surat
I have been facing severe clinical depression for the past 2 years.
Please help me in getting out of it completely, a...
As I mentioned earlier, it can act wonderfully in your depression. And also help you get rid of the permanent anti-depressants that you are taking at present.
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I have been relieved from smoking 2 months prior, but again started to smoke 1 or 2 cigarette a day. Due to which I got pain in my chest since yesterday. Hope for your positive response.

Reparenting Technique, BA, BEd
Psychologist, Bangalore
If the medical condition you describe is true, you should not smoke at all. Anyway smoking is harmful and should be avoided at all costs. You may fail many times to quit but if you persevere, you will succeed.
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Can I take a nexito plus tablet? I am 21 year old and I am studying. Or any other tablet for my depressed mind?

MBBS, DPM
Psychiatrist, Bangalore
Can I take a nexito plus tablet? I am 21 year old and I am studying. Or any other tablet for my depressed mind?
Dear lybrate-user, Nexito plus is a prescription tablet. You can not take it on your own. It may not be effective unless you are clinically depressed. Please consult a psychiatrist and get diagnosed. Whatever tablet is prescribed for you, for that amount of time, should be taken. Otherwise you may become dependent on Clonazepam present in Nexito plus.
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What Is Bipolar Disorder?

BHMS
Homeopath, Hyderabad
What Is Bipolar Disorder?

What is Bipolar Disorder?

Bipolar disorders are brain disorders that cause changes in a person’s mood, energy and ability to function. Bipolar disorder is a category that includes three different conditions — bipolar I, bipolar II and cyclothymic disorder.
People with bipolar disorders have extreme and intense emotional states that occur at distinct times, called mood episodes. These mood episodes are categorized as manic, hypomanic or depressive. People with bipolar disorders generally have periods of normal mood as well. Bipolar disorders can be treated, and people with these illnesses can lead full and productive lives.

Types:

There are three main types of bipolar disorder: bipolar I, bipolar II, and cyclothymia.

-Bipolar I:
Bipolar I is defined by the appearance of at least one manic episode. You may experience hypomanic or major depressive episodes before and after the manic episode. This type of bipolar disorder affects men and women equally.

-Bipolar II:
People with this type of bipolar disorder experience one major depressive episode that lasts at least two weeks. They also have at least one hypomanic episode that lasts about four days. This type of bipolar disorder is thought to be more common in women.

-Cyclothymia:
People with cyclothymia have episodes of hypomania and depression. These symptoms are shorter and less severe than the mania and depression caused by bipolar I or bipolar II disorder. Most people with this condition only experience a month or two at a time where their moods are stable.

Symptoms:
Bipolar symptom in women:


Men and women are diagnosed with bipolar disorder in equal numbers. However, the main symptoms of the disorder may be different between the two genders. In many cases, a woman with bipolar disorder may:

  • be diagnosed later in life, in her 20s or 30s

  • have milder episodes of mania

  • experience more depressive episodes than manic episodes

  • have four or more episodes of mania and depression in a year, which is called rapid cycling

  • experience other conditions at the same time, including thyroid disease, obesity, anxiety disorders, and migraines

  • have a higher lifetime risk of alcohol use disorder

  • Women with bipolar disorder may also relapse more often. This is believed to be caused by hormonal changes related to menstruation, pregnancy, or menopause. If you’re a woman and think you may have bipolar disorder, it’s important for you to get the facts. Here’s what you need to know about bipolar disorder in women.

Bipolar system in men:
Men and women both experience common symptoms of bipolar disorder. However, men may experience symptoms differently than women. Men with bipolar disorder may:

  • be diagnosed earlier in life

  • experience more severe episodes, especially manic episodes

  • have substance abuse issues

  • act out during manic episodes

  • Men with bipolar disorder are less likely than women to seek medical care on their own. They’re also more likely to die by suicide.

Bipolar disorder in children:

Diagnosing bipolar disorder in children is controversial. This is largely because children don’t always display the same bipolar symptoms as adults. Their moods and behaviors may also not follow the standards doctors use to diagnose the disorder in adults.

Many bipolar symptoms that occur in children also overlap with symptoms from a range of other disorders that can occur in children, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

However, in the last few decades, doctors and mental health professionals have come to recognize the condition in children. A diagnosis can help children get treatment, but reaching a diagnosis may take many weeks or months. Your child may need to seek special care from a professional trained to treat children with mental health issues.

Like adults, children with bipolar disorder experience episodes of elevated mood. They can appear very happy and show signs of excitable behavior. These periods are then followed by depression. While all children experience mood changes, changes caused by bipolar disorder are very pronounced. They’re also usually more extreme than a child’s typical mood swing.

Manic symptoms in children
Symptoms of a child’s manic episode caused by bipolar disorder can include:

-acting very silly and feeling overly happy
-talking fast and rapidly changing subjects
-having trouble focusing or concentrating
-doing risky things or experimenting with risky behaviors
-having a very short temper that leads quickly to outbursts of anger
-having trouble sleeping and not feeling tired after sleep loss
-Depressive symptoms in children

-Symptoms of a child’s depressive episode caused by bipolar disorder can include:

-moping around or acting very sad
-sleeping too much or too little
-having little energy for normal activities or showing no signs of interest in anything
-complaining about not feeling well, including having frequent headaches or stomachaches
-experiencing feelings of worthlessness or guilt
-eating too little or too much
-thinking about death and possibly suicide
-Other possible diagnoses
Some of the behavior issues you may witness in your child could be the result of another condition. ADHD and other behavior disorders can occur in children with bipolar disorder. Work with your child’s doctor to document your child’s unusual behaviors, which will help lead to a diagnosis.

Bipolar disorder in teens:

Angst-filled behavior is nothing new to the average parent of a teenager. The shifts in hormones, plus the life changes that come with puberty, can make even the most well-behaved teen seem a little upset or overly emotional from time to time. However, some teenage mood swings may be the result of a more serious condition, such as bipolar disorder.

A bipolar disorder diagnosis is most common during the late teens and early adult years. For teenagers, the more common symptoms of a manic episode include:

-being very happy
-“acting out” or misbehaving
-taking part in risky behaviors
-abusing substances
-thinking about sex more than usual
-becoming overly sexual or sexually active
-having trouble sleeping but not showing signs of fatigue or being tired
-having a very short temper
-having trouble staying focused, or being easily distracted

-For teenagers, the more common symptoms of a depressive episode include:

-sleeping a lot or too little
-eating too much or too little
-feeling very sad and showing little excitability
-withdrawing from activities and friends
-thinking about death and suicide
-Diagnosing and treating bipolar disorder can help teens live a healthy life. Learn more about bipolar disorder in teenagers and how to treat it.

Bipolar and depression:

Bipolar disorder can have two extremes: up and down. To be diagnosed with bipolar, you must experience a period of mania or hypomania. People generally feel “up” in this phase of the disorder. When you’re experiencing an “up” mood swing, you may feel highly energized and be easily excitable.

Some people with bipolar disorder will also experience a major depressive episode, or a “down” mood. When you’re experiencing a “down” mood swing, you may feel lethargic, unmotivated, and sad. However, not all people with bipolar disorder who have this symptom feel “down” enough to be labeled depressed. For instance, for some people, once their mania is treated, a normal mood may feel like depression because they enjoyed the “high” caused by the manic episode.

While bipolar disorder can cause you to feel depressed, it’s not the same as the condition called depression. Bipolar disorder can cause highs and lows, but depression causes moods and emotions that are always “down.” Discover the differences between bipolar disorder and depression.

Causes:

Bipolar disorder is a common mental health disorder, but it’s a bit of a mystery to doctors and researchers. It’s not yet clear what causes some people to develop the condition and not others.

Possible causes of bipolar disorder include:

-Genetics- 
If your parent or sibling has bipolar disorder, you’re more likely than other people to develop the condition (see below). However, it’s important to keep in mind that most people who have bipolar disorder in their family history don’t develop it.

-Your brain-  
Your brain structure may impact your risk for the disease. Abnormalities in the structure or functions of your brain may increase your risk.

Diagnosis:

  • A diagnosis of bipolar disorder I involves either one or more manic episodes, or mixed (manic and depressive) episodes. It may also include a major depressive episode, but it may not. A diagnosis of bipolar II involves one or more major depressive episodes and at least one episode of hypomania.

  • To be diagnosed with a manic episode, you must experience symptoms that last for at least one week or that cause you to be hospitalized. You must experience symptoms almost all day every day during this time. Major depressive episodes, on the other hand, must last for at least two weeks.

  • Bipolar disorder can be difficult to diagnose because mood swings can vary. It’s even harder to diagnose in children and adolescents. This age group often has greater changes in mood, behavior, and energy levels.

  • Bipolar disorder often gets worse if it’s left untreated. Episodes may happen more often or become more extreme. But if you receive treatment for your bipolar disorder, it’s possible for you to lead a healthy and productive life. Therefore, diagnosis is very important. See how bipolar disorder is diagnosed.

Role of Homeopathy in Bipolar Disorder:

The first step in our treatment method involves the use of homeopathy. Homeopathy is a system of medicine which stimulates the body to heal itself. When homeopathic medicines are prescribed properly, they work quickly to alleviate symptoms and improve overall health.

Natural remedies for bipolar disorder:

Some natural remedies may be helpful for bipolar disorder. However, it’s important not to use these remedies without first talking with your doctor. These treatments could interfere with medications you’re taking.

The following herbs and supplements may help stabilize your mood and relieve symptoms of bipolar disorder:

1. Fish oil. A 2013 study shows that people who consume a lot of fish and fish oil are less likely to develop bipolar disease. You can eat more fish to get the oil naturally, or you can take an over-the-counter (OTC) supplement.
2. Rhodiola rosea. This research also shows that this plant may be a helpful treatment for moderate depression. It may help treat depressive symptoms of bipolar disorder.
3. S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe). SAMe is an amino acid supplement. The research shows it can ease symptoms of major depression and other mood disorders.

Several other minerals and vitamins may also reduce symptoms of bipolar disorder. 

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