Eye infections occur when harmful microorganisms bacteria, fungi and viruses invade any part of the eyeball or surrounding area. This includes the clear front surface of the eye (cornea) and the thin, moist membrane lining the outer eye and inner eyelids (conjunctiva).
HOW IS EYE INFECTION DIAGNOSED?
There can be different symptoms such as vision loss, pain, redness, itching, yellow discharge, swelling of the eyelids, etc. The diagnosis is based on the medical history and visible appearances of infection on the retina or the eye surface. The ophthalmologist can examine the eye discharge or even for other notable diseases.
HOW IS EYE INFECTION TREATED?
Most common bacterial eye infections clear up, particularly with prompt treatment such as prescription antibiotic eye drops or ointments and compresses. Depending on the underlying cause of the eye infection, the doctor may prescribe antibiotics or antiviral medications that are taken orally.
DID YOU KNOW?
Hand-washing is extremely important in preventing the spread of organisms that can cause infection. Sharing of towels, pillow cases, wash clothes, and makeup should always be avoided to prevent spread of an eye infection.
There are many problems that might develop in the eye. Some of which develop or worsen as they get older. It is recommended that regular checkups with eye specialists be done as most of the eye diseases are symptomless during the initial stages. Some eye-diseases are discussed below:
The clouding of an individual’s natural lens lying behind the iris and the pupil is called cataract. This condition forms the major cause of vision loss and affects people usually above the age of 40. According to research, cataracts are a principal cause of blindness in the world, in present times. Cataracts can be of three different types - Subcapsular cataract, Nuclear cataract and Cortical cataract.
One of the common symptoms of cataracts is blurring of the vision. Colors may appear too dull or too bright and the same effect is felt for light. The symptoms vary according to the type of the cataract. The nuclear cataract causes a short lived improvement in an individual’s vision. This phenomenon is called the second sight. In contrast, sub capsular cataract fails to provide for symptoms unless fully developed.
Aging is one of the primary reasons for cataract formation which causes the protein making the lens of the retina to cloud. Other subsequent causes of cataract include high myopia, diabetes, smoking, high alcohol consumption, obesity, hypertension and cholesterol. A family history of cataract may also be a cause.
Glaucoma is an eye disorder that causes damage to the eye’s optic nerve, resulting in discomfort and pain. Glaucoma might lead to blurred vision or even partial to complete vision loss. Although glaucoma is primarily an age-related condition, it could also occur to some at an early age due to other causes.
The primary cause of Glaucoma is the build-up of high pressure inside the eye. This increase in eye pressure could happen due to abnormal or reduced circulation of eye fluid in front of the eye. Other reasons of glaucoma could be the family history of the person afflicted with this condition, injuries (including surgical injuries) to the eye, severe eye infections or inflammation, blockage of blood vessels in the eyes, etc.
In general, there are two types of Glaucoma
There are two main types of Glaucoma - Closed Angle Glaucoma and Open-Angle Glaucoma.
Glaucoma symptoms which should be addressed include red eyes, vision impairments, tendency to vomit, etc.
Glaucoma treatment can be carried out by medication (usually eye drops), laser glaucoma treatment or surgery. However, any form of glaucoma treatment will primarily depend on the patient’s medical history/condition and the type of glaucoma. An early glaucoma treatment makes it possible to slow or curb the progression of the disorder.
3. Macular Degeneration
Age Related Macular Degeneration or AMD affects the central part of the eye of the retina known as macula. The retina is a layer made of tissue that is located behind the eye. This layer is responsible for sensing light and for sending images to the brain. The macula, located at the centre of the nerve tissue provides the essential sharp and central vision that is required for driving, reading and seeing fine details. Macular Degeneration causes visual impairment that is irreversible among people over the age of 60. It consists of two types – Neovascular (Wet Macular Degeneration) and Dry Macular Degeneration.
4. Dry eyes
Dry eye syndrome is a chronic ailment, which usually remains in a progressive condition. It is caused when there is an absence of the required amount of fluidity in the eye. Depending upon the cause and severity, dry eyes might or might not be cured entirely. However, usually, a person suffering from dry eyes can utilize treatment to improve vision, provide greater comfort to the eyes which is leads to reduction of symptoms such as swelling, blurred vision, etc.
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