Cardiac Catheterization Treatment is used to diagnose and treat cardiovascular conditions. During cardiac catheterization, a long thin tube called a catheter is inserted into an artery or vein in one's groyne, neck or arm and threaded through one's blood vessels to one's heart. If one is having cardiac catheterization as a test for heart disease, cardiologist can locate narrowing or blockages in one's blood vessels which could cause chest pain (angiogram). He can do hemodynamic assessment during which pressure and oxygen levels in different parts of one's heart is measured. One can check the pumping function of the heart (right or left ventriculogram) or take a sample of tissue from the heart (biopsy). Cardiac catheterization is used as part of some procedures to treat heart disease. Some of these surgical procedures include Angioplasty with or without stent placement. Angioplasty involves temporarily inserting and expanding a tiny balloon at the site of one's blockage to help widen a narrowed artery. Angioplasty is usually combined with implantation of a small metal coil called a stent in the clogged artery to help prop it open and decrease the chance of it narrowing again (restenosis). Cardiac catheterization is also used in the closure of holes in the heart and fixing other congenital defects. Some congenital heart defects involving holes in the heart can be treated by threading a catheter through the hole to close it, almost like a plug, instead of having open-heart surgery. Using cardiac catheterization, cardiologists can sometimes repair or replace a leaking or narrowed heart valve. It has been fund very effective in case of Balloon septostomy, can open narrowed heart valves by threading a balloon-tipped catheter to the part of one's heart valve that's narrowed and inflating it. This procedure allows a greater amount of oxygenated blood to enter the systemic circulation in some cases of cyanotic congenital heart defect.
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