Diabetes, often referred to by doctors as diabetes mellitus, describes a group of metabolic diseases in which the person has high blood glucose (blood sugar), either because insulin production is inadequate, or because the body's cells do not respond properly to insulin or both. Patients with high blood sugar will typically experience polyuria (frequent urination), they will become increasingly thirsty (polydipsia) and hungry (polyphagia). There are 3 types of diabetes namely, type 1, type 2 and gestational diabetes. The symptoms are: 1. Frequent Urination 2. Disproportionate thirst 3. Intense hunger 4. Weight gain 5. Unusual weight loss 6. Increased fatigue 7. Irritability 8. Blurred vision 9. Cuts and bruises don't heal properly and quickly 10. More skin and yeast infections 11. Gums are red - gums pull away from tooth 12. Frequent gum infection 13. Sexual dysfunction in men 14. Numbness or tingling especially in feet or hands
HOW IS DIABETES DIAGNOSED?
General physicians may diagnose diabetes based on your symptoms and a routine blood test for checking fasting glucose levels, A1C and oral glucose tolerance test. Urine tests were conducted in the past to diagnose diabetes
HOW IS DIABETES TREATED?
Type I diabetes has no cure. Type II diabetes can be medically managed, some people manage without medicines by making lifestyle changes and through exercises. Oral medication can help maintain blood sugar levels.
DID YOU KNOW?
Exercise plays a major role in the reduction of blood sugar levels. All patients with diabetes are advised to exercise regularly.
Diabetes mellitus, commonly known as Diabetes, is a set of metabolic conditions marked by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. Insulin helps the body use food for energy. In the body of a diabetic, the pancreas either cannot produce enough insulin, or uses the insulin incorrectly, or both. If the insulin will not function properly, glucose cannot enter cells. This causes the glucose level in the blood to rise, creating a condition of high blood sugar level or Diabetes Mellitus.
Causes of Diabetes Mellitus:
The following issues may increase the chance of getting affected by Diabetes Mellitus (DM) or Diabetes:
• Family background history of diabetes or inherited
• Due to overweight
• Any physical stress
• Use of some medications, that includes steroids & blood pressure medications
• High Blood pressure or high cholesterol level
Types of Diabetes Mellitus (DM):
1. Type 1 diabetes:
The type 1 diabetes is also called as insulin- dependent diabetes. It is used to be called as juvenile-onset diabetes. In type 1 Diabetes Mellitus, the pancreas makes less or no insulin, so sugar cannot get into the body cells for use as energy.
Type 1 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes in people under the age of 20-30.
2. Type 2 diabetes:
In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas makes insulin, but it either doesn't produce insulin or the insulin does not work properly. The type 2 diabetes mellitus may sometime be controlled with a balanced diet, weight control & exercise.
3. Gestational diabetes:
Gestational diabetes occurs when there is a high blood sugar level during pregnancy. Gestational diabetes is diagnosed in middle or late pregnancy. Hormone changes during the pregnancy also affect the action of insulin, that results in high blood glucose levels.
Long term complications with diabetes mellitus:
1. Diabetic Retinopathy (eye disease) - patients with the diabetes mellitus face this problem. Diabetic Retinopathy is caused by damage to the blood vessels of light sensitive tissue at the back of the eye (retina).
2. Diabetic neuropathy- it is a type of nerve damage that can occur if one has diabetes mellitus. High blood sugar level injures nerve fibers throughout your body. Diabetic Neuropathy is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus.
Diabetes Mellitus can lead to serious issues with your blood vessels, nerves, heart, mouth, kidneys, eyes & feet. One of the major serious problems caused by the Diabetes Mellitus is the heart disease.
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