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A stroke, also called cerebrovascular accident (CVA), cerebrovascular insult(CVI), or brain attack, occurs when a part of the brain is deprived of blood flow. When the brain cells are deprived of oxygen they begin to die. When brain cells die, the functions controlled by that part of the brain also stops, which results in different types of disabilities among stroke survivors.
There are two types of strokes
- Ischemic stroke
The first is caused when a brain aneurysm or a weak blood vessel bursts. Most of the time, this type of stroke leads to death. The second one happens when a clot blocks the flow of blood to the brain. Patients suffering from stroke suffer from various side-effects, the most common ones being paralysis or loss of feeling in a certain part of the body, problem in understanding or talking and loss of vision in one side. The side-effects start showing up regularly after a person has had a stroke.
In certain conditions, blood flow to a certain part of the brain stops for only some time and hence the body suffers stroke like symptoms which only last a couple of hours before disappearing. This is known as a transient ischemic attack (TIA). Unfortunately, the effects of a stroke can be debilitating and also permanent. Hence its important to know the symptoms of a stroke and rush the patient to a doctor as soon as possible. Sometimes early treatment can save a lot of damage.
The primary symptoms of stroke are as follows:
- Confusion and problems with talking and comprehension
- Headache along with alteration of consciousness or vomiting
- Numbness of the face, arms or legs, especially on one side of the body
- Issue with seeing, in one or both eyes
- Inability to walk with stability, including disrupted coordination
- Problems with the bladder and bowel control
- Acute depression
- Body temperature fluctuates, and pain worsens with movement
- Paralysis on one side of the body along with fatigue
- Problem in expressing or controlling emotions
Diagnosis of stroke
Several tests are carried out to determine the type of stroke acquired. They are:
- Physical examination, which involves observing the patient's overall condition.
- Blood tests
- CT scans
- MRI scans
- Cerebral angiogram
Stroke is a fatal brain disease and can cause permanent damage to your system so its best to check with your doctor to know how you can prevent it.
Alzheimer’s disease is a neurological, irreversible, progressive brain disorder. It is a chronic neurodegenerative dementia that causes the death of brain cells, causing memory loss and cognitive decline. It affects a person’s thinking and behavior. The symptoms develop slowly and get worse as time passes.
As it is a kind of dementia, Alzheimer’s is caused by the death of brain cells. Over a course of time, brain cells die progressively and at the end, the tissue is left with fewer nerve cells and connections. As a result, the total brain size shrinks. Tiny inclusions called plaques and tangles can be seen in the postmortem. These cannot be seen or tested in a living Alzheimer’s affected brain. These plaques are given the name “amyloid plaques” because they are found among the dying cells of the brain when a protein called beta-amyloid builds. The tangles stay in the neurons; they are formed from a protein called tau.
There are several reasons behind all this, some of which are listed below-
- Anti-anxiety medications
- Hitting on the head too many times
- Regularly sleep-deprived
- Diabetes in the brain
- Old age
- Genetic line
- Down’s syndrome
- Cardiovascular diseases
Alzheimer’s disease damages the brain, so the clinical signs and symptoms begin to show very early. The symptoms are-
- Memory loss
- Agitation and mood swings
- Poor judgment
- The trouble with money calculations
- Difficulty doing familiar tasks
- Trouble in planning or solving a problem
- Confusion with time and place
- Difficulty in communicating
- Loss of motivation
- Inappropriate behavior
- Aggressive personality
- Childlike behavior
Preventing Alzheimer’s disease:
Alzheimer’s disease ultimately results in death. Even if there are treatments, they cannot fully cure it. So it’s better to try to prevent it before it happens. Ways to prevent Alzheimer’s disease are-
- Eating more fruits and vegetables.
- Eating berries every day.
- Increasing omega-3 fatty acids.
- Taking folic acid supplements.
- Drinking grape juice or red wine with evening meal.
- Doing the Mediterranean style diet.
- Controlling the blood pressure.
- Having strong social support.
Treatment of Alzheimer’s disease:
- Treatment of Alzheimer’s disease is a long time process.
- First of all, doctors perform a physical exam to check the overall neurological health. By this, they check muscle strength, reflexes, walking ability, sense of sight and hearing, coordination and balance.
- Then comes the blood test to find the cause of confusion and memory loss by checking the thyroid disorder and vitamin deficiency.
- Then they perform the neuropsychological test and check the mental status.
- Then there are other tests, like MRI, CT, and PET.
- After all this, drugs are given and a safe and supportive environment is created with proper exercise and nutrition.
Alzheimer’s disease is undoubtedly the worst kind of disease. Hence, it is highly recommended to contact a doctor as soon as any symptom is noticed.
Multiple Sclerosis or MS is an ailment that is mainly caused due to the degeneration of nerves in the body. The central nervous system is the main area affected by multiple sclerosis and it has been diagnosed that it occurs more in women than men. The main areas that are affected include optic nerves, brain, and spinal cord. Multiple sclerosis in other words also means scar tissues in multiple areas. There are 4 types of multiple sclerosis which include clinically isolated syndrome, relapse remitting, primary progressive, and secondary progressive.
Causes of Multiple Sclerosis
- Multiple sclerosis is regarded as an autoimmune disorder and its exact cause is not known by the doctors. The disease causes demyelination of the brain cells and spinal cord.
- People in the age group of 15-60 are the ones affected by this disease. According to scientists, the four main factors that cause this disease are virus, genetic, environmental and immunological.
- It is a long-lasting disease that causes disturbances in the body functions.
- The condition is examined by the doctors by checking the patient’s medical history, conducting neurological exams, and imaging scans.
- The spinal fluid analysis is also a procedure that can rule out the possibility of multiple sclerosis.
Symptoms Caused by Multiple Sclerosis
- Some of the symptoms that are caused due to this disease include impaired coordination, pain, vision loss, and fatigue.
- The nerves in our body are coated with myelin sheath that protects the nerves.
- The myelin sheath also aids in the conduction of impulses all through the body.
- Inflammation is caused due to multiple sclerosis which eventually results in thinning and destroying of the sheath.
- The nerve without a coating is left with a scratch and this results in the nerve not functioning properly.
- Severe chronic symptoms are faced by patients so at times pain occurs in the eyes and back. In some patients the symptoms are mild thus the disease is not noticed in the early stages.
- The main symptoms include problems with thinking, memory, muscle weakness, numbness, and tingling. Many people even find trouble in walking due to multiple sclerosis.
Effects of Multiple Sclerosis
- The main effects of multiple sclerosis include problems like frequent urination or difficulty in emptying the bladder completely.
- It can also cause bowel problems, sexual dysfunction, vertigo, dizziness, fatigue, tremor, muscle spasms, depression, emotional changes, and inflammation of the optic nerve.
- The lesser known symptoms include swallowing problems, speech disorders, hearing loss, itching, breathing problems, and headache.
- It is an unpredictable disease and people are affected by this disease in different ways. In the early stages, it occurs as a subtle sensation for many people.
For more information on the disease and its causes, you must visit a medical practitioner near you.
You might be aware that the Parkinson’s diseases is related to the nervous system and is a progressive disorder that impairs movement. The cause of the illness is still unknown, but certain factors like environmental triggers and genetics may play a part in this regard. There are several myths about this condition that are prevalent among people. Some of them are listed below along with the facts.
Myth #1: Parkinson’s disease occurs only in aged persons
This is one of the biggest misconceptions that people have about this disease. The misconception arises because the disease is usually diagnosed at an old age. But according to various researches that are conducted the disease may start developing at a younger age.
Myth #2: The disease symptoms include only impaired movement
Impaired movement maybe one of the biggest symptoms of the diseases but not the only one. There are other symptoms which affect day-to-day activities but are still unnoticed. These symptoms include constipation, sleep disorders, sweating, abnormal bladder functioning, fatigue, sexual dysfunction, cognitive symptoms, depression and even anxiety. But the symptoms that are non-motor are treatable unlike the problems with movement.
Myth #3: There is no hope for patients who are diagnosed with the disease
Patients who are diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease are often told that they do not have any hope towards a cure. It is true that the disease is a progressive one, but it is not true that it cannot be controlled. Certain devices have been discovered which when used sends a signal to the brain which helps in reducing the tremors which are one of the well-known symptoms of the disease. So, no need to lose hope.
Myth #4: Medications are the only way in which you can undertake treatment for Parkinson’s disease
Some people believe that they cannot do anything except for taking medications to control the disease. But this is not true. Doing regular exercise and changing your food habits are at many times helpful in treating this particular condition. Have a balanced diet which will have enough fiber is also helpful. To increase your stability and flexibility, a daily workout routine is quite recommendable, and it will even increase your self-confidence and your feeling of independence.
Myth #5: Everything about the disease can be predicted
The disease is not at all predictable. If it were, a cure would have been in place by now. Everything from the symptoms to the treatment procedure varies from person to person. The disease may take years to develop in one individual but may develop instantly in someone else.
Don’t go by hearsay evidence about a disease. Medical science has improved a lot over the years. If you have any doubt regarding your health condition reach out to your doctor and clarify them at once.
Alzheimer's Disease is a neurological problem that is characterised by a cognitive decline and memory loss. It is a type of neurodegenerative dementia. The symptoms of Alzheimer's Disease include not being able to absorb and retain new information, lack of reasoning and judging, not being able to take on complex tasks, impaired visuospatial abilities, problems in reading, writing and speech, among many others. If a person has at least two of these symptoms in a debilitating manner, then the diagnosis can be made in favour of Alzheimer's Disease. The main causes of Alzheimer's are shrinkage of the brain size and death of the brain cells. The immune system is also said to trigger this neurodegenerative disease. Let us find out what medical science has found so far.
1. Connections: Many a times, in Alzheimer's disease, the memory and behaviour of the person changes because the brain is unable to make proper neural connections which can lead to memory loss of how a person behaved and the elements that formed the basis of the patient's cognition. Apparently, the immune system behaves in the same way within the brain and blocks the connection. This happens because there is constant communication between the brain and immune system along neurological lines, which is where the disease first emanates.
2. Inflammation: The brain is prone to inflammation or swelling that is not the normal kind. This inflammation happens as a result of the activation of the infection fighting neurotransmitters and the chemical changes that happen in the brain when an infection strikes. The inflammation usually happens in the plaques or clumps which the brain tries to protect. These clumps are made up of a protein called Amyloid. The immune system is responsible for creating this inflammation in the brain of the patient.
3. Pattern Recognition Receptors: Many of these receptors work in different manners and cooperate with each other to create a response in the brain. These PRRs can be found in the brain plaques, and they develop the signs of danger which further fuels the inflammation in the brain as a matter of protection.
4. Activation of Cells Linked with the Immune System: When the PRRs begin to respond, it basically activates the immune system and the cells of the same. This is the basic reaction that causes the changes in brain which then leads to the attachment of the protein to the tissue that is diseased, in which case Alzheimer's Disease starts. The inflammation that we had spoken about earlier basically happens in the nervous tissue.
It is important to recognise and act on the initial signs of Alzheimer's Disease before it progresses beyond one's control.
I am 20 year old frequently suffering headache during headache my Left forehead swelling and eyesight feeling loss I am taking headache medicine.
When I sit and as the posture changes, I get pain in the nerves and the nerves get inflated in the brain and then after I message the nerves downwards and the head for some time, I get relief, what causes this and what is the remedy.
I am suffering from restless leg syndrome from many days could you please suggest me how to cure it?
I suffer from severe migraine. What are the things that I should do to reduce the pain? Are there any food items I should not eat?
The brain contains numerous nerve cells which help in its normal functioning. Epilepsy or seizures occur when there is a disruption in the activity of the nerve cells in the brain. A neurological disorder of the CNS (Central Nervous System), epilepsy can affect all and sundry, irrespective of their age, sex and ethnicity. However, children and aged people (above 60 years) are more susceptible to the condition. A study suggests approximately 10 million people in India suffer from epilepsy.
Types of Epilepsy
Based on the activity of the brain that causes an epileptic attack, Epilepsy can be of two types - Focal or Generalized
Focal Epilepsy: An epileptic attack triggered by unusual activities restricted to a particular area of the brain.
- In some cases, focal epilepsy may result in unconsciousness. A person may also lose awareness and become unresponsive (keeps staring into space), a condition termed as Focal Dyscognitive Seizures. A person with this condition may behave strange, such as walking in circles, chewing or rubbing their hands.
- In another type of focal epilepsy known as Focal seizures without loss of consciousness, a person does not lose consciousness. In such cases, there may be sudden and involuntary jerking of the arms or the legs. There may also be dizziness or a tingling sensation.
Generalized Epilepsy: Here, the seizures or epilepsy result from unusual activities throughout the brain. Generalized epilepsy, may, in turn, be of the following subtypes
- Tonic seizures: This affects the muscles of the legs, arms, or the back, causing them to stiffen and tighten up.
- Atonic seizures: Here, a person may suddenly fall down due to loss of muscle control. The condition is also known as Drop Seizures.
- Absence seizures: Mostly affecting children, the affected person may lose awareness (temporary) and behave strangely such as staring into spacing, smacking their lips, or blinking their eyes continuously.
- Clonic seizures: They are characterized by sudden and continuous jerking movements of the arms, face, and neck muscles.
- Tonic-clonic seizures: Here, a person may suddenly lose consciousness. There are violent shaking and stiffening of the body. Some people may even be seen biting their tongue.
- Myoclonic seizures: In this arms, and legs of a person suddenly twitches and jerks.
What triggers an Epilepsy?
Epilepsy may be an outcome of the following factors
- Medical conditions such as stroke or even brain tumors may affect the normal activities of the brain, thereby resulting in epilepsy. Diseases such as Viral Encephalitis, AIDS or Meningitis act also act as a trigger, accelerating the chances of epilepsy.
- Developmental disorders such as Neurofibromatosis or Autism can also trigger epilepsy.
- In some cases, epilepsy may be a genetic predisposition. Thus, a person with a family history of epilepsy may suffer from the condition.
- Epilepsy may also be an outcome of a prenatal brain injury due to oxygen deficiency or an infection to the mother.
- People with dementia may also suffer from an epileptic attack.