In Mycetoma a patient experiences chronic inflammation of the tissues in the body because of actinomycetes or fungi. The problem starts off as a small hard painless lump that usually happens under the skin. Eventually this tends to grow affecting the bones and the muscles. There would also be sinus tracts developing in the areas that may have some sort of pus discharge.
HOW IS MYCETOMA DIAGNOSED?
The diagnosis is done by various procedures which include:
• Microscopy and culture of exudates and skin biopsy for pathology are necessary to identify the causative organism.
• Serology can be helpful with diagnosis or follow-up care during medical treatment.
• DNA sequencing has been used for identification in difficult cases.
• Plain X-rays are used to assess for evidence of bone involvement.
• CT scan may be more sensitive in the early stages.
MRI scans can provide a better assessment of the degree of bone and soft tissue involvement, and may be useful in evaluating the differential diagnosis of the swelling.
HOW IS MYCETOMA TREATED?
Treatment for mycetoma is done using medicines and Streptomycin injections. The doctor would also prescribe Oral cotrimoxazole along with Amikacin. In rare cases, the patient would require surgery for complete tissue removal.
DID YOU KNOW?
Mycetoma occurs mainly in tropical or subtropical areas, including the southern US, and is acquired when organisms enter through sites of local trauma on bare skin of the feet or on the extremities or backs of workers carrying contaminated vegetation or other objects. Men aged 20 to 40 are most often affected, presumably because of trauma incurred while working outdoors.