Alopecia areata, also called autoimmune alopecia, is an autoimmune skin disease that results in hair loss on the scalp, and other parts of the body. This disease can affect people of any age and affects both females and males equally. Alopecia areata is caused when the immune system attacks the hair follicles. Historically, it is characterized by T lymphocytes present around the hair follicles. These T cells release pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines which reject the hair. The condition can be noticed when clumps of hair start falling that results in balding patches on head. Sometimes, the hair may be become thinner and break off and the patches of baldness may not be noticed. Hair loss is sometimes triggered by trauma, emotional or physical stress, viral infection, and hormonal changes. The most common types of alopecia areata are the following: alopecia areata patchy (one or more bald patches on the scalp or other parts of the body), alopecia totalis (total hair loss on the scalp), and alopecia universalis (complete hair loss on the scalp, face and on other areas of the body). Other forms of the disease include diffuse alopecia areata, persistent patchy alopecia areata and ophiasis alopecia. Trichologists use trichoscopy to examine the scalp and hair for the diagnosis of Alopecia areata. Skin biopsy is also used for the diagnosis. The Alopecia Areata Treatment includes topical steroids, dithranol ointment, and minoxidil solution that show a temporary benefit in some people. The latest research in the hair loss treatment is about hair cell cloning. In this technique, small amounts of remaining hair cells of a person are taken, multiplied, and then injected them into the bald areas on the scalp.
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